background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System

   

Home Games Forum Downloads References Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map Ludemes About


 
All Evidence

2079 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.2
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'04"E
Date 2592-01-01BCE - 2566-01-01BCE
Rules Two players, 3x10 board, 7 pieces per player, markings in squares 1, 11, 21, 26, 30.
Content Painting of Senet board and accessories in tomb of Hesy-Re. Shows one 3 x 10 board, 4 casting sticks, and 7 pieces per player. Quibbell 1913: 17-20, Pl. 11, 16.
Confidence 100
Social status Nobility
Genders Male
Source Quibbell, J. 1913. Excavations at Saqqara 1911–1912: The Mastaba of Hesy. Cairo: IFAO.

Id DLP.Evidence.3
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°52'23.92"N, 31°13'7.73"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at Pyramid Temple of Userkaf. Piccione 1990: 384-385; Pusch 1979: 169.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Ritual
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.4
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°53'47.66"N, 31°12'16.46"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 2402-01-01BCE - 1213-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at Mastaba of Ptahshepses. Pusch 1979: 19, plate 40c; Piccione 1990: 385.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.5
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°53'47.66"N, 31°12'16.46"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 2402-01-01BCE - 1213-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at tomb of Ptahshepses. Pusch 1979: 172; Piccione 1990: 385-386.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.6
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°53'47.66"N, 31°12'16.46"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 2402-01-01BCE - 1213-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at tomb of Ptahshepses. Pusch 1979: 172-3; Piccione 1990: 386.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.7
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°53'47.66"N, 31°12'16.46"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 2402-01-01BCE - 1213-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at tomb of Ptahshepses. Pusch 1979: 172-173; Piccione 1990: 386.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.8
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°52'6.75"N, 31°12'57.78"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 2321-01-01BCE - 525-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti in mastaba of Khenut. Decker 1987: 134, fig 85; Pusch 1979: 174; Piccione 1990: 386-387.
Confidence 100
Spaces Transitional
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Decker, W. 1987. Sport und Spiel im alten Ägypten. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck.

Id DLP.Evidence.9
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°52'6.75"N, 31°12'57.78"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 2321-01-01BCE - 525-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at mastaba of Khenut. Piccione 1990: 387; Pusch 1979: 174.
Confidence 100
Spaces Transitional
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.10
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°58'39.87"N, 31° 8'6.94"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at mastaba of Seshemnefer IV. Junker 1940: 36; Junker 1953: 103; Pusch 1979: 175-176; Piccione 1990: 388.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Junker, H. 1940. Giza IV: Die Mastaba des Kai-em-ankh. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky A.G. , Junker, H. 1953. Grabungen auf dem Friedhof des Alten Reiches bei den Pyramiden von Giza. Giza 11: Der Friedhof südlich der Cheopspyramide. Vienna: Rudolf Rohrer.

Id DLP.Evidence.11
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 26°10'15.61"N, 31°55'28.07"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1837-01-01BCE - 1819-01-01BCE
Rules Board with three rows, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet graffiti game board from Tomb of Senuseret III. Ayrton 1904: 23, 53, pl. 40; Needler 1953: 73; Pusch 1979: 189-190; Piccione 1990: 390.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Ayrton, E. 1904. Abydos. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.12
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°12'26.03"N, 30°58'22.45"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1980-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules Board with three rows, markings in square 15 and 26.
Content Senet board from el-Lahun drawn on a stone. Manchester Museum 262. 3x6 pattern remains. Pusch 1979: 186-187; Piccione 1990: 390-391.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.13
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°12'26.03"N, 30°58'22.45"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1980-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in spaces 26–29.
Content Senet game on inside of box lid from el-Lahun. Manchester Museum 73. Nash 1902: 342; Needler 1953: 73; Petrie 1890: 24, 30; Pusch 1979: 181-182; Piccione 1990: 391-392.
Confidence 100
Spaces Household, Inside
Source Nash, W. 1902. Ancient Egyptian draughts-boards and draughts-men. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 24(December): 341–348. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Petrie, W.M.F. 1890. Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara. London: Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.14
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 30° 7'58.78"N, 31°17'59.91"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1980-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 15, 26–29.
Content Senet board from Heliopolis, Tell el-Hisn, from a temple enclosure. Middle Kingdom style board. Egyptian Museum Cairo CGC 37.794. Piccione 1990: 393; Pusch 1979: 183.
Confidence 100
Spaces Ritual
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.15
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 21°55'0.00"N, 31°17'0.00"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1980-01-01BCE - 1540-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet board from Buhen fortress. Middle Kingdom style board. Current location unknown. Emery 1979: 146, 220, plate 51; Piccione 1990: 394-395.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Emery, W. 1979. Fortress of Buhen: Archaeological Report. London: Egypt Exploration Fund. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.16
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Date 1640-01-01BCE - 1540-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–27
Content Senet game board from Tomb of Hornakht/Akhhor. Egyptian Museum Cairo CGC 68.005/JdE 21.462. Piccione 1990: 395; Pusch 1979: 195-198; Maspero 1871: 78; Mariette 1889: plate 51.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Maspero, G. 1871. Une Enquête judiciaire à Thébes au temps de la XXe Dynastie. Étude sur le papyrus Abbott. Mémoires de l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 7: 1–85. , Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.17
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Middle Kingdom Senet
Date 1640-01-01BCE - 1540-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markigns in squares 26–29.
Content Senet game board on Carnarvon Tablet 1. Middle Kingdom style board. Egyptian Museum Cairo JdE 41.790 Carnarvon and Carter 1912: 36, plate 27; Needler 1953: 73; Pusch 1979: 194; Piccione 1990: 396.
Confidence 100
Ages Adolescent, Child
Source Carnarvon, Earl of and H. Carter. 1912. Five Years’ Exploration at Thebes. London: Oxford University Press. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pieper, M. 1931. Ein text über das ägyptisches Brettspiel. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 66: 16–33.

Id DLP.Evidence.18
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1640-01-01BCE - 1540-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Asasif. Metropolitan Museum of Art MMA 16.10.475. Piccione 1990: 396; Pusch 1979: 199-201; Hayes 1959: 24–25, fig. 10.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.19
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules Board with three rows.
Content Senet game board in Brooklyn Museum 36.2. Pusch 1979: 191; Piccione 1990: 396-397.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite, Elite
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.20
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet game board in University College London UC8.533. Needler 1953: 73; Needler 1983: 118; Pusch 1979: 180; Piccione 1990: 397; Petrie 1927: 53, pl. 47.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Needler, W. 1983. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettspiel im alten Ägypten.' Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 20: 115–118., Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Petrie, W.M.F. 1927. Objects of Daily Use. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.21
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1458-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet gaming board in Louvre AF 6.797 bearing the name of Pharaoh Hatshepsut. Devéria 1897: 86; Kendall 1979: 25, fig. 19; Needler 1953: 73; Pusch 1979: 206-207; Piccione 1990: 401-402; Pierret 1878: 82.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Genders Female
Source Deveria, T. 1897. Les jeux de dames en Égypte. In G. Maspero (ed.), Mémoires et Fragments II. Bibliothèque Égyptologique 5. Paris, 83–96. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Pierret, P. 1878. Recueil d’inscriptions inédites du Musée égyptien du Louvre. Études égyptologues 8. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.22
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1458-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Tomb of Mayherperi, Egyptian Museum Cairo CGC 24.069. Daressy 1902: 31–32, plate 9; Pusch 1979: 218-219; Piccione 1990: 403-404.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Daressy, G. 1902. Fouilles de la Vallée des Rois 1889–1899. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.23
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board in University of Missouri MAA 79.169. Piccione 1990: 400.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.24
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet board from Dra abu el-Naga Cairo Museum CGC 68.003. Maspero 1883: 299; Piccione 1990: 400; Pusch 1979: 268.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Maspero, G. 1883. Guide du visiteur au Musée de Boulaq. Boulaq: Musée de Boulaq.

Id DLP.Evidence.25
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 26°11'0.40"N, 31°55'21.50"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1425-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet game board from Tomb of Meryma'at. Metropolitan Museum of Art MMA 01.4.1A. Decker 1987: 134 fig 86; Needler 1953: 74; Piccione 1990: 404-405; Pusch 1979: 230-232.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Decker, W. 1987. Sport und Spiel im alten Ägypten. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.26
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet from Dra abu el-Naga Cairo Museum CgC 68.002/JdE21402. Mariette 1889: 17, plate 52; Pusch 1979: 269-271; Piccione 1990: 405-406.
Confidence 100
Social status Military, Elite
Genders Male
Source Mariette, A. 1889a. Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie. Paris: F. Vieweg., Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.27
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1476-01-01BCE - 1400-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-29.
Content Senet game of Sennefer. Berlin Museum 10756. Kendall 1979: 25, fig 19h; Needler 1953: 73; Pusch 1979: 261-264; Pieper 1909: 7, fig. 5; Piccione 1990: 406-407.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Pieper, M. 1909. Das Brettspiel der alten Ägypter. Berlin: Weidmännische Buchhandlung. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.28
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet board of Tuthmosis son of Ru. Cairo Museum CGC 68004\JdE 28.427. Piccione 1984: 175; Piccione 1990: 407-408.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1984. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettpiel im alten Ägypten.' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 70: 172–180., Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.29
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1390-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet board of Benermerut, found in the Tomb of Kha. Turin Museum 845. Has horn halves instead of two men in square 29. Piccione 1984: 176, 178; Piccione 1990: 408-409; Pusch 1979: 233-238; Schiaparelli 1927: 175–177, figs. 159-160.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Schiaparelli, E. 1927. Relazione sui lavori della missione archeologica Italiana in Egitto II. Turin. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Piccione, P. 1984. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettpiel im alten Ägypten.' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 70: 172–180.

Id DLP.Evidence.30
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1425-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet game board of Baky. Leiden Museum AM34a. Leemens 1846–1850: pl. 244; Piccione 1984: 176; Piccione 1990: 409-410; Nash 1902: pl. 2; Needler 1953: 74; Pusch 1979:265-267; Tait 1985: 33, 47.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Leemans, C. 1846–1850. Monuments égyptiens du Musée d’antiquités des Pays-Bas à Leide, Tome II. Leiden: Brill. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Piccione, P. 1984. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettpiel im alten Ägypten.' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 70: 172–180., Nash, W. 1902. Ancient Egyptian draughts-boards and draughts-men. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 24(December): 341–348. , Tait, W. 1982. Game-boxes and Accessories from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Oxford: Griffiths Institute. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.31
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 1390-01-01BCE - 1353-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet board of Amenhotep III. Brooklyn Museum 49.56. Kendall 1979: 25–25, figs. 18-19; MacGregor 1922: 34, pl. 3; Needler 1953: 74; Piccione 1984: 176; Piccione 1990: 411; Pusch 1979: 239-240.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Riefstahl, E. Ancient Egyptian Glass and Glazes in the Brooklyn Museum. New York: The Brooklyn Museum., Piccione, P. 1984. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettpiel im alten Ägypten.' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 70: 172–180., Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , MacGregor, W. 1922. Catalogue of the MacGregor Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. Sotheby Sale Catalog 1922. London: Dryden Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.32
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1334-01-01BCE - 1324-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 15, 26–29.
Content Senet game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo Museum JdE 62058. Carter and Mace 1933: 130-132, plate 75b; Decker 1987: 135; Needler 1953:74; Piccione 1990: 411-412; Pusch 1979:245-249; Tait 1985: 6-15;
Confidence 100
Ages Adolescent
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co. , Decker, W. 1987. Sport und Spiel im alten Ägypten. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Nash, W. 1902. Ancient Egyptian draughts-boards and draughts-men. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 24(December): 341–348.

Id DLP.Evidence.33
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1390-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board of Tuthmosis IV Egyptian Museum Cairo (unknown number). Piccione 1990: 410; Carter and Newberry 1904: 39.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Carter, H and P. Newberry. 1904. The Tomb of Thutmosis IV. Westminster: A. Constable & Co. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.34
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1334-01-01BCE - 1324-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet board game from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo Museum JdE 62060. Piccione 1990: 413-414; Pusch 1979:252-254; Tait 1982: 15-17.
Confidence 100
Ages Adolescent
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Tait, W. 1982. Game-boxes and Accessories from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Oxford: Griffiths Institute.

Id DLP.Evidence.35
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1334-01-01BCE - 1324-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo Museum JdE 62059. Piccione 1990:412-413; Carter and Mace 1933: 130 plate 42; Pusch 1979: 250-251; Tait 1982 19-25.
Confidence 100
Ages Adolescent
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Tait, W. 1982. Game-boxes and Accessories from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Oxford: Griffiths Institute. , Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co. , Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.36
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'25.51"N, 32°36'5.33"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1334-01-01BCE - 1324-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo Museum JdE 62061. Piccione 1990: 414; Pusch 1979: 255-256; Tait 1982: 17-19.
Confidence 100
Ages Adolescent
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Tait, W. 1982. Game-boxes and Accessories from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Oxford: Griffiths Institute.

Id DLP.Evidence.37
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 26°11'0.40"N, 31°55'21.50"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board. markings in squares 26–29.
Content Senet game board from the Tomb of Khamwaset. Unknown location. Piccione 1990: 414-415; Needler 1953: 74; Pusch 1979: 259-260; Randall-McIver and Mace 1902: 77, 97, plate 49.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Randall-McIver, D. And A.C. Mace. 1902. El Amrah and Abydos 1899–1901. EM 23. London: Egypt Exploration Fund. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.38
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board of Ptahmay with unknown provenience. Wiesbaden SNA 2.308. Piccione 1990: 415-416; Pusch 1979: 281-284; Wiedemann 1897: 43.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.39
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 29°56'25.60"N, 31° 9'5.13"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26, 28, 29, 30.
Content Senet game board from Tomb Z491 at Zawiet el-Aryan. Museum of Fine Arts Boston MFA 11.3095. Square 27 blank, Square 30 with "|". Piccione 1990: 416-417; Dunham 1978: 72; Pusch 1979: 241-244.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Dunham, D. 1978. Zawiyet el-Aryan. The Cemeteries Adjacent to the Later Pyramid. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.

Id DLP.Evidence.40
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board in Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn Museum 37.93Ea&b. Piccione 1990: 417; Albright 1933: 134; Prisse d'Avennes 1847: 740.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Id DLP.Evidence.41
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet board inscribed with the name of Teya Teya. Metropolitan Museum of Art MMA 12.182.72. Piccione 1990: 418-419; Decker 1987: 135; Hayes 1959: 198-199; Pusch 1979: 274-278.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Decker, W. 1987. Sport und Spiel im alten Ägypten. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck. , Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.42
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board in Egyptian Museum Cairo CGC 68.007. Piccione 1990: 419; Pusch 1979: 286.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.43
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board with unknown provenience in British Museum. BM 66669. Piccione 419-420; Pusch 1979: 287-288.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.44
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1319-01-01BCE - 1279-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board of Neferhotep. Unknown provenience and unknown location. Piccione 1990: 420; Pusch 1979: 74, 295-296; Bruyère 1930: 158; Wild 1979: pl. 33.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Wild, H. 1979. La tombe de Nefer-hotep (I) et Neb-nefer à Deir el-Medina (No. 6). Mémoires publiées par les membres de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 103. Cairo: Institue Français de l’Archéologie Orientale. , Bruyère, B. 1930. Mert-Seger à Deir el Medineh. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.45
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 22°46'32.56"N, 32°35'49.31"E
Ruleset Simple Marked Senet
Date 1539-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 27 and 28.
Content Senet game board from Kubban Cemetery 100, Tomb 191. Aswan Museum 664. Piccione 1990: 420-421; Pusch 1979: 223-229; Firth 1927: 49, 83.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Firth, C.M. 1927. The Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1910–1911. Cairo: National Printing Department. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.46
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 squares, markings in squares 26-30
Content Senet game board in Royal Ontario Museum. Unknown provenience. ROM 922.17. Has Horus in square 30 Kendall 1979: 26, fig. 20; MacGregor 1922: no. 1331; Needler 1953: 60-75; Picione 1990: 422; Pusch 1979: 292-294; Wallis 1898: 8-9.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , MacGregor, W. 1922. Catalogue of the MacGregor Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. Sotheby Sale Catalog 1922. London: Dryden Press., Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Wallis, H. 1898. Egyptian Ceramic Art: The MacGregor Collection. London: Taylor & Francis.

Id DLP.Evidence.47
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 0980-01-01BCE - 0838-01-01BCE
Rules Markings in squares 27-30.
Content Senet game board in Arizona State Museum. ASM 12496. Only parts of last four squares remain. Romano et al. 2018.
Confidence 100
Source Romano, I, W. Tait, C. Bisulca, P. Creasman, G. Hodgins, and T. Wazny. 2018. An Ancient Egyptian senet board in the Arizona State Museum. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 145(1): 71–85.

Id DLP.Evidence.48
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board of Imenmes, Louvre 1605. Unknown provenience. Piccione 1990: 424-426; Needler 1953: 74; Pusch 1979:64-66, 208-13; Deveria 1897: 88-90; Pierret 1878: 81-82.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Pierret, P. 1878. Recueil d’inscriptions inédites du Musée égyptien du Louvre. Études égyptologues 8. Paris: F. Vieweg. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Deveria, T. 1897. Les jeux de dames en Égypte. In G. Maspero (ed.), Mémoires et Fragments II. Bibliothèque Égyptologique 5. Paris, 83–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.49
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 27-30.
Content Senet game board in Wiesbaden Museum D.S. 30. Unknown provenience. Square 26 is lost. Piccione 1990: 426; Gessler-Löhr et al. 1978: 112.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Gessler-Löhr, B. Et al. 1978. Meisterwerke altägyptischer Keramik: 5000 Jahre Kunst und Kunsthandwerk aus Ton und Fayence. Höhr-Grenzhausen: Keramikmuseum Westerwald. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.50
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board in British Museum. BM 102369. Unknown provenience. Piccione 1990: 427; Needler 1953: 74; Pusch 1979: 309-310.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.51
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board of Nesyamenemopet, likely from the burial of the priest of the same name at Deir el-Bahari. Walters Art Museum. WAG 48.408. de Meulenaere 1981: 90; Piccione 1990: 427-428; MacGregor 1922: 36; Pusch 1979: 322-323.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source de Meulenaere, H. 'Review of Das Senet-Brettspiel im alten Ägypten.' Chronique d'Égypte 56: 89-90., MacGregor, W. 1922. Catalogue of the MacGregor Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. Sotheby Sale Catalog 1922. London: Dryden Press., Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.52
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board in Yale University New Haven Art Gallery. Unknown provenience. Piccione 1990: 429; Pusch 1979: 311-312; Schott 1986: 108-109.
Confidence 100
Source Schott, G. 1986. Ancient Egyptian Art at Yale. New Haven: Yale University Arts Gallery. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.53
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0038-01-01 - 0104-12-31
Rules Winning game by enclosing opponent with pieces.
Content Martial Epigrams VII.lxxii.7-8 "Sic vincas Noviumque Publiumque Mandris et vitreo latrone clusos."
Confidence 100
Genders Male
Source Martial. Epigrammata.

Id DLP.Evidence.54
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 30°57'11.52"N, 31°53'44.71"E
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in spaces 26-30.
Content Senet game board in Norbert Schimmel Collection no.197. Kendall 1979: 26, fig. 21; Muscarella 1974: fig 174; Piccione 1990: 430-431; Pusch 1979: 313-314; Hoffman 1964: fig 97.
Confidence 100
Source Muscarella, O. 1974. Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection. Mainz: von Zabern., Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Hoffman, H. (ed.) 1964. The Beauty of Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.55
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0730-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Content Senet game board in British Museum BM38429, found in the Tomb of Kenamun TT93. The board is incomplete but all squares appear to be marked: 5: Ma'at, 10: Wadjet, 11: Mut, 12: Orion, 13: Life, 16: Net, 20: bread, 21: B3, 30: netjer. Piccione 1990: 431-432; Mond 1904: 93; Pusch 1979: 324-327; Needler 1953: 69, 74.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Mond, R. 1904. Report of the work done in the Gebel ash-sheikh Abd-el-Kurneh at Thebes. Annales du Service des antiquités de l’Égypte 5: 97–104. , Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.56
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Content Senet game board on Turin Papyrus Turin Museum 1.775. Some other squares also contain markings: 7: The Thirty, 8: sd.t-sn(?), 9: dd-ti.t, 10: Wadjet, 11: Mut, 12: Orion, 13: Life, 14: Aten. Piccione 1990: 432; Seyffarth 1833: plate 3; Pusch 1979: 328-323; Wiedemann 1894: 41-43.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Seyffarth, G. 1833. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Literatur, Kunst, Mythologie und Geschichte des Alten Ägypten. Volume III. Laipzig: J.A. Barth. , Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61.

Id DLP.Evidence.57
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, Markings in squares 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Content Senet game board on Turin Papyrus Turin Museum 1.775. Other squares have markings: 1=Thoth, 2= ti.i-dd, 3=Neith, 6= Sixth Day Feast, 7= The Thirty, 8= tin.t hb-sd(?), 9: dd-ti.t, 10=Wadjet11=Mut, 12=Orion, 13=Life, 14= Aten, 15= Repeating Life (frog), 18=Pky, 20=bread, 21=B3, 23= Libation. Piccione 1990:433-434; Seyffarth 1833: plate 3; Pusch 1979: 332-343.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Seyffarth, G. 1833. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Literatur, Kunst, Mythologie und Geschichte des Alten Ägypten. Volume III. Laipzig: J.A. Barth.

Id DLP.Evidence.58
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules Board with 3 rows, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board in the Egyptian Museum Cairo. CGC 88.007. (DLP.Evidence.59 on opposite face). Unknown provenience. Piccione 1990: 434; Pusch 1979: 344-346.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.59
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules Board with three rows, Markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet game board in Cairo Museum CGC88.007. Unprovenienced. DLP.Evidence.58 on opposite face. Piccione 1990: 434-435; Pusch 1979: 346-348.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.60
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'9.29"N, 32°36'4.84"E
Ruleset Double Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti in the First court, north colonnade of Temple of Medinet Habu. Two senet boards placed perpendicular to wall and close together so players must sit with both between them. Piccione 1990: 436; Wiedemann 1898: 142; Pusch 1979: 320-321.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61.

Id DLP.Evidence.61
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'9.29"N, 32°36'4.84"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at Medinet Habu Temple, first court central pavement between pillars 4 and 5, three paving blocks west of pillar 5. Piccione 1990: 437.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.62
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'9.29"N, 32°36'4.84"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet graffiti at Medinet Habu Temple, east colonnade of second court behind column 34. Piccione 1990: 437; Pusch 1979: 320-321.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.63
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°42'59.61"N, 32°39'20.65"E
Ruleset Late New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 6, 26-30.
Content Senet graffiti game board on Khonsu Temple roof. Piccione 1990: 438; Push 1979: 438; Jacquet-Gordon 2003: 30-31.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Jacquet-Gordon, H. 2003. The Graffiti on the Khonsu Temple Roof at Karnak: A Manifestation of Personal Piety. Oriental Institute Publications 123. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.64
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°42'59.61"N, 32°39'20.65"E
Ruleset Vertical Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-30.
Content Senet graffiti on Temple of Khonsu roof. Vertical senet with markings in squares: 26: nfr, 27: (unclear) 28: |||, 29: ||. The top squares of board are curved, rather than arches appearing over them in typical vertical Senet. Board orientation is mirrored in comparison to usual. Piccione 1990: 439; Jacquet-Gordon 2003: 78.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Jacquet-Gordon, H. 2003. The Graffiti on the Khonsu Temple Roof at Karnak: A Manifestation of Personal Piety. Oriental Institute Publications 123. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.65
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°43'7.80"N, 32°39'26.17"E
Ruleset Double Senet
Date 0690-01-01BCE - 0664-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in squares 26-29
Content Double senet graffiti on boat ramp of Taharqo, Temple of Karnak. Squares are marked on both boards as follows: 26: nfrw (good), 27: X, 28:|||, 29:|| (simple marked Senet pattern). Piccione 1990: 442-444; Pusch 1979: 354-355; Lauffray 1971: 100-102.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside
Source Lauffray, J. 1971. Abords occidentaux du premier pylône de Karnak. Kemi 21: 77–144. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.66
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 30°51'38.00"N, 32°10'17.00"E
Ruleset Simple Senet
Date 0664-01-01BCE - 0525-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from fortress of Tel Defenneh. British Museum. BM EA22323. Piccione 1990: 444; Crist et al. 2016: 61; Petrie 1888: 74.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury. , Petrie, W.M.F. 1888. Tanis Part II: Nebesheh (Am) and Deffeneh (Tahpanhes). London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.67
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 30° 7'45.52"N, 31°18'28.48"E
Ruleset Early New Kingdom Senet
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 0746-01-01BCE
Rules 3x10 board, markings in spaces 10, 11, 26-30.
Content Senet board of Keramit from Heliopolis. Spaces 10 and 11 invoke name and title of owner (priestess of Mut). Iskander 2010; Crist et al. 2016:60-61.
Confidence 100
Genders Female
Source Iskander, J.N. 2010. 'A recently discovered senet-board from Heliopolis.' Mitteilungen des Deutsches Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 66: 122–129. , Crist, W. 2016. Games of thrones: board games and social complexity in Bronze Age Cyprus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.

Id DLP.Evidence.68
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°23'7.55"N, 31° 9'30.75"E
Date 2543-01-01BCE - 2436-01-01BCE
Rules Name of the game.
Content Name of Senet in list of offerings on a wall in Tomb of Rahotep. Petrie et al. 1892: pl. 13.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Petrie, W.M.F. et al. 1892. Medum. London: D. Nutt.

Id DLP.Evidence.69
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Pieces may pass one another.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Ankhmare, Room II (Giza 7837/7843). Left player caption: "It is in passing that I have made three" Right player caption: "(damaged text) 2 (damaged text) Porter and Moss 1973: 207.
Confidence 100
Social status Non-Elite, Elite
Source Porter, B and R. Moss. 1973. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Volume 3: Memphis. Second edition. Revised by J. Malek. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.70
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Ankhmare (Giza 7837/7843) showing two people playing Senet. Porter and Moss 1973: 207.
Confidence 100
Genders Male
Source Porter, B and R. Moss. 1973. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Volume 3: Memphis. Second edition. Revised by J. Malek. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.71
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Capture by passing pieces.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Niykauhor at Saqqara (QS 915) with player captions. Left player: "Three are known, my companion." Right player: "Taking possession by means of passing. See the three things, my companion." Porter and Moss 1980:498.
Confidence 100
Source Porter, B and R. Moss. 1980. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Volume 3: Memphis. Second edition. Revised by J. Malek. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.72
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Niykauhor (Saqqara QS 915) with two men playing. Piccione 1990: 51-52.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Non-Elite, Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.73
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Capture by passing pieces.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Neferiretenef (Saqqara, Mariette D55) with player captions. Right player: "Taking possession (by means of) passing. See, my companion." Left player: "I shall carry up the exchange against my portion." Piccione 1990: 54 note 82 interprets the text as: right player has captured opponent's square or piece, and the left player has either countered with a move to compensate for the loss or has to pay a price or penalty. Piccione 1990:52-54; Mariette 1889: 324-328.
Confidence 100
Source Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.74
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2306-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Neferiretenef (Saqqara, Mariette D55) with two players. Piccione 1990:52-54; Mariette 1889: 324-328.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.75
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2365-01-01BCE - 2322-01-01BCE
Rules Pieces pass each other.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Chepses-re (Saqqara L16/ QS902). Two people playing Senet with captions. Right player: "It is in passing that I have made three." Left player: "I will lift up three and two in passing. Observe my passing." Piccione 1990: 54-55; Pusch 1979: 13; Pieper 1909: plate 1.
Confidence 100
Source Pieper, M. 1909. Das Brettspiel der alten Ägypter. Berlin: Weidmännische Buchhandlung. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.76
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2365-01-01BCE - 2322-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Chepses-re (Saqqara L16/ QS902). Two people playing Senet. Piccione 1990: 54-55; Pusch 1979: 13; Pieper 1909: plate 1.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Pieper, M. 1909. Das Brettspiel der alten Ägypter. Berlin: Weidmännische Buchhandlung. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.77
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Good spaces and bad spaces exist.
Content Senet playing scene in the Tomb of Kairere (Saqqara). Two people are playing Senet with captions for the players: Right player: "I will make three at the house of goodness." Left player: "It is at this house of penetration/humiliation that I will make a one." Piccione 1990: 55-57; Lauer 1926: 101; Smith 1949: 631; Pusch 1979: 19.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Lauer, J.-P. 1926. Saqqara, Royal Cemetery of Memphis. London: Thames and Hudson. , Smith, W.S. 1949. A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.

Id DLP.Evidence.78
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene in the Tomb of Kairere (Saqqara). Two people are playing Senet. Piccione 1990: 55-57; Lauer 1926: 101; Smith 1949: 631; Pusch 1979: 19.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag. , Lauer, J.-P. 1926. Saqqara, Royal Cemetery of Memphis. London: Thames and Hudson. , Smith, W.S. 1949. A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.

Id DLP.Evidence.79
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Players can pass one another.
Content Senet playing scene in tomb of Isesi-mery-netjer. Caption above left hand player: "Playing in passing." Piccione 1990: 57-58; Pusch 1979: 29-32; Kendall 1978: 12.
Confidence 100
Source Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.80
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2435-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Players can pass one another.
Content Senet playing scene in tomb of Isesi-mery-netjer. Two players are playing senet; Isesi-mery-netjer against an unnamed opponent. Portion of caption remains: "Playing in passing." Piccione 1990: 57-58; Pusch 1979: 29-32; Kendall 1978: 12.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.81
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Some spaces are bad, players cannot move to occupied spaces.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Idu (Giza G7102). Two people are playing senet with captions: Right player: "One and two, you have no claim to it." Left player: "I will cause my finger to lead the way to the house which I ought to penetrate (or house of penetration/humiliation)." Piccione 1990: 58-60; Simpson 1976: 19.
Confidence 100
Source Simpson, W.K. 1976. Giza Mastabas 2: The Mastabas of Qar and Idu. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.82
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Idu (Giza G7102). Two people are playing Senet in the midst of a celebration to the goddess Hathor. Piccione 1990:58-60; Simpson 1976:19.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Spaces Ritual, Public
Genders Male
Source Simpson, W.K. 1976. Giza Mastabas 2: The Mastabas of Qar and Idu. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.83
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Players can pass each other
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Pepi-ankh Heryib (Meir Tomb Chapel D no.2) Two people are playing Senet with captions: Left player: "It has alighted! You are happy, o heart, for I am causing you to see it taken away" Right player: "It is from the back of the tongue that you speak; passing belongs to me." Piccione 1990:62 note 123 says that this must mean taking the game, i.e. winning, because of the feminine pronoun; if it was taking a piece it would have to be masculine. Piccione 1990: 60-62; Pusch 1979: 37-40; Kamal 1915: 243.
Confidence 100
Source Kamal, A. 1915. Le tombeau nouveau de Meir. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte 14: 209–258. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.84
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Pepi-ankh Heryib (Meir Tomb Chapel D no.2). Two people playing senet. Piccione 1990: 60-62; Pusch 1979: 37-40; Kamal 1915: 243.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Kamal, A. 1915. Le tombeau nouveau de Meir. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte 14: 209–258. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.85
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene in Tomb of Mereruka showing Mereruka playing with another person. Piccione 1990: 62-63; Saqqara Expedition 1938: 2, plate 172; Pusch 1979: 24.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Saqqara Expedition. 1938. The Mastaba of Mereruka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.86
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2302-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Players can force another player to move to a certain space.
Content Senet playing scene from the tomb of Nebkauhor (Saqqara). Two people are playing Senet with captions: Right player: "Indeed, I will cause that your finger lead the way to the house of the three bones." Left player: "Lift this and hurry up, you fool." Piccione 1990: 63-64; Hassan 1975: 23.
Confidence 100
Source Hassan, S. 1975. The Mastaba of Neb-Kaw-Her: Excavations at Saqqara, 1937–1938. Excavations Saqqara 24. Cairo: Service des Antiquités. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.87
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2302-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from the tomb of Nebkauhor (Saqqara). Two people are playing Senet in the context of celebrations for the goddess Hathor. Piccione 1990: 63-64; Hassan 1975: 23.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Spaces Public, Ritual
Genders Male
Source Hassan, S. 1975. The Mastaba of Neb-Kaw-Her: Excavations at Saqqara, 1937–1938. Excavations Saqqara 24. Cairo: Service des Antiquités. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.88
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Players can pass each other, Captures made by passing.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Kaiemankh (Giza G4561). Two people are playing with a caption: Left player: "Playing in passing and taking possession." Piccione 1990: 65; Junker 1940: 36.
Confidence 100
Source Junker, H. 1940. Giza IV: Die Mastaba des Kai-em-ankh. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky A.G. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.89
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°58'44.83"N, 31° 7'51.69"E
Date 2305-01-01BCE - 2118-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Kaiemankh (Giza G4561). Two people are playing Senet in context of celebration. Piccione 1990: 65; Junker 1940: 36.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Spaces Public, Ritual
Genders Male
Source Junker, H. 1940. Giza IV: Die Mastaba des Kai-em-ankh. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky A.G. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.90
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°34'51.27"N, 32°25'42.66"E
Date 2118-01-01BCE - 1980-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene of Init-itef painted on a granary in Norwich Castle Museum 37.21. Init-itef playing Senet with another man, with a female servant offering water and a palm frond. Text captions read: Init-itef: "The three, my companion..." Right player: "The friend, Mery, I shall do what you praise, lord." Piccione 1990:65-68; Pusch 1979: 42-45; Blackman 1920: 206-208.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Spaces Private
Genders Male
Source Blackman, A. 1920. 'A painted pottery model of a granary in the collection of the late Jeremiah James Coleman, Esq. of Carrow House, Norwich.' Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 6: 206–208. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.91
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 27°55'58.81"N, 30°52'54.43"E
Date 1939-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Baqet III at Beni Hasan (15). Two players playing senet with the caption "Playing 5." Piccione 1990: 68-71; Crist et al. 2016: 51.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.92
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 27°55'58.81"N, 30°52'54.43"E
Date 1939-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Khety at Beni Hasan (15) Two players playing senet with the caption "Playing 5." Piccione 1990: 71-73; Crist et al. 2016: 51.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.93
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 1939-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules Name of the game.
Content Text on coffin in the Egyptian Museum Cairo JdE 42909 from Meir belonging to Rarewet, daughter of the nomarch. On it appears Coffin Text 405: "The great tribunal which is in the field says: 'let him sing, let him dance, and let him receive ornaments. Let him play Senet with those who are on earth. It is his voice which is heard, (although) he cannot be seen. Let him go to his house, that he may visit his children forever and ever." Piccione 1990: 82-86; Kamal 1914: 61.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Source Kamal, A. 1914. Rapport sur les fouilles executés dans la zone comprise entre Deîrout au nord et Deir-el-Ganadlah, au sud. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte 15: 45–87. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.94
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 2118-01-01BCE - 1760-01-01BCE
Rules Players can move off the board.
Content Text from Coffin Text 1019 on Papyrus Gardiner 2 (pBM10676): "To pass through the necropolis. O Anubis who is on his mountain, establish you claim to the two wash basins...bow...when you shall be removed from the Senet board, and you take possession of the Mehen board together with ... the Mound Dweller." Piccione 1990:86-88; deBuck 1961: 240.
Confidence 100
Source de Buck, A. 1961. The Egyptian Coffin Texts. Oriental Institute Publications 87. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.95
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Date 2119-01-01BCE - 1794-01-01BCE
Rules Name of the game.
Content Text from coffin of Mentuhotep (coffin 9 in Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung Berlin), epilogue to Coffin Text 305: "(The deceased) mooring happily with Osiris...going out into the day, playing at Senet, and sitting in a booth after death." Faulkner 1972: 269; Crist et al. 2016: 52.
Confidence 100
Source Faulkner, R. 1972. The Book of the Dead: A Collection of Spells. New York: Limited Editions Club. , Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury.

Id DLP.Evidence.96
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 1187-01-01BCE - 1157-01-01BCE
Rules Seven playing pieces, players can block others from moving by being in front of them, moving forward is good, players can pass each other, water space is bad, moving past space 30 is the goal, there is a spot in which a player can become trapped, there is a space which is beneficial, may move more than one piece per turn.
Content Great Game Text from Papyrus Cairo JdE 58037 "...the Lord of Justification, to the Thirty, to Horus, Anubis, Thoth, Shu, Ma'at, to the Crew of the Great Ones of the Good House, to Heka, Hu, and Siaj, [so that they might permit] me to enter the Council Chamber of the Thirty, I will become the thirty-first. {I will approach Mehen and I will take away his draughtsmen from him. I will take away his draughtsmen from him. I will stop according to my predilection, [and I will take my place in the House of Thoth] I will fight the god with him, [while seeing] Neith with her arms upon the Abydos reliquary. I will open the Good House that contains Ma'at, so that I will conduct the god to the Thirty. I will fasten the djed pillar to the ti.t amulet while seeing Wadjet in her manifestations beside the House of Mut. My heart is shrewd, it is not forgetful. My heart is clever in determining his play against me, I will bring his draughtsmen to him. His fingers are confused, and his heart has removed itself from its place, so that he does not know his response. My name has been perpetuated in the house of Orion, that I may live forever and eternity. I will pass by as one who sails with the breeze together with the Sun Disk to the House of Repeating Life, while my opponent is stopped in the House of the Netting, which humbles him (or holds him back) by means of the meshes. I will convey my response to Tn.t-Mhn, with the result that I keep him from the good house. I shall lift up my three draughtsmen, while finding two draughtsmen. My opponent is behind me, I shall convey my draughtsmen to the place which I desire. I am guided in passing, being made wise in the Hosue of...so that I know their names-for the scribe who has become possessed of understanding is not ignorant. After Mehen instructed me, he gave bread in the House of Bread and cool water in the House of Libation. I will establish my draughtsmen in the Good House. I take possession of the rear or the Good House. My seven draughtsmen are before my fingers, like the jackals hauling the bark. I will seize his draughtsmen, and I will throw him into the water, that he might drown together with his draughtsmen. You are justified, so Mehen will say to me, while my heart..." Piccione 1990: 96-154; Wiedemann 1897: 50; Pieper 1931: 20-22; Piankoff and Jacquet-Gordon 1961: 258-261; Kendall 1978: 56.
Confidence 100
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company. , Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61. , Pieper, M. 1931. Ein text über das ägyptisches Brettspiel. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 66: 16–33. , Piankoff, A. And H. Jacquet-Gordon. 1972. The Wandering of the Soul. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.97
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Date 1163-01-01BCE - 1150-01-01BCE
Rules Seven playing pieces, players can block others from moving by being in front of them, moving forward is good, players can pass each other, water space is bad, moving past space 30 is the goal, there is a spot in which a player can become trapped, there is a space which is beneficial, may move more than one piece per turn.
Content Great Game Text from Tomb of Inherkau at Deir el-Medina, Theban Tomb 359. "An offering which the king gives to Ra, Atum, Wennefer, the Lord of Justification, to the Thirty, to Horus, Anubis, to the Crew of the Great Ones of the Good House, to Heka, Hu, and Siaj, [so that they might permit] me to enter the Council Chamber of the Thirty, I will become a god, making 31. I will approach Mehen and I will lift up the draughtsmen. I will stop according to my predilection, [and I will take my place in the House of Thoth] I will fight as a god with him, [while seeing] Neith with her arms upon the Abydos reliquary. I will open the Good House that contains Ma'at, so that thre god will condust me to the House of the Thirty Gods. I will fasten the djed pillar and ti.t amulet while seeing Wadjet in all her manifestations beside the House of Mut. My heart is shrewd, it is not forgetful. My heart is clever in determining his play against me, his draughtsmen will turn back to him. His fingers are confused, and his heart has removed itself from its place, so that he does not know his response. My name has been perpetuated in the house of Orion, that I may live forever and eternity. I will pass by as one who sails with the breeze together with the Sun Disk to the House of Repeating Life, while my opponent is stopped i nthe House of the Netting, which humbles him (or holds him back) by means of the meshes. I will convey my response to Tn.t-Mhn, with the result that I keep him from the good house. I shall lift up my three draughtsmen, while finding two draughtsmen. My opponent is behind me, I shall convey my draughtsmen to the place which I desire. I am guided in passing, being made wise in the House of...so that I know their names-for the scribe who has become possessed of understanding is not ignorant. After Mehen instructed me, he gave bread in the House of Bread and cool water in the House of Libation. I will establish my draughtsmen in the Good House. I take possession of the rear or the Good House. My seven draughtsmen are sailing with the breeze before my fingers, like the jackals hauling the bark. I will remove my...from the House of[Water..] opponent...will approach my opponent, and will throw..., that he might drown together with his draughtsmen. You are justified, so Mehen will say to me, while my heart..." Piccione 1990: 99-154; Lepsius 1849: 404; Naville 1900: 294; Bruyère 1930: 158; Pieper 1931: 17, 20; Piankoff and Jacquet-Gordon 1972: 119.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Piankoff, A. And H. Jacquet-Gordon. 1972. The Wandering of the Soul. Princeton: Princeton University Press. , Lepsius, R. 1849. Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien. Volume 1. Berlin: Nicolaische Buchhandlung. , Naville, E. 1900. Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien. Texte. Lepizig: J.C. Hinrich. , Bruyère, B. 1930. Mert-Seger à Deir el Medineh. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale. , Pieper, M. 1931. Ein text über das ägyptisches Brettspiel. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 66: 16–33. , Piankoff, A. And H. Jacquet-Gordon. 1972. The Wandering of the Soul. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.98
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 1190-01-01BCE - 1077-01-01BCE
Rules Seven playing pieces, players can block others from moving by being in front of them, moving forward is good, players can pass each other, water space is bad, moving past space 30 is the goal, there is a spot in which a player can become trapped, there is a space which is beneficial, may move more than one piece per turn.
Content Great Game Text from Papyrus Turin 1.775. "An offering which the king gives to Ra, Atum, Wennefer, the Lord of Justification, to the Thirty, to Horus, Anubis, Thoth, Shu, Ma'at, to the Crew of the Great Ones of the Good House, to Heka, Hu, and Siaj, [so that they might permit] me to enter the Council Chamber of the Thirty, I will become a god, making 31. I will approach Mehen and I will lift up the draughtsmen. I will stop according to my predilection, [and I will take my place in the House of Thoth] I will fight as a god with him, [while seeing] Neith with her arms upon the Abydos reliquary. I will open the Good House that contains Ma'at, so that thre god will condust me to the House of the Thirty Gods. I will fasten the djed pillar to the ti.t amulet while seeing Wadjet in her manifestations beside the House of Mut. My heart is shrewd, it is not forgetful. My heart is clever in determining his play against me, his draughtsmen will turn back to him. His fingers are confused, and his heart has removed itself from its place, so that he does not know his response. My name has been perpetuated in the house of Orion, that I may live forever and eternity. I will pass by as one who sails with the breeze together with the Sun Disk to the House of Repeating Life, while my opponent is stopped i nthe House of the Netting, which humbles him (or holds him back) by means of the meshes. I will convey my response to Tn.t-Mhn, with the result that I keep him from the good house. I shall lift up my three draughtsmen, while finding two draughtsmen. My opponent is behind me, I shall convey my draughtsmen to the place which I desire. I am guided in passing, being made wise in the House of...so that I know their names-for the scribe who has become possessed of understanding is not ignorant. After Mehen instructed me, he gave bread in the House of Bread and cool water in the House of Libation. I will establish my draughtsmen in the Good House. I take possession of the rear or the Good House. My seven draughtsmen are sailing with the breeze before my fingers, like the jackals hauling the bark. I will remove my...from the House of[Water..] opponent...will approach my opponent, and will throw..., that he might drown together with his draughtsmen. You are justified, so Mehen will say to me, while my heart..." Piccione 1990: 101-154; Seyffarth 1833: 200; Maspero 1897: 94; Wiedemann 1896: 1; Piankfoff and Jacquet Gordon 1972: plate 46.
Confidence 100
Source Piankoff, A. And H. Jacquet-Gordon. 1972. The Wandering of the Soul. Princeton: Princeton University Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Maspero, G. 1897. Les jeux de dames en Égypte. Bibliotèque Égyptologique 5: 83–96. , Seyffarth, G. 1833. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Literatur, Kunst, Mythologie und Geschichte des Alten Ägypten. Volume III. Laipzig: J.A. Barth. , Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61.

Id DLP.Evidence.99
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1153-01-01BCE
Rules House of Three Gods is a good space, water space is bad, pieces can pass opponents, pieces can obstruct opponents.
Content Game text in Tomb of Tjaynefer at Dra Abu el-Naga (Theban Tomb 158). "He will see the sun disk; he will mingle with the star, and he will unite with the stars of heaven. He will accompany Osiris from R-Pky during the W3g- Festival, and he will take the helm in the bark of the god, his statue being within it. He will seize the stake, and he will take the netting needle in order to throw the Net. He will gladden the Thirty of the Senet game. Mehen is before him, opposite his opponent in the Good House. He will pass by the House of Towing after he has entered the papyrus. his heart is happy in the House of the Three Gods, until he descends into the water, knowing that he has strength. He will come out through the houses, even though they are obstructed. He will place the djed pillar and he will place the ti.t in the precincts of the Lord of Eternity. He will petition the god concerning his uprightness..." Piccione 1990: 154-179; Seele 1959: plate 4; Kendall 1978: 57-58.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Seele, K. The Tomb of Tjanefer at Thebes. Oriental Institute Publication 86. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , Kendall, T. 1978. Passing through the Netherworld: The Meaning and Play of Senet, an Ancient Egyptian Funerary Game. Belmont, MA: Kirk Game Company.

Id DLP.Evidence.108
Type Contemporary text
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 0400-01-01BCE - 0301-01-01BCE
Rules Water space is bad, two gods space is good, players can cause "injury" to other players' pieces.
Content Senet scene from the Tomb of Petosiris at Tena el-Gebel with a general caption and player captions. General caption: "Taking recreation in playing with his friends after lunch, until the time that he is purified in the beer chamber, by the Greatest of the Five, Petosiris." Left Player: ...there is no road (for reaching) the land before (you). I shall place ...the road for your companion. Come, for I have become free thereof. I will lift up so that I might carry....to...at the Two Gods, while the companion of your draughtsman is upon the Water." Right player: ...clear for me. I have caused that...receive...therein, in order to give to me the draughtsman ...the land, after I have injured your two draughtsmen." Piccione 1990: 184-190; Lefebvre 1923: 12; Cherpion et al. 2007: 33.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Cherpion, N, J.P. Corteggiani, and J.-F. Gout. 2017. Le tombeau de Pétosiris à Touna el-Gebel: Relevé photographique. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago. , Lefebvre, G. 1923. Le Tombeau de Petosiris. Cairo: Institute Français des Antiquités Orientales.

Id DLP.Evidence.109
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1479-01-01BCE - 1425-01-01BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene in the tomb of Amenemhat (TT 82). Amenemhat playing Senet with another person. Piccione 1990: 264-265; Davies & Gardiner 1915: 70.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Davies, N and A. Gardiner. 1915. The Tomb of Amenemhet (No. 82). London: Egypt Exploration Society. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.110
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1425-01-01BCE - 1400-12-31BCE
Content Offering scene in Tomb of Sennefer (TT96B), with a Senet board seen next to Sennefer as he accepts ritual food offerings. Piccione 1990: 265-266
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.111
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1319-01-01BCE - 1292-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene of Neferhotep (TT 50) showing Neferhotep accompanied by his wife playing against a woman. Piccione 1990: 266-267; Bénédite 1894: plate 2.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Female, Male
Source Bénédite, G. 1894. 'Tombeau de Neferhotpu, fils d’Amenemanit.' Mémoires publiées par les membres de la mission archéologique française au Caire (Paris) 5: 489–540. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.112
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1319-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene in tomb of Nebnefer (TT 6), showing Nebnefer accompanied by his wife in a vignette from the Book of the Dead where the deceased plays against an invisible opponent. Piccione 1990:267; Wild 1979: plate 11.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Wild, H. 1979. La tombe de Nefer-hotep (I) et Neb-nefer à Deir el-Medina (No. 6). Mémoires publiées par les membres de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 103. Cairo: Institue Français de l’Archéologie Orientale. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.113
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene on wooden outer coffin of Sennedjem (Egyptian Museum Cairo JdE 27.301). Sennedjem, accompanied by his wife, shown playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 269; Porter & Moss 1960/1964: 4.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.114
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene of Sennedjem, showing him accompanied by his wife playing an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 270; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 3.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.115
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Rules Astragali used as dice.
Content Senet playing scene on wooden outer coffin of Khonsu (Cairo Museum JdE 27.302), found in TT1. Khonsu accompanied by his wife Tameket playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. An astragalus appears with the board. Piccione 1990: 270-271; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 5.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.116
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'39.93"N, 32°35'33.60"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from tomb of Nefertari (VQ 66). Nefertari playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 271-2; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 762.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Royalty
Spaces Ritual
Genders Female
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.117
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from tomb of Nefersekheru (TT 296). Nefersekheru accompanied by his wife playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 272; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 378.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.118
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from tomb of Kenro (TT 178). Kenro accompanied by his wife playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 273; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 284.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.119
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Rules Astragali used as dice, two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Penbuy (TT 10). Penbuy playing against his wife in the context of a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 274; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 22.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Female, Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.120
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Content Senet scene in the tomb of Piay (TT 263). Piay accompanied by his wife sitting next to a Senet board. Piccione 1990: 275; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 345.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.121
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location Ancient Egypt
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1213-12-31BCE
Rules Astragali used as dice, two players.
Content Senet playing scene from game box of Imenmes (Louvre 1605). Imenmes playing Aenet against an opponent. Piccione 1990:275-276.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Non-Elite
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.122
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Amenemopet (TT 265). Amenemopet accompanied by his wife Hunero playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 277; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 346.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.123
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Amenemhat (TT 163, BM55336). Amenemhat and his wife Nedjemniut with a Senet board. Piccione 1990: 278; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 276.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.124
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 26°11'2.28"N, 31°55'6.28"E
Date 1213-01-01BCE - 1203-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene of Merenptah from the Osireion, Abydos. Merenptah playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 278-279; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 30.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Royalty
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.125
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Nebenma'at (T 219). Nebenma'at playing Senet against Meretseger, his wife. Piccione 1990: 279-278; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 321.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Female, Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.126
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Khonsumose (TT 30). Khonsumose playing Senet against his wife. Piccione 1990: 280; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 47.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male, Female
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.127
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1292-01-01BCE - 1191-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Amenhotep and Ameneminet (TT 58). Amenhotep accompanied by his wife playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 280-281; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 119.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.128
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1279-01-01BCE - 1157-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Tjaynefer (TT 158). Tjaynefer playing Senet against a man in the context of a festival to Sokar. Piccione 1990: 281-282; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 269.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.129
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'9.29"N, 32°36'4.84"E
Date 1187-01-01BCE - 1157-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene on west wall of the Eastern High Gateway of Temple of Medinet Habu. Rameses III playing Senet against a princess. Piccione 1990: 282; Porter and Moss 1972: 487.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Royalty
Spaces Private
Genders Female, Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1972. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol. 2: Theban Temples. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Clarendon Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.130
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'9.29"N, 32°36'4.84"E
Date 1187-01-01BCE - 1157-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Temple of Medinet Habu in Eastern High Gateway, third floor room of North Tower. Rameses III, accompanied by a princess, playing Senet against another princess. Piccione 1990: 282-284; Porter and Moss 1972: 487.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Royalty
Spaces Private
Genders Female, Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1972. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol. 2: Theban Temples. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Clarendon Press. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.131
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 25°43'49.68"N, 32°35'45.25"E
Date 1187-01-01BCE - 1150-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Inherkau (TT 359). Inherkau accompanied by his wife playing Senet against an invisible opponent in a vignette from the Book of the Dead. Piccione 1990: 284; Porter and Moss 1960/1964: 284.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Spaces Ritual
Genders Male
Source Porter, B. And R. Moss. 1960/1964. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.Vol 1 pt. 1: The Theban Necropolis: Private Tombs. Pt. 2: The Theban Necropolis: Royal Tombs. 2nd edition, revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.132
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 0664-01-01BCE - 0525-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Ankhefensakhmet (Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore). Two men playing Senet in the context of singing and music playing. Piccione 1990: 286; Capart 1938: fig 1-3. It may be a copy of an Old Kingdom scene.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Non-Elite
Spaces Ritual, Public
Genders Male
Source Capart, J. 1938. 'A Neo-Memphite bas-relief.' Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 1:13–18. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.133
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 18°31'26.57"N, 31°52'29.41"E
Date 0600-01-01BCE - 0501-01-01BCE
Content Senet playing scene of Aramatelqo from Nuri (MFA Boston 24.1789). Man playing Senet, broken so cannot see other player. Piccione 1990: 288
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Spaces Public
Genders Male
Source Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.134
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 0335-01-01BCE - 0323-12-31BCE
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Petosiris, Tuna el-Gebel. Two men playing Senet. Piccione 1990: 288-289; Lefebvre 1923: 50; Cherpion et al. 2017: 33.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Carter, H and P. Newberry. 1904. The Tomb of Thutmosis IV. Westminster: A. Constable & Co. , Cherpion, N, J.P. Corteggiani, and J.-F. Gout. 2017. Le tombeau de Pétosiris à Touna el-Gebel: Relevé photographique. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. , Lefebvre, G. 1923. Le Tombeau de Petosiris. Cairo: Institute Français des Antiquités Orientales. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.135
Type Artistic depiction
Game Senet
Location 27°25'42.98"N, 30°42'16.53"E
Date 0335-01-01BCE - 0323-12-31BCE
Rules Two players.
Content Senet playing scene from Tomb of Petosiris, Tuna el-Gebel. Two men playing Senet. Piccione 1990: 288-289; Lefebvre 1923: 50; Cerpion et al 2017: 40.
Confidence 100
Source Cherpion, N, J.P. Corteggiani, and J.-F. Gout. 2017. Le tombeau de Pétosiris à Touna el-Gebel: Relevé photographique. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. , Lefebvre, G. 1923. Le Tombeau de Petosiris. Cairo: Institute Français des Antiquités Orientales. , Piccione, P. 1990. The Historical Development of the Game of Senet and its significance for Egyptian Religion. Unpublished Phd Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.136
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 25°44'24.59"N, 32°36'5.08"E
Ruleset Vertical Senet
Date 1149-01-01BCE - 1139-12-31BCE
Rules Marked spaces are good.
Content Senet game on limestone fragment. Egyptian Museum Cairo CGC 25.183. Senet arranged with the long sides vertical, arcs over the three spaces at the top of the board. Squares are decorated as follows: 30: neferu, 28: neferu, 27: neferu, Pusch 1979: 361.
Confidence 100
Source Pusch, E. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten. Munich: Deutsche Kunstverlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.137
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 42°24'15.94"N, 12°51'25.45"E
Date 0116-01-01BCE - 0027-12-31BCE
Rules Rectangular board.
Content Varro, De Lingua Latina X.22 "Ad hunc quadruplicem fontem ordines deriguntur bini, uni transversi, alteri directi, ut in tabula solet in qua latrunculis ludunt."
Confidence 100
Source Varro. De Lingua Latina. trans. R. Kent. Loeb Classical Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.140
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0100-12-31
Rules Pieces can block one another, win by breaking through opponents ranks.
Content Laus Pisonis 192-208: "callidore modo tabula variatur aperta calculus et vitreo peraguntur milite bella, ut nievus nigros, nunc et niger alliget albos. Sed tibi quis non terga dedit? Quis te duce cessit calculus? Aut quis non periturus perdidit hostem? mille modis acies tua dimicat: ille petentem dum fugit, ipse rapit; longo venit ille recessu, qui stetit in speculis; hic se committere rizae audet et in praedam venientem decipit hostem; ancipites subit ille moras similisque ligato obligat ipse duos; hic ad maiora movetur, ut citus effracta prorumpat in agmina mandra clausaque deiecto populetur moenia vallo. Interea sectis quamvis accerima surgant proelia militibus, plena tamen ipse phalange aut etiam pauco spoliata milite vincis, et tibi captiva resonat manus etraque turba." "Cunningly the pieces are disposed on the open board, and battles are fought with soldiery of glass, so that now white blocks black, now black blocks white. But every foe yields to thee, Piso: marshalled by thee, what piece ever gave way? What piece on the brink of death dealt not death to his enemy? Thousandfold are the battle-tactics; one man in fleeing from an attacker, himself overpowers him; another, who has been standing on the look-out, comes up from a different corner; another stoutly rushes into the melee and cheats his foe now creeping on his prey; another courts blockade on either flank, and, under feint of being blocked, himself blocks two men; another's objective is more ambitious, that he may quickly break through the massed phalanx, swoop into the lines, and razing the enemy's rampart do havoc in the walled stronghold. Meantime, although the fight rages fiercely now the hostile ranks are split, yet thou thyself art victorious with serried line unbroken, or despoiled may be of one or two men, and both thy hands rattle with the prisoned throng." Translation from Austin 1934: 30.
Confidence 100
Source Anonymous. Laus Pisonis. Loeb Classical Library. , Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34.

Id DLP.Evidence.141
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0002-01-01BCE - 0002-12-31
Rules Pieces can move backwards, pieces can capture, two pieces are needed to capture one piece.
Content Ovid Ars Amatoria III.356-60: "Quam subeat partem callida, quamque vocet. Cautaque non stulte latronum proelia ludat, Unus cum gemino calculus hoste perit, Bellatorque sua prensus sine compare bellat." Translation Hejlduk 2014: "...and that she play prudently, not foolishly, Battles of Bandits when one counter perishes, vanquished by a twin foe, and the warrior, caught without his companion, wages war and the rival keeps retracing the path he's begun..."
Confidence 100
Genders Female, Male
Source Ovid. Ars Amatoria. , Hejduyk, J. 2004. The Offense of Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.142
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0002-01-01 - 0002-12-31
Rules Pieces can be captured.
Content Ovid Ars Amatoria II.208: "Sive latrocinii sub imagine calculus ibit, Fac pereat vitreo miles ab hoste tuus" Translation Hejduk 2014: "or if the counter will go forth in the guise of a bandit, make sure your soldier is killed by the glassy foe."
Confidence 100
Source Ovid. Ars Amatoria. , Hejduyk, J. 2004. The Offense of Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.143
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0008-01-01 - 0018-12-31
Rules Pieces are captured between two opponent pieces, pieces move in a straight path, pieces can move backwards.
Content Ovid Tristia II.477-478: "discolor ut recto grateur limite miles, cum medios gemino calculus hoste perit, ut bellare sequens sciat et revocare priorem, nec tuto fugiens incomitatus eat" Translation Wheeler 1924: 91: "...how the variegated soldier steals to the attack along the straight path when the piece between two enemies is lost, and how he understands warfare by pursuit and how to recall the man before him and to retreat in safety not without escort..."
Confidence 100
Source Ovid. Tristia. trans. A. Wheeler. 1924. Loeb Classical Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.144
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0004-01-01BCE - 0065-12-31
Rules Player with more pieces wins.
Content Seneca De Tranquilitate Animi 14.7: "Ludebat latrunculis. Cum centurio, agmen periturorum trahens, illum quoque excitari iuberet, vocatus numeravit calculos et sodali suo"Vide, inquit, ne post mortem meam mentiaris te vicisse.| Tum, annuens centurioni: "Testis, inquit, eris uno me antecedere." Lusisse tu Canum illa tabula putas? Illusit." Translation from Stewart 1900: "He was playing at draughts (latrunculi) when the centurion in charge of a number of those who were going to be executed bade him, join them: on the summons he counted his men and said to his companion, "Mind you do not tell a lie after my death, and say that you won;" then, turning to the centurion, he said "You will bear me witness that I am one man ahead of him." Do you think that Kanus played upon that draught-board? nay, he played with it."
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Seneca. De Tranquilitate Animi. trans. A. Stewart.

Id DLP.Evidence.145
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 42°4'24.97"N, 6°0'37.15"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules 9x7 or larger board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Petavonium, military camp of the Ala II Flavia legion. Incomplete board with a pattern of at least 9x7. Carretero Vaquero 1998: 125.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Carretero Vaquero, S. 1998. El Ludus Latrunculorum, un juego de estrategia practicado por los equites del Ala II Flavia. Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologìa 64: 117– 140.

Id DLP.Evidence.146
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 42° 4'24.97"N, 6° 0'37.15"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules 8x6 or larger board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Petavonium, military camp of the Ala II Flavia legion. Incomplete board with a pattern of at least 9x7. Carretero Vaquero 1998: 125.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Carretero Vaquero, S. 1998. El Ludus Latrunculorum, un juego de estrategia practicado por los equites del Ala II Flavia. Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologìa 64: 117– 140.

Id DLP.Evidence.147
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 55° 1'41.90"N, 2° 8'19.38"W
Date 0123-01-01 - 0406-12-31
Rules 7x8 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Chesters Fort on Hadrian's Wall, UK. Complete 7x8 board. Austin 1934: 27.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34.

Id DLP.Evidence.148
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 9x9 or 9x10 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress. Either 9x9 or 9x10 pattern (difficult to determine if lines overlap the board or form a new row). Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 612, fig. 9.1.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.149
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 8x9, 8x8, 6x8, 7x8, 7x9 or 6x9 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress with between 6-8 squares x 8-9 squares. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2003: 613, fig. 9.5.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.150
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 8x6 or more spaces.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress 8x at least 6 squares. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2003: 612, fig. 9.4.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.151
Type Artistic depiction
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location Fayyum Oasis
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 6x7 board, 17 pieces, pieces played in the squares.
Content Terracotta model of a Ludus Latrunculorum game in progress from the Fayyum oasis, Egypt. Petrie Museum UC59258. Crist et al 2016: 139; Petrie 1927: 55.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury. , Petrie, W.M.F. 1927. Objects of Daily Use. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.152
Type Artistic depiction
Game Mehen
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Date 2592-01-01BCE - 2544-12-31BCE
Rules Up to 6 players, six marbles and one lion per player, single track spiral board.
Content Painting from tomb of Hesy-Re showing Mehen board and playing pieces. Six crouching lion pieces and six sets of six round pieces alongside a spiral board. Quibbell 1913: 18-21.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Quibbell, J. 1913. Excavations at Saqqara 1911–1912: The Mastaba of Hesy. Cairo: IFAO.

Id DLP.Evidence.153
Type Contemporary text
Game Mehen
Location 29°23'7.55"N, 31° 9'30.75"E
Date 2543-01-01BCE - 2436-12-31BCE
Rules Name of the game.
Content Text from Tomb of Rahotep mentioning the name of the game Mehen in a list of tomb offerings. Petrie 1892: pl XIII.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Petrie, W.M.F. et al. 1892. Medum. London: D. Nutt.

Id DLP.Evidence.154
Type Artifact
Game XII Scripta
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of 12 squares divided in half down the middle with a circle and two semi circles. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.155
Type Artifact
Game XII Scripta
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of 12 squares divided in half down the middle with a circle and two semi circles. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.156
Type Artifact
Game XII Scripta
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of squares, damaged but appears to be a XII Scripta pattern. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 75
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.157
Type Contemporary text
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 37°23'21.33"N, 5°59'1.50"W
Date 0560-01-01 - 0636-12-31
Rules Pieces trapped between two opposing pieces cannot move, pieces are placed on any space on the board in the beginning of play, pieces move forward or sideways.
Content Isidore Origines XVIII.67: "DE CALCULORUM MOTU. Calculi partim ordine moventur, partim vage: ideo alios ordinarios, alios vagos appellent; at vero qui moveri omnino non possunt, incito dicunt. Vnde et egentes homines inciti vocantur, quibus spes ultra procedendi nulla restat." Translation Schädler 1995: "Some of the pieces move regularly, others here and there: therefore the first are called ordinarii, the others vagi, and those that cannot move at all are called inciti."
Confidence 100
Source Isidore. Etymologiae (Origines). , Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.158
Type Contemporary text
Game XII Scripta
Location 37°23'21.33"N, 5°59'1.50"W
Date 0556-01-01 - 0636-04-04
Rules Played with three dice, arrangement of board into three rows and also groups of six
Content Isidore Origines 18:60-64: "DE TABULA. Alea, id est lusus tabulae, inventa a Graecis in otio Troiani belli a quodam milite Alea nomine, a quo et ars nomen accepit. Tabula luditur pyrgo, calculis tesserisque. DE PYRGIS. Pyrgus dictus quod per eum tesserae pergant, sive quod turris speciem habeat. Nam Graeci turrem PURGON vocant. DE CALCULIS. Calculi vocati quod lenes sint eet rotundi. Vnde et calculus dicitur lapis brevis, qui sine molestia sui brevitate calcatur. Item calculi, quod per vias ordinales eant, quasi per calles. DE TESSERIS. Tesserae vocatate quia quadrae sunt ex omnibus partibus. Has alii lepusculos vocant, eo quod exiliendo discurrant. Olim autem terrerae iacula apellabantus, a iaciendo. DE FIGURIS ALEAE. Quidam autem aleatores sibi videntur physiologice per allegoriam hanc artem exercere, et sub quadam rerum similitudine fingere. Nam tribus tesseris ludere perhibent propter tria saeculi tempora: praesentia, praeterita, futura; quia non stant, sed decurrunt. Sed et ipsas vias senariis locis distinctas propter aetates hominum ternariis lineis propter tempora argumentantur. Inde et tabulam ternis discriptam dicunt lineis." Schädler 1995:81-82 interpretation: "Game is played with three dice. "the players argue, that theses ways are divided into six places because of the human ages and in three lines because of the tenses. And therefore they say that the board is arranged in three lines."
Confidence 100
Source Isidore. Episcopi Etymologiarum sine Originum.

Id DLP.Evidence.159
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game baord from Marki Alonia S404 now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum, Cyprus. 13 cavities in very small game arranged in three rows. Broken. Frankel & Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.160
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S238, now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x5 preserved, broken. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.161
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°49'21.42"N, 32°23'47.84"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Kissonerga Skalia KS 312 now in the Paphos District Archaeological Museum. Pithos sherd with two rows of holes. On outer surface, depressions are pecked, so they are not likely meant to be decoration. Crist 2016
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016. Games of thrones: board games and social complexity in Bronze Age Cyprus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.

Id DLP.Evidence.162
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S489 now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 pattern of depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.163
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S503 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken. Three rows of depressions with 7, 7, and 4 preserved. Frankel and Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.164
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Episkopi Phaneromeni S85 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken. 3x5 depressions preserved. Swiny 1986:119.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.165
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B311 (AO.392) now in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. Broken. 3x6 preserved. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-175.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.166
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S172 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Three rows of depressions, broken. Swiny 1986: 121.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.167
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S102 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken board with two rows of depressions preserved. Swiny et al. 2003: 259.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.168
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Bamboula 11032 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016. Games of thrones: board games and social complexity in Bronze Age Cyprus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University.

Id DLP.Evidence.169
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S442 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions, one missing. Frankel and Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.170
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1039. Three rows of depressions, broken. 7, 8, 8 in each row. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.171
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B316 (AO.498) now in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. Three rows of 7, 8, 9 depressions, badly preserved. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-176.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.172
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules At least two row board.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1040 small badly erodded fragment. 2x5 depressions, broken. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse., Townshend, P. 1986. Games in culture: A contextual analysis of the Swahili board game and its relevance to vaariation in African mankala. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.

Id DLP.Evidence.173
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board, divided in half.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S231 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x6 depressions, divided in half by an incised line. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.174
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row baord, divided in half
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S231 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x6 depressions divided with an incised line, broken. On opposite face of DLP.Evidence.173. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.175
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B315 (AS-80.22) now in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. 3x7 depressions, broken. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-176.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.176
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B313 (AO.494) now in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. 3x10 depressions. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-175.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.177
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1064 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.178
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row game.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1084 now in Korion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken Senet game with three rows. Crist 2016a
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.179
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S6 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows with 5,6,5 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60, Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.180
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S464a now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Crist 2016a .
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.181
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S18 now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996:87,90.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.182
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S417 now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.183
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Ten depressions per row.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1085 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, one row of ten depressions remaining. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.184
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S613 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x4 depressions, broken. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.185
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S464 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.186
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S189 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 100.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.187
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Bamboula 130.EPBM.050.002. In Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute collection in Nicosia. Broken, 3 rows of 4, 3, 2 depressions. Swiny 1986: 37.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.188
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S1086 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Badly eroded, three rows preserved of 10, 8, and 5 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.189
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S109 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows preserved of 5, 3, and 3 depressions. Swiny et al. 2003: 260.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.190
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'44.51"N, 33°17'32.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kalavassos Laroumena K-LAR 183. 3x10 depressions. Todd 1993: 92-93.
Confidence 100
Source Todd, I. 1993. Kalavassos-Laroumena: Test Excavation of a Middle Bronze Age Settlement. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 81–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.191
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'44.51"N, 33°17'32.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kalavassos Malouteri 49-25. 3x9 depressions. Todd 1993: 92-93.
Confidence 100
Source Todd, I. 1993. Kalavassos-Laroumena: Test Excavation of a Middle Bronze Age Settlement. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 81–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.192
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S248 now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of 9, 7, and 5 depressions Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.193
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'26.28"N, 33°21'20.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Maroni Tsaroukkas MT.712. Broken, three rows of 8, 8, and 7 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.194
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S534 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows with 3, 4, and 5 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse., Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.195
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S114 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of 6, 4, and 3 depressions. Swiny 2003: 260.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.196
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S120 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of 8, 4, and 3 depressions. Swiny 2003: 260.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.197
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S161 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of 6, 5, and 3 depressions run diagonally across one face. Swiny 2003: 262 Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.198
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S403 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 129.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.199
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'44.51"N, 33°17'32.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Kalavassos Arkhangelos 8-90. 2x9 depressions, remainder of third row along broken edge. Todd 1993: 92-93.
Confidence 100
Source Todd, I. 1993. Kalavassos-Laroumena: Test Excavation of a Middle Bronze Age Settlement. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 81–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.200
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S479 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of 9,9, and 7 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.201
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game from Episkopi Phaneromeni S232 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions, two missing from one row. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.202
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S520 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.203
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet board from Alambra Mouttes B317 (AO.499) now in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. Broken, three rows with 10, 9, and 7 depressions. Coleman et al 1996: 174-176; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.204
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S163 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions, 17 in total. Swiny 2003: 262; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.205
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S167 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions, 5, 6, and 5 in each. Swiny 2003: 263; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.206
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S38 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 91.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.207
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S168 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, two rows of 8 depressions. Swiny 2003: 263; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.208
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game from Sotira Kaminoudhia S234 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions, two missing from one row because of damage. Swiny 2003: 266; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.209
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S235 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 266; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.210
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S281 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions. Swiny 2003: 268.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.211
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S325 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 8, 7, and 5 in each row. Swiny 2003:270.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.212
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S14 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.213
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S330 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 270.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.214
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S436 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x6 depressions preserved. Swiny 1986:131.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.215
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S424 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 7, 9, and 8 preserved. Swiny 2003: 274.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.216
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S425a now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 274.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.217
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S467 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 276.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.218
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S475 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 5, 6, and 8 in each row preserved. Swiny 2003:276; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.219
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S119 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 4, 5, and 6 in each row. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 96.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.220
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 9, 8, and 7 in each row. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.221
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S287 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.222
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S22 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 3x7 depressions preserved. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 90.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.223
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S532 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 6, 5, and 6 in each row. Swiny 2003: 279.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.224
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S319 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 126.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.225
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S533 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, two rows of depressions with 4 and 9 in each row preserved. Swiny 2003: 279.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.226
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S546 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 280.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.227
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Kappara AS6 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Double-sided. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 102, 86.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.228
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Kappara AS6 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Double sided. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996:102, 86.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.229
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S606 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x5 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.230
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Ten in each row.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S607 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Damaged, 2x10 depressions,two stone eroded where third row should be. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.231
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S441 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 2x5 depressions preserved. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.232
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S608 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 8, 9, and 4 in each row. Swiny 2003:282; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.233
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S172 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, four depressions preserved. Swiny 1986: 121.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.234
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S13 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 4, 3, and 3 in each row. Swiny 1981: 60.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.235
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Beyouk Tarla SY-EBT S35 in the Kourion Kuseum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: Fig 36; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.236
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S609 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x8 depressions preserved. Swiny 2003: 282; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.237
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S610 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 5, 6, and 6 in each row. Swiny 2003: 282.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.238
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia 178 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 100; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.239
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B312 (AO.410) in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. Broken, three rows of depressions with 6, 7, and 6 in each row. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-175.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.240
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Stympouli Stym S6 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 7, 6, and 7 in each row. Swiny 1986: p 50; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.241
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Ten spaces per row.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S46 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Incomplete, two rows with 6 and 10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 92; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.242
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S232 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 3x7 depressions preserved. Frankel & Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.243
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S611 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 6, 7, and 7 preserved in each row. Swiny 2003: 283.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.244
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S466 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.245
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Beyouk Tarla S39 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 7, 6, and 6 in each row. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.246
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B314 (A31-82.1) in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. Broken, 2x7 depressions preserved. Coleman et al. 1996: 174-175; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.247
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S612 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus, Broken, 2x6 depressions preserved. Swiny 2003: 283; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.248
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°49'21.42"N, 32°23'47.84"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board
Content Senet game board from Kissonerga Skalia G234 3x10 depressions, four missing from one row. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.249
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Beyouk Tarla SY-EBT S34 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x8 depressions preserved. Swiny 1986: Fig 36; Crist 2016a
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.250
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'26.28"N, 33°21'20.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Maroni 833.IV U.S. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.251
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S425 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 8, 6, and 6 in each row. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse., Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.252
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'44.51"N, 33°17'32.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kalavassos Malouteri 49-26. 3x10 depressions, two missing from one row. Todd 1993: 92-93; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Todd, I. 1993. Kalavassos-Laroumena: Test Excavation of a Middle Bronze Age Settlement. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 81–96. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.253
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S633 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x5 depressions preserved. Swiny 2003: 284.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.254
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'2.59"N, 33°18'10.44"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kalavasos Ayios Dhimitrios K-AD 122. 3x10 depressions. South et al. 1989: 103-103, 32, Fig 31.
Confidence 100
Source South, A., P. Russell and P. Keswani. 1989. Vasilikos Valley Project 3: Kalavasos Ayios-Dhimitrios II(Ceramics, Objects, Tombs, Specialist Studies). Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 71.3. Göteborg: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.255
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S137 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Three rows of depressions, with 9, 9, and 7 in each row. Swiny 1986:120.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.256
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game baord from Episkopi Phaneromeni S137 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Three rows of depressions with 9, 9, and 8 in each row. Swiny 1986:120; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse., Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.257
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S71 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, two rows of depressions with 5 and 4 in each row. Swiny 2003: 258.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.258
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S174 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 99.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.259
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S194 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 122.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.260
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S72 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 258.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.261
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S727 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x8 preserved. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.363
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 0'34.47"N, 33°41'45.17"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1325-01-01BCE - 1225-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game from Pyla Kokkinokremos 100 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Karageorghis & Demas 1984: 40, Pl. XXXII, XLVIII;; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Karageorghis, V. And M. Demas. 1984. Pyla-Kokkinokremos: A Late 13th Century B.C. Fortified Settlement in Cyprus. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.367
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S178 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 100; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.368
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°55'23.59"N,33°37'49.78"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1450-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kition Kathari 4808 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 board, end is slightly damaged obscuring 1-3 holes in each row. Karageorghis and Demas 1985: 242; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Karageorghis, V. And M. Demas. 1985. Excavations at Kition V: The Pre-Phoenician Levels. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.369
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S20 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.370
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S412 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.371
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S727b in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x7 depressions preserved. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.372
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S730 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.373
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°51'10.79"N,32°21'43.62"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Maa Palaeokastro 369 in the Paphos District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions, one row damaged with only 7 holes preserved. Karageorghis & Demas 1988: 190. Pl CXLVI, CCXL.
Confidence 100
Source Karageorghis, V and M. Demas. 1988. Excavations at Maa-Palaeokastro 1979–1986. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities,

Id DLP.Evidence.374
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game from Episkopi Phaneromeni S412 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.375
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S748 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.376
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1725-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S529 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.377
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S244 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.378
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Beyouk Tarla SY-EBT S36 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986 Fig 36; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.379
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S402 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 129.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.380
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S10 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.381
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S21 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 117.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.382
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1725-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S99 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 3, 4, and 4 in each row. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 95; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.383
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S516 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 3x8 depressions preserved. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.384
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°55'23.59"N,33°37'49.78"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1450-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Kition Kathari 5499 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Karageorghis and Demas 1985: 242.
Confidence 100
Source Karageorghis, V. And M. Demas. 1985. Excavations at Kition V: The Pre-Phoenician Levels. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities.

Id DLP.Evidence.385
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S21 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.386
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Peralijithias S10 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 board, three holes are damaged. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.387
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°49'21.42"N, 32°23'47.84"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Kissonerga Skalia G1. Broken, three rows of depressions with 6, 4, and 3 in each row. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.388
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S75 in the Kouion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x7 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.389
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S168 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 2, 3, and 5 in each row. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 99.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.390
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game from Anoyira Livadhia S20 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 4, 2, and 3 in each row. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.391
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia 144 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 9, 9, and 6 in each row. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 98; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.392
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S77 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 5, 6, and 7 in each row. Swiny 2003: 258.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.393
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°49'21.42"N, 32°23'47.84"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet board game from Kissonerga Skalia G545. Broken, three rows of depressions with 9, 8, and 7 in each row. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.394
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia 456 in the Larbnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 3x5 depressions preserved. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.395
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S193 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 122.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.396
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°41'1.44"N, 32°45'27.63"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Evdhimou Beyouk Tarla S29 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 5, 5, and 6 in each row. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.397
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S78 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 2003: 258.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.398
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game baord from Marki Alonia S521 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 9, 9, and 7 in each row. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.399
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S233 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, two rows of depressions with 3 and 5 holes. Swiny 1986: 123.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.400
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S80 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 8, 8, and 7 in each row. Swiny 2003: 258; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.401
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet board game from Anoyira Livadhia S21 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.402
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S279 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 124.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.403
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S688 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, three rows of depressions with 8, 9, and 9 in each row. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.404
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S851 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.405
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S416 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Three 3x10 patterns of depressions on one stone. Swiny 1986: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.406
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S179a in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 4, 4, and 3 in each row. Swiny 1986: 121.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.407
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S179 in the Mourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 23 in total. Swiny 1986: 121; Crist 2016a
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.408
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°44'11.99"N, 32°43'45.95"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Anoyira Livadhia S22 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x8 depressions. Swiny 1981: 60; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1981. Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in Southwest Cyprus. Levant 13: 51–87. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.409
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'26.28"N, 33°21'20.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Maroni Tsaroukkas MT.688. 3x10 depressions, one is missing due to damage. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.410
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S768 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.411
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S416 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Three 3x10 patterns of depressions on the same stone. Swiny 1986: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.412
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S859 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.413
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game viard from Episkopi Phaneromeni S136 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 120.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.414
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S19 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 117.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.415
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S61 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 3x8 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 93.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.416
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S413 in the Kourion Msueum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.417
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 2000-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S457 in the Larnaca Distrcit Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.418
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S48 in the Larnaca Disrtict Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 92.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.419
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S138 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions, three holes damaged. Swiny 1986; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.420
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules At least two rows.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S144 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Broken, 2x6 depressions preserved. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 98; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.421
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°53'16.22"N,33°36'13.83"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1475-01-01BCE - 1225-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Hala Sultan Tekke N1401 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Åström 1984a: 44; plate XII, 5; Swiny 1986: 36.
Confidence 100
Source Åström, P. 1984. 'Stones with cavities at Hala Sultan Tekke.' In C. Nicole (ed.), Aux origines de l’hellenisme: la Crète et la Grèce: hommage à Henri van Effenterre. Paris: Sorbonne, 9–14. , Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.422
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'26.28"N,33°21'20.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Maroni Vournes 323. 3x10 pattern. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.423
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S280 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Swiny 1986: 124.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.424
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni S477 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.425
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S859 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions, third row is damaged. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.426
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S887 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 5, 5, and 2 holes preserved. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.427
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°59'3.60"N, 33°23'45.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Alambra Mouttes B310 (AO 266) in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia. 3x10 depressions. Buchholz 1981:77 Coleman et al. 1996:174-175
Confidence 100
Source Buchholz, H.-G. 1981. ''Schalensteine' in Griechenland, Anatolien, und Zypern.' In H. Lorenz (ed), Studien zur Bronzezeit, Festschrift für Wilhelm Albert von Brunn. Main am Rhein: von Zabern, 63–94., Coleman, J., J. Barlow, M. Mogelonsky, and K. Sharr. 1996. Alambra: A Middle Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. Investigations by Cornell University, 1975–1978. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.428
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Marki Alonia S830 in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. 3x10 depressions. Frankel and Webb 2006
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.429
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°45'26.28"N, 33°21'20.46"E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1050-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Maroni Tsaroukkas MT.188 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.430
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S888 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.431
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S918 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, 3x8 depressions preserved. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.432
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S953 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions, third row is damaged. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.433
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Three row board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S958 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Broken, three rows of depressions with 7, 6 , and 4 holes. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.434
Type Artifact
Game Senet
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Ruleset Cypriot Senet
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x10 board.
Content Senet game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia S991 in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. 3x10 depressions. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.435
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game S1011 from Sotira Kaminoudhia, Cyprus. Sotira Kaminoudhia found among field stones removed from Unit 12. 23 depressions form a spiral surrounding a larger deeper depression in the center. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.436
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game from Marki Alonia, Cyprus, S416 Three curving rows of depressions preserved. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel and Webb 2006.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.437
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Sotira Kaminoudhia, Cyprus, S425 37 depressions in spiral pattern. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Swiny et al 2003: 274; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S, G. Rapp and E. Herscher. 2003. Sotira Kaminoudhia: An Early Bronze Age Site in Cyprus. American Schools of Oriental Research Reports, Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute Monographs 4. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.438
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game from Marki Alonia, Cyprus, S211. 22 depressions in a clear spiral pattern. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel and Webb 1996; Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.439
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Marki Alonia, Cyprus, S160. Fifteen depressions as part of spiral. Mislabeled in museum as S760. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 99; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.440
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game from Episkopi Phaneromeni, Cyprus. S244b. Ovoid spiral containing 51 depressions. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Swiny 1986: 123; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.441
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game from Marki Alonia, Cyprus, S220. Set in floor surface 907. 45 depressions in a clockwise spiral. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel & Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.442
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game from Marki Alonia, Cyrpus. 26 depressions in a partial spiral. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel & Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.443
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Marki Alonia, Cyprus. S13 24 depressions arranged in spiral. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 90; Frankel and Webb 2006; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 2006. Marki Alonia. An Early and Middle Bronze Age Settlement in Cyprus. Excavations 1995–2000. Sävedalen: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.444
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Date 1720-01-01BCE - 1475-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni, Cyprus. S280. At least 17 shallow depressions, including a larger central one forming a spiral. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Swiny 1986: 124; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.445
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 1'24.69"N, 33°19'29.15"E
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1800-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Marki Alonia, Cyprus. S150. Spiral with regular concentric circles of depressions. outer band consists of 5 elongated depressions. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Frankel & Webb 1996: 87, 98; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Frankel, D. And J. Webb. 1996. Marki-Alonia: An Early and Middle Bronze Age Town in Cyprus. Excavations 1990–1994. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 123:1. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.446
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°40'11.32"N, 32°54'23.06"E
Date 1899-01-01BCE - 1650-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Episkopi Phaneromeni, Cyprus. S84. 40 shallow depressions forming a clockwise spiral The first two are circular and more pronounced, as is the central depression. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Swiny 1986: 119; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.447
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 35° 0'34.47"N, 33°41'45.17"E
Date 1325-01-01BCE - 1225-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen game board from Pyla Kokkinokremos. S41. Circular depressions on one face forming a spiral. Now in the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. Karageorghis & Demas 1984: 14, 36, Pl XXXII, XLVIII; Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Karageorghis, V. And M. Demas. 1984. Pyla-Kokkinokremos: A Late 13th Century B.C. Fortified Settlement in Cyprus. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities. , Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.448
Type Artifact
Game Mehen
Location 34°42'53.11" N, 32°51'33.26" E
Date 2500-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules Spiral board.
Content Mehen board from Sotira Kaminoudhia, Cyprus. S942 42 depressions in a spiral pattern. Now in the Kourion Museum, Episkopi, Cyprus. Crist 2016a.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W. 2016a. Gaming stones morphological data. Harvard Dataverse.

Id DLP.Evidence.449
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Enkomi. Murray et al. 1900: 12, pl. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, A, A. Smith, and H. Walters. 1900. Excavations in Cyprus. London: British Museum.

Id DLP.Evidence.450
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0400-01-01BCE - 0101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.7.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.451
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 37° 6'12.09"N, 36°40'39.01"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Sam’al. May 1991: fig. 143.
Confidence 100
Source May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.452
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ashur. Harrak 1987: 56.
Confidence 100
Source Harrak, A. 1987. Assyria and Hanigalbat: A Historical Reconstruction of Bilateral Relations from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Twelfth Centuries BC. New York: Hildesheim.

Id DLP.Evidence.453
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. van Buren 1937: pl. VI.
Confidence 100
Source van Buren, E.D. 1937. A gaming-board from Tall Halaf. Iraq 4(1): 11–15.

Id DLP.Evidence.454
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°13'21.21"N, 43°24'54.34"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Balawat. de Kainlis 1942: 19.
Confidence 100
Source de Kainlis, A. 1942. 'Un jeu assyrien du musée du Louvre.' Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie oriental 39: 19–34.

Id DLP.Evidence.455
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°30'34.91"N, 43°13'44.45"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board etched on the base of a statue of a blessing Genius from Khorsabad. Castor, Musee du Louvre website: AO 19863. Falsely identified on the website as Tic-Tac-Toe.
Confidence 100
Source Castor, J.-M. 'Blessing Genius.' Musée du Louvre website https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/blessing-genius .accessed 04/02/2020.

Id DLP.Evidence.456
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°30'34.91"N, 43°13'44.45"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Khorsabad. Finkel 2008.
Confidence 100
Source Finkel, I. 2008. 'Board-games.' In J. Aruz, K. Benzel, and J. Evans (eds.) Beyond Babylon. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Id DLP.Evidence.457
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.11.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.458
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Twenty Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.3.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.459
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°24'28.24"N, 34°49'48.55"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Tell Beit Mirsim. Albright 1938: pls. 21.b and 37.a.
Confidence 100
Source Albright, W.F. 1938. The excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim. Volume II: The Bronze Age. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 17. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.460
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°16'51.65"N, 34°28'54.91"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Beth Peleth. Petrie 1930: pl. 34, 188.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W.M.F. 1930. Beth Pelet I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.461
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 33°11'44.19"N, 44°36'40.71"E
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, doubled so the boards connect on the extensions, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16, 20 on both sides.
Content Double 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Bismaya. Banks 1912: 355.
Confidence 100
Source Banks, E.J. 1912. Bismaya, or the Lost City of Adab. New York and London.

Id DLP.Evidence.462
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Hama. Riis 1948: figs. 218-219.
Confidence 100
Source Riis, P.J. 1948. Hama, fouilles et recherches de la Fondation Carlsberg 1931–1938. Copenhagen: National-museets Skrifter.

Id DLP.Evidence.463
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 236, fig. 310.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.464
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, marking in square 12.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.4.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.465
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36° 4'3.24"N, 36°25'26.35"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Tell es-Saidiyeh. Finkel 2008: 152-153.
Confidence 100
Source Finkel, I. 2008. 'Board-games.' In J. Aruz, K. Benzel, and J. Evans (eds.) Beyond Babylon. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Id DLP.Evidence.466
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Leemans 1846-1850: pl. CXLIV (273a-c).
Confidence 100
Source Leemans, C. 1846–1850. Monuments égyptiens du Musée d’antiquités des Pays-Bas à Leide, Tome II. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.467
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Needler 1953: 65, 74.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.469
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the Ashlar Building at Enkomi. Dikaios 1969: pl. 128,65.
Confidence 100
Source Dikaios, P. 1969. Enkomi. Excavations 1948–1958. Vol. 1. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.470
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the Ashlar Building at Enkomi. Dikaios 1969: pl. 128,66.
Confidence 100
Source Dikaios, P. 1969. Enkomi. Excavations 1948–1958. Vol. 1. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.471
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°44'50.56"N, 34°59'18.36"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Beth Shemesh. Grant 1934: 34, pl. XX.2, fig. 4.
Confidence 100
Source Grant, E. 1934. Rumeileh III. Biblical and Kindred Studies 5: Haverford.

Id DLP.Evidence.472
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°44'50.56"N, 34°59'18.36"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8 and 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation at Beth Shemesh. Meyer 1982: fig. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1982. Lebermodell oder Spielbrett. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in Kamid el-Loz in den Jahren 1971 bis 1974. Bonn: Rudolf Hagelt Verlag, 53–79.

Id DLP.Evidence.473
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 47, no. 220.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.474
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 51, no. 225.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.475
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2) and 8.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 5, no. 8.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.476
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 5, no. 9.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.477
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Decamps de Mertzenfeld 1954: pl. LIX,425.
Confidence 100
Source Decamps de Mertzenfeld, C. 1954. Inventaire commenté des ivoires phéniciens et apparentés découverts dans le Proche-Orient. Paris: É. de Brocard.

Id DLP.Evidence.478
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'47.10"N, 32°38'40.93"E
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 0901-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, doubled so the boards connect at the extensions, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16, 20.
Content Double 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kurna. Mond 1904: 98.
Confidence 100
Source Mond, R. 1904. Report of the work done in the Gebel ash-sheikh Abd-el-Kurneh at Thebes. Annales du Service des antiquités de l’Égypte 5: 97–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.479
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Saqqara. Quibell 1909: 114, pls. LVIII-LIX.
Confidence 100
Source Quibbell, J. 1909. Excavations at Saqqara (1907–1908). Cairo: IFAO.

Id DLP.Evidence.480
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Needler 1953: 65 (no. 7), 74.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.481
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8 , 12, and 16.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Pierret 1878: 81-82.
Confidence 100
Source Pierret, P. 1878. Recueil d’inscriptions inédites du Musée égyptien du Louvre. Études égyptologues 8. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.482
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in square 4.
Content 20 Squares game board from Deir el-Medineh. Rothöhler 1996: nr H54.
Confidence 100
Source Rothöhler, B. 1996. Ägyptischer Brettspiele außer Senet. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Id DLP.Evidence.483
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Kendall 1991: 149.
Confidence 100
Source Kendall, T, 1991. Le jeu des <>. In R. May (ed.) Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseilles: Musées de Marseilles, 148–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.484
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple deposit at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1982: fig. 5, 1, fig. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1982. Lebermodell oder Spielbrett. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in Kamid el-Loz in den Jahren 1971 bis 1974. Bonn: Rudolf Hagelt Verlag, 53–79.

Id DLP.Evidence.485
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1983, 101, 126, n. 24.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1983. Spielbretter aus Kami el-Loz. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Frühe Phöniker im Libanon. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Labern, 101–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.486
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1983: 101, 127, n. 25.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1983. Spielbretter aus Kami el-Loz. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Frühe Phöniker im Libanon. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Labern, 101–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.487
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 33° 1'2.57"N, 35°34'4.98"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a storehouse at Hazor. Yadin 1960: 6, pl. LXXVIII, CLIX.
Confidence 100
Source Yadin, Y. 1960. Hazor II. Jerusalem: Magres Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.488
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 130, pl. LXXV (b).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.489
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 130-132.
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.490
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, marking in square 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 121-130, pl. XLII (a).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.491
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter 1933: 131, pl. XLII (b).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.492
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Wiedemann 1897: 43.
Confidence 100
Source Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61.

Id DLP.Evidence.493
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, square 16 marked.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Refat 1972: no. 7.
Confidence 100
Source Refat, W. 1972. Le jeu de trente cases dans l’Égypte ancienne. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Université libre, Brussels, Belgium.

Id DLP.Evidence.494
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 26°33'45.33"N, 31°44'41.70"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board possibly from Akhmim. Hoerth 1961: 33 no. 34.
Confidence 100
Source Hoerth, A. 1961. Gameboards in the Ancient Near East. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.495
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Deir el-Medineh. Schiaparelli 1927: 175-179, figs. 159-160.
Confidence 100
Source Schiaparelli, E. 1927. Relazione sui lavori della missione archeologica Italiana in Egitto II. Turin.

Id DLP.Evidence.496
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Deir el-Medineh. Kendall 1991: 148, fig. 141.
Confidence 100
Source Kendall, T, 1991. Le jeu des <>. In R. May (ed.) Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseilles: Musées de Marseilles, 148–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.497
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Drah Abu el-Naga. Mariette 1889: 17, pl. LII (a).
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.498
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Maspero 1883: 299f.
Confidence 100
Source Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.499
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Prisse d’Avennes 1846: 741.
Confidence 100
Source Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Id DLP.Evidence.500
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Prisse d’Avennes 1847: 9, pl. XLIX (4).
Confidence 100
Source Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Id DLP.Evidence.501
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Hoerth 1961: 24, no. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Hoerth, A. 1961. Gameboards in the Ancient Near East. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.502
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Falkener 1892: 28-32.
Confidence 100
Source Falkener, E. 1892. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.503
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Hayes 1959: 198-199.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.504
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 29°56'25.60"N, 31° 9'5.13"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Zawiet el-Aryan. Rothöhler 1996: nr H33.
Confidence 100
Source Rothöhler, B. 1996. Ägyptischer Brettspiele außer Senet. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Id DLP.Evidence.505
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 22°46'32.56"N, 32°35'49.31"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Kubban. Firth 1927: 49, 83.
Confidence 100
Source Firth, C.M. 1927. The Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1910–1911. Cairo: National Printing Department.

Id DLP.Evidence.506
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°30'15.88"N, 34°28'39.06"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Gaza. Petrie 1933: pl. 28, 25.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W.M.F. 1933. Ancient Gaza III. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.507
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 26°11'0.40"N, 31°55'21.50"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Abydos. Hayes 1959: 198, fig. 113.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.508
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Daressy 1902: 31-32, pl. IX.
Confidence 100
Source Daressy, G. 1902. Fouilles de la Vallée des Rois 1889–1899. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

Id DLP.Evidence.509
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Maspero 1897: 86.
Confidence 100
Source Maspero, G. 1897. Les jeux de dames en Égypte. Bibliotèque Égyptologique 5: 83–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.510
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Hayes 1935: 34, fig 1.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.511
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Hayes 1935: 34, fig. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.512
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, two marked spaces in the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Thebes, Egypt found in the Tomb of Nefer-khawet and his family, a middle-class family buried in Thebes, Egypt. Hayes 1935: 32. Only the square inlays for the playing pieces survive, with markings in two spaces on the central row.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.513
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Pieper 1909: 4, fig. 5(b).
Confidence 100
Source Pieper, M. 1909. Das Brettspiel der alten Ägypter. Berlin: Weidmännische Buchhandlung.

Id DLP.Evidence.514
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 5, 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.10.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.515
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Southern Levant
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from the southern Levant. Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem 1992: 74.
Confidence 100
Source Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem. 1992. Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, Guide to Collection. Jerusalem: R. Sirkis Publishers Ltd.

Id DLP.Evidence.516
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from an elite tomb at Asasif (Thebes), Egypt. Hayes 1959: 25, fig. 10.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.517
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Drah Abu el-Naga, Egypt found in an elite tomb. Mariette 1889, pp. 16-17, pl. LI.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.518
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 4, 8, 12, 16, 20.
Content Double 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Refat 1972.
Confidence 100
Source Refat, W. 1972. Le jeu de trente cases dans l’Égypte ancienne. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Université libre, Brussels, Belgium.

Id DLP.Evidence.519
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°24'28.24"N, 34°49'48.55"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Beit Mirsim. Erdös 1986: 70, pl. 32.
Confidence 100
Source Erdös, S. 1986. Les tabliers de jeu de l’Orient ancien, Maîtrise d’archéologie orientale. Paris: Sorbonne.

Id DLP.Evidence.520
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°50'18.71"N, 45°28'50.65"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Abu Hatab. Heinrich 1931: 146, pl. 76.9.
Confidence 100
Source Heinrich, E. 1931. Fara: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen der deutschen Orient-gesellschaft in Fara und Abu Hatab 1902/1903. Berlin.

Id DLP.Evidence.521
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°15'55.53"N, 42°18'11.08"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell as-Sib. Harrak 1987: 57.
Confidence 100
Source Harrak, A. 1987. Assyria and Hanigalbat: A Historical Reconstruction of Bilateral Relations from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Twelfth Centuries BC. New York: Hildesheim.

Id DLP.Evidence.522
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board in secondary context from Uruk, Mesopotamia. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 805.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.523
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 12 or 16.
Content 20 Squares game board on a brick from Uruk. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 806.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.524
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.1.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.525
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.2.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.526
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.3.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.527
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.4.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.528
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules number of spaces, markings in squares
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari (Parrot 1958: 46-47)
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.529
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in squares 8, 14.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 182, fig. 211.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.530
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 182, fig. 211.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.531
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Identical to DLP.Evidence.532. Parrot 1958: 247, fig. 291.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.532
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Identical to DLP.Evidence.531. Parrot 1958: 247, fig. 291.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.533
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 258, fig. 333.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.534
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from a palace at Uruk. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 804.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.535
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.536
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 131.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.537
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb.. Madjidzadeh 2003: 136.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.538
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 133.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.539
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 135.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.540
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 28°19'51.00"N, 56°52'3.00"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tepe Yahya. Lamberg-Karlovsky 1988: 76, pl. XX.C.
Confidence 100
Source Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 1988. The ‘intercultural style” carved vessels. Iranica Antiqua 23: 45–95.

Id DLP.Evidence.541
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°53'16.22"N, 33°36'13.83"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found on the surface at Hala Sultan Tekke. Only the central row is preserved. Swiny 1986: 40, fig. 57:d..
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.542
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Susa. de Mecquenem 1943: 44, fig. 39.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1943. Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse, Vol. XIX. Paris.

Id DLP.Evidence.543
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 34°41'53.92"N, 32°35'38.07"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 0001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the dromos of a tomb at Kouklia Skales, Cyprus. Swiny 1986: 38, fig. 43:c.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.544
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur. May 1991: 150, fig. 142.
Confidence 100
Source May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.545
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. Oppenheim 1962: pl. 42.e.
Confidence 100
Source Oppenheim, M. 1962. Tell Halaf IV: Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Id DLP.Evidence.546
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. Oppenheim 1962: pl. 42.f.
Confidence 100
Source Oppenheim, M. 1962. Tell Halaf IV: Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Id DLP.Evidence.547
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 117, fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.548
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-02BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 117, fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.549
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content Twenty Squares game board found in a courtyard at Hama. Fugmann 1958: fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.550
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.551
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.552
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.553
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia, in the University of Pennsylvania Museum. B16562. Woolley 1962: 111).
Confidence 100
Source Woollet, L. 1962. Ur Excavations Vol. IX: The Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods. London: British Museum.

Id DLP.Evidence.554
Type Artifact
Game 20 Squares
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia, now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum. B16498. University of Pennsylvania Online Collection Database.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.555
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 30°38'59.39"N, 61°23'59.85"E
Ruleset Historical Information
Date 3000-01-01BCE - 2001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them.
Content 20 Squares game board from Sharh-i-Sokhta, Iran found in a tomb. Piperno & Salvatore 1983: fig 6.
Confidence 100
Source Piperno, M and S. Salvatori. 1983. Recent results and new perspectives from the research at the graveyard of Shahr-I-Sokhta, Sistan, Iran. Annali 43: 172–191.

Id DLP.Evidence.556
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Historical Information
Date 3000-01-01BCE - 2001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia found in an elite tomb. Woolley 1934: pl. 95a.
Confidence 100
Source Woolley, C.L. 1934. Ur Excavations. Volume 2, The Royal Cemetery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.557
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Historical Information
Date 3000-01-01BCE - 2001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia found in an elite tomb. Wooley 1934: pl 95b.
Confidence 100
Source Woolley, C.L. 1934. Ur Excavations. Volume 2, The Royal Cemetery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.558
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Historical Information
Date 3000-01-01BCE - 2001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia found in an elite tomb. Woolley 1934: pl.96.
Confidence 100
Source Woolley, C.L. 1934. Ur Excavations. Volume 2, The Royal Cemetery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.559
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°24'40.36"N, 33°50'8.50"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules Outer arc of spaces, inner line of spaces, spaces 6, 20 and 25 are marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Acemhuyuk. Broken, violin-shaped type. Larger holes for beginning and "goal" space. Ozguc 1966: 46, pl. XXI.1, fig 3.
Confidence 100
Source Ozgüc, T. 1986. Kültepe-Kanesh II. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.

Id DLP.Evidence.560
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°24'40.36"N, 33°50'8.50"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules Outer arc of spaces, inner row of spaces, space 25 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Acemhuyuk. Metropolitan Museum of Art 36.70.37a2 and 36.70.37g, (Dunn-Vaturi 2012)
Confidence 100
Source Dunn-Vaturi, A.-E. 2012. 'Un jeu de 58 trous parmi les ivoires Pratt.' Histoire Antique et Médiévale HS 33: 62–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.561
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°24'40.36"N, 33°50'8.50"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules Outer arc of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Acemhuyuk. Ozguc 1986: 83, pl. 62, 2a-b.
Confidence 100
Source Ozgüc, T. 1986. Kültepe-Kanesh II. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.

Id DLP.Evidence.562
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 40° 1'10.75"N, 34°36'54.98"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Bogazköy, Anatolia. Bittel 1937: 22, pl. 14, 13; Ellis and Buchanan 1966:S.193 Anm.3.
Confidence 100
Source Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Bittel, K. 1937. Bogazköy, die kleinfunde der grabungen, 1906–1912. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs.

Id DLP.Evidence.563
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°44'19.15"N, 35° 5'25.82"E
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Karahuyuk. Identified but not illustrated. Ozguc 1986: 82.
Confidence 100
Source Ozgüc, T. 1986. Kültepe-Kanesh II. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.

Id DLP.Evidence.564
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°51'2.33"N, 35°38'4.98"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Kültepe. Ozguc 1986: 81-83, pl. 132.7.
Confidence 100
Source Ozgüc, T. 1986. Kültepe-Kanesh II. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.

Id DLP.Evidence.565
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°51'2.33"N, 35°38'4.98"E
Ruleset Crossover 1
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 61 holes, with lines connecting holes 6 and 8 (they may connect 6 with 8 in the other row; the lines intersect); 15 is connected to 20, and 20 to 25.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Kultepe, (Ozguc 1986: 81-83, pl. 132.9)
Confidence 100
Source Ozgüc, T. 1986. Kültepe-Kanesh II. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.

Id DLP.Evidence.566
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Kerman
Ruleset Crossover 2
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 63 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of holes. Lines connect holes 6 in each of the inner rows, and hole 8 with hole 10 in the other row. Hole 21 is connected to hole 6 on each side..
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board. Finkel 2020: 46-47. British Museum website, 2003, 1201.1.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.567
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 21°55'18.58"N, 31°17'5.37"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 2100-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the fortress at Buhen. Pictured in publication with DLP.Evidence.568. Emery 1979: 146, no. 1525, pl. 103.J.
Confidence 100
Source Emery, W. 1979. Fortress of Buhen: Archaeological Report. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.568
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 21°55'18.58"N, 31°17'5.37"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 2100-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the fortress at Buhen. Pictured in publication with DLp.Evidence.567. Emery 1979: 146, no. 1533, pl. 103.J.
Confidence 100
Source Emery, W. 1979. Fortress of Buhen: Archaeological Report. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.569
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 21°55'18.58"N, 31°17'5.37"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 2100-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the fortress at Buhen. Emery 1979: 145, no. 1275.
Confidence 100
Source Emery, W. 1979. Fortress of Buhen: Archaeological Report. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.570
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 21°55'18.58"N, 31°17'5.37"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the fortress at Buhen. Emery 1979: 145, no. 1275.
Confidence 100
Source Emery, W. 1979. Fortress of Buhen: Archaeological Report. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.571
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 29°12'26.03"N, 30°58'22.45"E
Ruleset Parallel Connections
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6 and 20, 8 and 10 are connected, 15, 25, and 30 are marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from El-Lahun. Petrie 1890: 30, pl. 16; Petrie and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl.XXI, XXII; Petrie 1927: pl.XLVIII, 176; Gadd 1934: 46; Drioton 1940: 179ff; Decker & Herb 1994: 685.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W.M.F. 1890. Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara. London: Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. , Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Petrie, W.M.F. 1927. Objects of Daily Use. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt. , Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6, Decker, W. and M. Herb. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten Corpus der Bildlichen Quellen zu Liebesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz, und Verwandten Themen. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.572
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 29° 8'31.75"N, 30°54'5.98"E
Ruleset Parallel Connections
Date 2100-01-01BCE - 1901-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6 and 20, 8 and 10 connected, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Sedment. Petrie & Brunton 1924 7-8, pls. XXI-XXII; Gadd 1934; Drioton 1940: 179ff; Ellis and Buchanan 1966: 193; Decker and Herb 1994: 683ff.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6, Decker, W. and M. Herb. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten Corpus der Bildlichen Quellen zu Liebesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz, und Verwandten Themen. Leiden: Brill. , Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201.

Id DLP.Evidence.573
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Parallel Connections
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6 and 20, 8 and 10 are connected, 15, 25, and 30 are marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Carnavon & Carter 1912: 58, pl. L; Petrie & Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 45; Drioton 1940: 179ff; Hayes 1935: 250 fig. 160; Vandier 1964: 508f fig. 227 pl.XXV; Decker and Herb 1994: 683ff.
Confidence 100
Source Carnarvon, Earl of and H. Carter. 1912. Five Years’ Exploration at Thebes. London: Oxford University Press. , Hayes, W. 1935. The Scepter of Egypt I. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art., Vandier, J. 1964. Manuel d'archéologie égyptienne, 4: bas-reliefs et peintures, scènes de la vie quotidienne. Paris: Editions A. et J. Picard et Compagnie., Decker, W. and M. Herb. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten Corpus der Bildlichen Quellen zu Liebesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz, und Verwandten Themen. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.574
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Parallel Connections
Date 2100-01-01BCE - 1901-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6 and 20, 8 and 10 connected, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Winlock 1928: 10, fig. 10; Winlock 1942: pl.36; Gadd 1934: 45; Drioton 1940: 179ff Ellis 1966: 193 Decker and Herb 1994: 684.
Confidence 100
Source Winlock, H. 1928. 'The Egyptian Expedition 1925–1927: The Museum's Excavations at Thebes.' The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 23(2): 3–58., Winlock, H. 1942. Excavations at Deir El-Bahri: 1911–1931. New York: Macmillan., Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6, Decker, W. and M. Herb. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten Corpus der Bildlichen Quellen zu Liebesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz, und Verwandten Themen. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.575
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 0500-01-01BCE - 0301-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Egypt. Petrie and Brunton 1924: 7, pl. XXII, 25.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.576
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 60 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 4, 6, 10 marked.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Egypt. Petrie and Brunton 1924: 8, pl. XXII, 13; Gadd 1934: 46; Drioton 1940: 179ff; Decker and Herb 1994: 683ff.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6, Decker, W. and M. Herb. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten Corpus der Bildlichen Quellen zu Liebesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz, und Verwandten Themen. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.577
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Parallel Connections
Date 2200-01-01BCE - 1901-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6 and 20, 8 and 10 connected, 15, 25, 30 marked.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Egypt. Petrie & Brunton 1924: 8, pl. XXII, 12; Gadd 1934: 46; Drioton 1940: 179ff; Ellis 1966: 193; Decker and Herb 1994: 685.
Confidence 100
Source Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6

Id DLP.Evidence.578
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Luristan
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Luristan. Amiet 1976: 97-98, pl. 240.
Confidence 100
Source Amiet, P. 1976. Les antiquités de Luristan. Paris: De brocard.

Id DLP.Evidence.579
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Northern Iran
Ruleset Crossover 4
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0901-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1 and 5, 6 and 20, 7 and 9, 10 and 15, 11 and 14, 25 and 5 are connected.
Content 58 Holes game board from Northern Iran. British Museum website, 1991, 0720, 1.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.580
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 30, 20, 25 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a deposit at the Temple of Inshushinnak at Susa. de Mecquenem 1905: 104, fig. 345) Petre and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Ellis 1966: 195) May 1991: 163, fig. 152.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1905. Offrandes de fondations du temple de Chouchinak. In J. de Morgan and G. Jeequier (eds), Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse VII. Paris: Recherches archéologiques, 61–130.), Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.581
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 5, 25, 30 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the temple deposit at the Temple of Ishushiinnak. . de Mecquenem 1905: 105, fig. 346; Petre and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Ellis: 1966: 195; May 1991: 163 fig. 152.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1905. Offrandes de fondations du temple de Chouchinak. In J. de Morgan and G. Jeequier (eds), Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse VII. Paris: Recherches archéologiques, 61–130.), Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.582
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the deposit at the Temple of Inshushinnak at Susa. de Mecquenem 1905: 105, fig. 347; Petre and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Ellis 1966: 195; May 1991: 163 fig. 152.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1905. Offrandes de fondations du temple de Chouchinak. In J. de Morgan and G. Jeequier (eds), Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse VII. Paris: Recherches archéologiques, 61–130.), Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.583
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 20, 25, 30 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the deposit at the Temple of Inshushinnak at Susa. de Mecquenem 1905: 105, figs. 348-349; Petrie and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Ellis 1966: 195; May 1991: 163 fig.152.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1905. Offrandes de fondations du temple de Chouchinak. In J. de Morgan and G. Jeequier (eds), Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse VII. Paris: Recherches archéologiques, 61–130.), Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.584
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 8, 10, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in the temple deposit of the Temple of Inshushinnak at Susa. de Mecquenem 1905: 106, fig. 351; Petrie & Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Ellis 1966: 195; May 1991: 163, fig. 152.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1905. Offrandes de fondations du temple de Chouchinak. In J. de Morgan and G. Jeequier (eds), Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse VII. Paris: Recherches archéologiques, 61–130.), Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201., Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.586
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 33°58'7.49"N, 51°24'15.31"E
Ruleset Crossover 3
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0901-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaced 5 and 25, 6 and 20, 8 and 10 are connected.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Tepe Sialk. Ghirshman 1939:42ff, pl. XXII, 8; Ellis 1966: 193 n.3; May 1991: 162 fig.157.
Confidence 100
Source Ghirshman, R. 1939. Fouilles de Sialk II. Paris: P. Geuthner. , May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille. , Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201.

Id DLP.Evidence.587
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found on the surface at Ashur. Klengel-Brandt 1980: 119-120, no. 1, pl. XIII, 1.
Confidence 100
Source Klengel-Brandt, E. 1980. Spielbretter und Würfel aus Assur. Alt-Orientalische Forschungen 7, 119–126.

Id DLP.Evidence.588
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, space 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found on the surface at Ashur. Klengel-Brandt 1980: 122, no. 5, pl. XIV, 4a-b.
Confidence 100
Source Klengel-Brandt, E. 1980. Spielbretter und Würfel aus Assur. Alt-Orientalische Forschungen 7, 119–126.

Id DLP.Evidence.589
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, space 4 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a temple at Ashur. Klengel-Brandt 1980: 119-120, no. 2, pl. XIII, 2a-b.
Confidence 100
Source Klengel-Brandt, E. 1980. Spielbretter und Würfel aus Assur. Alt-Orientalische Forschungen 7, 119–126.

Id DLP.Evidence.590
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a temple at Ashur. Klengel-Brandt 1980: 122, no. 4.
Confidence 100
Source Klengel-Brandt, E. 1980. Spielbretter und Würfel aus Assur. Alt-Orientalische Forschungen 7, 119–126.

Id DLP.Evidence.591
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Ashur. Klengel-Brandt 1980: 121, no. 3, pl. XIII, 3.
Confidence 100
Source Klengel-Brandt, E. 1980. Spielbretter und Würfel aus Assur. Alt-Orientalische Forschungen 7, 119–126.

Id DLP.Evidence.592
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°32'32.04"N, 44°25'15.37"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0701-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Babylon. Wetzel et al. 1957: 36, pl. 4.d; May 1991: 156, fig. 148.
Confidence 100
Source Wetzel, F., E. Schmidt, and Mallwitz. 1957. Das Babylon der Spätzeit. Berlin: Verlag Gebr. Mann., May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.593
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 33°21'17.19"N, 44°33'21.52"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 8, 10, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a temple at Khafaje. Hill et al. 1990: 227, 234, pl. 66.e.
Confidence 100
Source Hill, H, T. Jacobsen, and P. Delougaz. 1990. Old Babylonian Public Buildings in the Diyala Region. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.594
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36° 5'54.12"N, 43°19'43.66"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Nimrud. Gadd 1934: 47, no. 4, pl. VII, b; May 1991: 158.
Confidence 100
Source May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille. , Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.595
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a temple at Nineveh. Gadd 1934: 49 (note 2).
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.596
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 8, 10, 15 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Nineveh, Mesopotamia. Nassouhi 1925: 17ff, pl. II; Gadd 1934: 46.
Confidence 100
Source Nassouhi, E. 1925. 'Un curieux monument néo-assyrien en marbre rouge veiné.' Révue d'assyriologie 22: 17–22., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.597
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces. Spaces 10, 11, 8 are marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Nineveh. Gadd 1934: 48, no. 5, pl. VII, a.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.598
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Nineveh, Mesopotamia. British Museum Nr. 91 930 and 12 104. Gadd 1934: 48, no. 6.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.599
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Nineveh. British Museum Nr. 81-7-27, 80-7-19, 327. Gadd 1934: 48, no. 7.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.600
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 36°21'30.54"N, 43° 9'7.59"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Nineveh. Gadd 1934: 48, no. 8; van Buren 1937: 15.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., van Buren, E.D. 1937. A gaming-board from Tall Halaf. Iraq 4(1): 11–15.

Id DLP.Evidence.601
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32° 7'35.17"N, 45°13'59.99"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces. Spaces 5, 15, 25, 30 marked; 10 is hidden in photograph.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a temple at Nippur. McCown et al. 1967: 23, pl. 32.3.
Confidence 100
Source McCown, D., R. Haines and R. Biggs. 1967. Nippur. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.602
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°22'19.24"N, 44°15'38.71"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from the city wall at Nuzi. Starr 1937: pl. 117, L.
Confidence 100
Source Starr, R. 1937. Nuzi II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.603
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 35°22'19.24"N, 44°15'38.71"E
Ruleset Unmarked
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Nuzi. Starr 1937: pl. 123, B.
Confidence 100
Source Starr, R. 1937. Nuzi II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.604
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 33° 5'58.42"N, 44°17'57.21"E
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Unfinished board.
Content 58 Holes game board from Sippar. Gadd 1934: 49, no. 9, pl. VIII, a.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.605
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Mesopotamia
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Mesopotamia. Gadd 1934: 49.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.606
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Mesopotamia
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Mesopotamia. Gadd 1934: 49.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.607
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Mesopotamia
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Mesopotamia. Gadd 1934: 49.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.608
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Mesopotamia
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Mesopotamia. Gadd 1934: 49.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.609
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location Mesopotamia
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 10, 15, 20, 25 marked.
Content Unprovenienced 58 Holes game board from Mesopotamia. Ellis & Buchanan 1966: pl. XVII,a.
Confidence 100
Source Ellis, R. and B. Buchanan. 1966. 'An Old Babylonian Game Board with Sculptured Decoration.' Journal of Near Eastern Studies 25(3): 192–201.

Id DLP.Evidence.610
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0301-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Ur. Woolley 1932: 43, pl. XVII.
Confidence 100
Source Woolley, L. 1932. 'Excavations at Ur.' University of Pennsylvania Museum Journal 23(3): 193–248.

Id DLP.Evidence.611
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0301-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Ur. Gadd 1934: 46, no.2, pl. VIII, b.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.612
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Ur. Gadd 1934: 47.
Confidence 100
Source Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50.

Id DLP.Evidence.613
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board on a brick from Uruk. Becker 1993: 66, no. 810, pl. 51.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.614
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from a production context at Uruk. Becker 1993: 66, no. 809, pl. 51.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.615
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0700-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 25, 30 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a secondary context at Uruk. Becker 1993: 65, no. 807, pl. 51.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.616
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked Holes
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 9, 15, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a secondary context at Uruk. Becker 1993: 66, no. 808, pl. 51.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.617
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°30'15.74"N, 35°30'11.12"E
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Beth Shean. Oren 1973: fig. 41, 37.
Confidence 100
Source Oren, E. 1973. The Northern Cemetery of Beth Shean. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.618
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°30'15.74"N, 35°30'11.12"E
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a tomb at Beth Shean. Oren 1973: fig. 45, 23.
Confidence 100
Source Oren, E. 1973. The Northern Cemetery of Beth Shean. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.619
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°23'11.99"N, 34°26'45.44"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, space 30 marked. Labyrinth-type board, but labyrinth is broken off.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a habitation at Gerar (Petrie 1928, p. 18, pl. 39, 22; Drioton 1940: 179ff)
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W. 1928. Gerar. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt. , Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6

Id DLP.Evidence.620
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 15, 20 marked. Labyrinth with six holes around the final hole.
Content 58 Holes game board from Gezer . Macalister 1912: 416, fig. 501; Petrie and Brunton 1924: 7, 12, pl. XXI, XXII; Gadd 1934: 46; Drioton 1940: 179ff; van Buren 1937: 14.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund. , Petrie, W. and G. Brunton. 1924 Sedment I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt., Gadd, C. 1934. 'An Egyptian Game in Assyria.' Iraq 1: 45–50., Drioton, E. 1940. 'Un ancien jeu copte.' Bulletin de la société d'archéologia copte 6, van Buren, E.D. 1937. A gaming-board from Tall Halaf. Iraq 4(1): 11–15.

Id DLP.Evidence.621
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°34'43.20"N, 35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 marked, "labyrinth" with 8 spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pls. 46-47, no. 220.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.622
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°34'43.20"N, 35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 marked, "labyrinth" with 8 spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1938: pl. 48, no. 221.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.623
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°34'43.20"N, 35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 58 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 1, 6, 10, 20, 25 marked, "labyrinth" of 8 spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 49, no. 222.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.624
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 32°34'43.20"N, 35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Labyrinth
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 10 and 15, "labyrinth" of 17 spaces.
Content 58 Holes game board from Megiddo found in a palace. Loud 1939, pl. 50, no. 223.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.625
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 33°13'40.19"N, 35°13'25.32"E
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, space 6 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Ras el-Ain. Nougayrol 1947: 46, fig. 8.
Confidence 100
Source Nougayrol, J. 1947. Textes et documents figurés. Revue d'assyriologie 41: 23–53.

Id DLP.Evidence.626
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 37° 4'44.40"N, 40°43'37.20"E
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 61 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 marked.
Content 58 Holes game board from Tell Ailun. Moortgat-Correns 1959: 339-345, fig. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Moortgat-Correns, U. 1959. 'Ein Spielbret vom Tell Ailun (?).' InR. von Kienle, A. Moortgat, H. Otten, E. von Schuler, and W. Zaumseil (eds) Festschrift Johannes Friedrich. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 339–345.

Id DLP.Evidence.627
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 40° 6'9.43"N, 49°23'6.77"E
Date 2200-01-01BCE - 1800-01-01BCE
Rules 59 spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces, spaces 7 and 9 connected on both track, spaces 15 and 20, 20 and 25 connected, spaces 1, 30 marked.
Content 58 holes graffiti on stone surface behind rock shelter at Capmali, Gobustan Preserve, Azerbaijan. Shows 2 rows of 11 parallel depressions in center with an arc of 30 surrounding it. 30th hole in arc is larger than the others, as are the first depressions in each of the parallel lines in the center. Depression 15 is connected to 20, 20 is connected to 25. In the parallel rows, seventh and ninth depressions are connected. Crist forthcoming.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside

Id DLP.Evidence.628
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 36°51'15.23"N, 10°20'5.85"E
Date 0145-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 9x8-10 board.
Content Graffiti ludus latrunculorum board from the Antonine Baths, Carthage. 9x8-10 board. de Voogt 2019: 91.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Genders Male
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.629
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 36°51'15.23"N, 10°20'5.85"E
Date 0145-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 8x10-11 board.
Content Graffiti ludus latrunculorum board from the Antonine Baths, Carthage. 10-11x8 or more board. de Voogt 2019: 91.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Genders Male
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.630
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 51° 7'26.64"N, 1°18'45.54"E
Date 0117-01-01 - 0160-12-31
Rules 10x10 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board found in barracks at the Roman fort at Dover. 10x10, made of chalk. Dates from Hadrian to Antonine period. Philip 1981: 167.
Confidence 100
Source Philip, B. 1981. The Excavation of the Roman Forts of the Classis Brittanica at Dover 1970–1977. Dover: Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit.

Id DLP.Evidence.631
Type Artifact
Game 58 Holes
Location 38°10'1.67"N, 44°47'33.98"E
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1550-12-31BCE
Rules Spaces arranged in an arc around two parallel lines of spaces.
Content 58 Holes fragment from Haftavan Tepe. Metal fragment with remains of outer arc and of inner lines of spaces. Edwards 1983:: Fig. 146.2.
Confidence 100
Source Edwards, M. 1983. Excavations in Azerbaijan (North-western Iran) 1. Haftavan, Period VI. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Id DLP.Evidence.632
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 38°12'50.31"N, 62° 2'16.31"E
Ruleset Historical Information
Date 2400-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them.
Content Ivory inlays from Gonur Depe found in the pattern of the Royal Game of Ur from Tomb 2900. Frenez 2018: 20-22; Sarianidi 2007: 152.
Confidence 100
Source Frenez, D. 2018. Manufacturing and trade of Asian elephant ivory in Bronze Age Middle Asia. Evidence from Gonur Depe (Margiana, Turkmenistan). Archaeological Research in Asia 15: 13–33. , Sarianidi, V. I. 2007. Necropolis of Gonur. Athens: Kapon Editions.

Id DLP.Evidence.633
Type Artifact
Game Royal Game of Ur
Location 38°12'50.31"N, 62° 2'16.31"E
Date 2400-01-01BCE - 1900-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 grid and a 2x3 grid connected via their central rows with two with two squares between them.
Content Royal game of Ur from Gonur Depe, Tomb 3210. Frenez 2018: 20-22; Sarianidi 2008: 203-204.
Confidence 100
Source Frenez, D. 2018. Manufacturing and trade of Asian elephant ivory in Bronze Age Middle Asia. Evidence from Gonur Depe (Margiana, Turkmenistan). Archaeological Research in Asia 15: 13–33. , Sarianidi, V. I. 2007. Necropolis of Gonur. Athens: Kapon Editions.

Id DLP.Evidence.634
Type Ethnography
Game Aw-li On-nam Ot-tjin
Location Borneo
Date 1913-01-01 - 1917-12-31
Rules Played on a board of 2 rows of 10, with a larger hole at either end. 2-5 stones are placed in each hole, 3 is most common. Each player owns one row. Player picks up stones in one of his hole and sows them one in each hole following. Player continues sowing until he sows a seed into an empty hole. Sowing happens counterclockwise. When a hole, after sowing, contains the same number of stones that were in each hole at the beginning of the game, they are captured. When a player has no more stones in his holes he loses.
Content Played by the Penihing people in Borneo as documented by Carl Lumholtz: "The Penihings have a game called ot-tjin which I also observed in other Bornean tribes, and which to some extent is practiced by the Malays...With the Penihings the complete name is aw-li on-nam ot-tjin, meaning: play on-nam fish. An essential of the game is an oblong block of heavy wood which on its upper surface is provided with two rows of shallow holes, ten in each row, also a larger one on each end. The implement is called tu-tung ot-jin, as is also both of the single holes at the ends. There are two players who sit opposite each other, each controlling ten holes. The stake may be ten or twenty wristlets, or perhaps a fowl, or the black rings that are tied about the upper part of the calf of the leg, but not money, because usually there is none about. The game is played in the evenings. Two, three, four, or five stones of a small fruit may be put in each hole; I noticed they generally had three; pebbles may be used instead. Let us suppose two have been placed in each hole; the first player takes up two from any hole on his side. He then deposits one in the hole next following. Thus we have three in each of these two holes. He takes all three from the last hole and deposits one in each of the next three holes; from the last hole he again takes all three, depositing one in each of the next three holes. His endeavour is to get two stones in a hole and thus make a "fish." He proceeds until he reaches an empty hole, when a situation has arisen which is called a gok—that is to say, he must stop, leaving his stone there. His adversary now begins on his side wherever he likes, proceeding in the same way, from right to left, until he reaches an empty hole, which makes him gok, and he has to stop. To bring together two stones in one hole makes a "fish," but if three stones were originally placed in each hole, then they make a "fish"; if four were originally placed, thenb four make a "fish," etc., up to five. The player deposits the "fish" he gains to the right in the single hole at the end. The two men proceed alternately in this manner, trying to make a "fish" (ára ot-tjin). The player is stopped in his quest by an empty hole; there he deposits his last stone and his adversary begins. During the process of taking up and laying down the stones no hole is omitted, in some of them the stones will accumulate. On the occasion of the game i described I saw two with eight in them. When one of the players has no stones left in his holes he has lost. If stones are left on either side, then there is an impasse, and the game must be played over again." The drawing accompanying the description is of a board with 2x9 holes with one larger on either end. Caption: "The Game Mancala As Used By The Penihings." Lumholtz 1920:435-437.
Confidence 100
Source Lumholtz, C. 1920. Through Central Borneo: An Account of Two Years’ Travel in the Land of the Head-Hunters between the Years 1913 and 1917. Stockholm.

Id DLP.Evidence.635
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 8x at least 5 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On marble casing stone. 8x5 preserved, 8 spaces in one direction is certain. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.2; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.636
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules At least 9x7 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On marble casing stone. 9x7 preserved. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.1; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.637
Type Artifact
Game Ludus Latrunculorum
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules At least 6x7 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On Lower Greensand (stone). 6x7 preserved. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.3; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.640
Type Ethnography
Game Okwe (Nigeria)
Location Igboland
Date 1921-01-01 - 1921-12-31
Rules 2x10 board, or up to 2x20. Opening arrangement: Each player has this opening arrangement (number of counters in each hole, starting from the leftmost hole): 5-5-5-5-5-5-5-1-1-5-1-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0. The challenger concedes the first move. Opening phase: Player 1 removes the counters in the opponent's final four holes with counters. Player 2 removes the same counters from Player 1's holes, except leaving the single counter in the opponent's final hole, with one counter. Players take the counters from any of their holes and sow them When sowing, the first counter is dropped into the hole from which it just came. If the last counter lands in the opponent's row and the opposite hole contains one or three, theses are taken and added to the store. In place of a move, a player may add some or all of the counters from the store. If the sowing reaches the end of the row, sowing continues from the opposite end hole rather than continuing into the opponent's rows.
Content "No account of the pastimes of the Ibos would be complete without a description of the of the game of okwe. Probbaly this remark applies to the whole of West Africa, as the game is almost, if not quite, universal. It is a recreation more in favour with the elder folk, the old man being particularly partial to it. In order to play the game counters and a properly prepared board are necessary. The board (ubaw-okwe) has two parallel rows of holes. The number of holes varies from ten to twenty per side and the boards are often nicely carved. Some of them are black and polished with long usage and are treasured as heirlooms. The players may be two, three, or four, the opponents facing each other on opposite sides of the board. It is impossible, without taking up a huge amount of space, to write full directions for playing the game. Briefly, the procedure is as follows: Working always from left to right on the board the counters are distributed thus:- 5 counters in each of the first 7 holes. on both sides. 1 counter in each of the next 2 holes, on both sides. 5 counters in the tenth hole on both sides. 1 counter in the eleventh hole on both sides. The challenger always concedes first move. Player No. 1 immediately appropriates (lit: "eats") all the counters in holes 8, 9, 10, and 11, as a sort of nucleus for his working capital. Player No. 2 likewise appropriates a number, but in his case leaves the single counter in hole eleven, i.e. No. 1 is one counter to the good from the start. Players begin where they like on the board but must take all-save one- of the counters from the holes selected, and these must be distributed singly along the row of holes until they are exhausted. The object is so to place the counters that the last one drops opposite a hole in which the opponent has one or three counters. If a player can do this he "eats" the one or three, i.e. he appropriates them. The object is to force one's opponent to move out his counters in such a way that he cannot save himself from the one and three traps. As soon as a player wishes he can replace his playing counters be redistributing his own working capital, but to do this he must drop in the counters singly, one for each hole, and if a surplus remains after passing down all the hole of the board then the process is repeated until all the "eaten" counters are once more in the game." Basden 1921: 134-136.
Confidence 100
Ages Elder
Genders Female
Source Basden, G. 1921. Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London: Seeley, Service and Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.642
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Kiuthi
Location Kikuyu
Date 1903-01-01 - 1936-12-31
Rules 2x5-10 holes (six is the most common), six counters in each hole. The player to go first is selected by one player guessing correctly which of his opponent's hands holds one counter. Play begins from any hole in a player's row. Counters can be sown in either direction. If sowing fails to reach a hole in the opponent's row, the player makes a second move from a loaded hole in the opposite direction, continuing to do so until they can sow in the opponent's row. If the last counter is sown in a loaded hole, the contents are lifted and sowing continues in the opposite direction. Play continues like this until the last counter lands in an empty hole. If the empty hole is in the opponent's row, play ends. If it lands in an empty hole in the player's row, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite it are placed in the store, as well as the final counter. If the next hole in the direction of sowing in the player's row is empty, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite that hole are also placed in the store. Play continues until both players have only single counters in holes. These are then collected and placed in the store of the player whose row they are in. If the number of counters is unequal, the player with fewer counters arranges them in their row however they wish. The opponent then matches this arrangement, placing any extras in the store. If the player has fewer than half of the original number of counters, the board is decreased in size by one hole. If less than a quarter, it is decreased by two holes, and if less than one eight, decreased by three holes. If in subsequent rounds a player regains more than one half/one quarter/one eighth of the original total, the board size is increased appropriately. Play continues until one player has all the counters.
Content "As a child I learned to play the Kikuyu form of the game which they call by the name of "Giuthi"... The Kikuyu do not as a rule have a wooden board as many other tribes do, but dig two parallel rows of six small holes in the ground (six holes a side is the common number but by agreement any number from 5 to 10 holes a side may be played) and into these are placed six round soluanum berries, or sometimes pebbles... One of the players picks up one pebble or berry and putting his hands behind his back, juggles a little and then puts both his closed hands forward for the other player to choose which hang he will have. If he chooses the hand with the berry or pebble in it he has the move. He may then pick up the six counters in any one of the holes on his own side and start his move. He may move either to the right or to the left and if he picks up from one of the end holes he may if he wishes start straight across on to hi opponent's side. He then drops one pebble into each successive hole (starting from the one next to the one where he picked up all six). He next picks up all the pebbles which are in the hole in which he placed his last pebble and starts to move back. This time he must move in the opposite directions from that in which he first moved... each move only ends when the last pebble of a hand is put into an empty hole... The object of the game is to capture all of the pebbles of your opponent, and this is done by placing the last pebble of your hand into an empty hole on your own side, in which case you capture all the pebbles that are in the hole directly opposite it on your opponent's side... As the hole on his side next to the one into which he put his last pebble is empty he has also the right to take the pebbles in the opponent's hole opposite to that...and he removes them and his own pebble that made the capture from the board... If a man moves the pebbles from a hole on his own side and his move comes to an end in an empty hole on his own side without his having had to cross on to his opponent's side, he has to make a further move for he has not yet raided the enemy's camp... game proceeds until all the pieces have been captured by one or other players, or until there are only single pieces left which cannot be moved. The game is then over and each player counts to see how many he has captured, singles that remain on the board belonging to the player on whose side they are... If they decide to have a second game, the player who has the fewer pieces has to put them out, and this time instead of having to arrange them symmetrically, i.e., in sixes, he may put his pieces out in any formation that he likes on his own side provided that he leaves no hole without at least one piece in. When he has arranged them to his liking, his opponent proceeds to put his out in the same order, and the winner of the last game has the opening move of the new game... If the loser has less than half the original number with which the game started (i.e., if in the game which I have described in which each player started with 6 x 6 pieces, B found himself with less than 18 pieces) the he has the right to "cut off" the two end holes on his and his opponent's sie and may elect to play with only four holes a side. Similarly if he has less than nine pieces he may elect to reduce the board to three holes a side, and if he has five pieces only or less he may reduce to two holes a side." Leakey 1936:165-173.
Confidence 100
Source Leakey, L. 1936. White African. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Id DLP.Evidence.643
Type Ethnography
Game Bao Kiswahili (East Africa)
Location Malawi
Date 1913-01-01 - 1913-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. The fourth hole from the right in the inner rows of each player is larger and square. Total of 64 counters. Starting position: in the inner row, the first four holes, number of counters from the right: 0; 2; 2; 6. Play begins with each player alternately introducing the remaining counters in their holes. Each is introduced in such a way as to capture an opponent's counters, by placing it into an occupied hole which is opposite one of the opponent's occupied inner-row holes. The opponent's counters are then captured and sown along the inner row from either the leftmost or rightmost hole. If the capture occurs in the rightmost or leftmost holes in the inner row, or the hole immediately adjacent to them in the inner row, the counters must be sown from the leftmost or rightmost hole (whichever is closest), and sown along the inner row. Captures on these subsequent sowings happen according to the same rules as in the second phase, with certain exceptions explained below. If no capture is available, a counter may be placed in any occupied hole in the inner hole except the square hole, and sows them in either direction. If the square hole is the only occupied hole in the inner row, the counter is placed there and the player sows only two seeds from it in either direction. Moves that start without a capture on the first sowing which end in the square hole stops there without further sowing. One all of the counters are introduced, second phase starts. Players move by sowing seeds from a player's holes. Sowing can happen in any direction, but must continue in that direction throughout the turn except in the special cases below. When the final counter of a sowing lands in a hole in the inner row and there are counters in the opponent's hole in the inner row opposite, these are captured. The captured counters are placed in the leftmost or rightmost hole of the inner row and sown along the inner row. The leftmost or rightmost hole is chosen based on which continues the sowing direction of the move that made the capture. If the capture occurs in the rightmost or leftmost holes in the inner row, or the hole immediately adjacent to them in the inner row, the counters must be sown from the leftmost or rightmost hole (whichever is closest), and sown along the inner row, even if this incurs a change of direction. If the final counter lands in an occupied hole and a capture is not possible, the counters are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter lands in an empty hole, the turn ends. A player must make a capturing move on their initial sowing if it is available. If a capturing move is not possible on the first sowing, no captures can be made on subsequent sowings in that turn. The game is won when the opponent's inner row is cleared of counters.
Content "The Game is in Nyasaland almost exclusively by the Yaos, and even among them it is of recent importation. The game is played by two persons, a special board and 64 marbles or seeds being required. The board consists of a flat piece of wood...on one surface are four rows of shallow round holes (Inyumba), eight in each row or 32 in all. The "nyumba" are regularly placed so that from side to side there are four holes in each line. The fourth hole from the right of each player is in most boards made larger than the rest, often square instead of round, and is called the "village" (mji or musi). The traveling Yao makes his board after the fashion of the other games, i.e. by scooping out the requisite number of holes in any flat piece of ground, pebbles taking the place of the more correct seeds (nam or makomo). For the proper understanding of the play it is necessary to plan out the two opposing front rows into two squares of four holes, one at each end, and a rectangle of eight holes in the centre. The two holes at each end of each front line may for convenience be termed "reverse" and the four holes in each front line between them " optional." The object of the game is to take all the men from the opponent's front row. Definitions. The back rows are those nearest the player. The front rows are the two centre ones. Reverse holes are the last two at each end of the front rows. Optional holes are the remaining four of the first row, lying between the reverse holes and including the " village." Addition.-A player is said to "add" a man when, in commencing his turn, he puts one of the men in hand into a hole. Spreading.-A player is said to "spread" when he takes up all the men from a hole in one of his own rows and puts them seriatim in other holes as far as they will go, beginning with the hole next to that from which he is moving; the latter remains empty. Placing.-A player is said to "place" the men he takes from his opponent. One is put into each hole of his own front row, as in spreading, but beginning at one end. Arrival.-A player is said to "arrive" at a hole when he adds to that hole the last man of those which he is either spreading or placing. Opposition.-Is said to be taken, or to exist, when a player puts, or has, respectively, a man or men in a hole of his front row opposite to one in which his opponent has a man or men. Rules. I.-Each player plays in turn. II.-Each player has, at the commencement of the game, ten men in his front row and twenty-two in hand. III.-Of the ten men, six are in the village, and two in each of the two holes immediately to the (player's) right of the village. There is no opposition when the men are so placed. IV.- A man must be added at the commencement of each move, as long as any remain in hand, i.e., till all are on the board. V.-A man can only be added to a hole already occupied by one or more. VI.-A man must be added to a hole in opposition if there be one. VII. -A move ends when, in spreading or placing, a player arrives at an empty hole. He is then said to "lie" (kugona). VIII.-A man or men belonging to the opponent can only be taken (kulya) by adding a man to a hole already in opposition or by arriving at such a hole. IX.-In such circumstances the opponent's man or men must be taken and placed in accordance with Rules XII, XVI, XVIII, and XIX. X.-If no holes be in opposition at the commencement of a move, a man must be added to any hole in the front row containing one or more, and the resulting contents spread in either direction. Only two men may be taken and spread from the " village " under this rule, and then only if all other holes in the front row be empty. XI.-None of the opponent's men can be taken during a move commenced by adding to a hole not in opposition XII.-A man or men taken from an optional hole by adding may be placed from either end at the discretion of the player. XIII.-When no men remain in hand, the game proceeds by spreading the contents of any hole containing more than one man; if, in so spreading, the player arrives at a hole in opposition, he takes and places the opponent's man or men as before, and continues spreading or taking till he arrives at an empty hole, when the move ends. XIV. -No man can be taken during a move under the preceding rule unless the first spread arrives at a hole in opposition; otherwise the player continues spreading till stopped by arriving at an empty hole, but he must not take any of his opponent's men. XV. -A move must be continued till an empty hole is arrived at. Exception.-If in spreading or placing a player arrives at the village he has the option of discontinuing his move, provided that no men have been previously removed from the village and that it is not in opposition. XVI.-Men taken from the opponent must be placed in the front row. If more than eight men are taken from any hole the placing is continued along the back row in the reverse direction. XVII.-Similarly, spreading is continued from one row to another by proceeding along the new row in an opposite direction. XVIII.-A man or men taken from a reverse hole must be placed from the end hole of the same reverse. XIX.-The direction of moves in the front row-from left to right or from right to left-can only be altered by the preceding rule. So that a man or men taken from an optional hole by spreading or placing from right to left and so arriving at a hole in opposition, must be placed from the right-hand end, and vice versa. XX.-A player loses if, there being no men in hand, he has only single men in the holes." Sanderson 1913: 726-731.
Confidence 100
Source Sanderson, M. 1913. "Native Games of Central Africa." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 43: 726-736.

Id DLP.Evidence.644
Type Ethnography
Game Kiuthi
Location Kikuyu
Date 1972-01-01 - 1972-12-31
Rules 2x5-10 holes (six is the most common), two stores on either end six counters in each hole preferred, 4-9 are also possible The player to start the game is decided as follows: One player takes a stone or seed and hides it in one of his hands behind his back so that his opponent does not know which hand the stone is in. He may place a small wad of mud in the other hand. The two hands are then brought forward and the opponent must guess which hand holds the stone. If he guesses correctly, he begins the game. Play begins from any hole in a player's row, and counters can be sown in either direction. if sowing fails to reach a hole in the opponent's row, the player makes a second move from a loaded hole in the opposite direction, continuing to do so until they can sow in the opponent's row. If the last counter is sown in a loaded hole, the contents are lifted and sowing continues in the opposite direction. Play continues like this until the last counter lands in an empty hole. If the empty hole is in the opponent's row, play ends. If it lands in an empty hole in the player's row, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite it are placed in the store, as well as the counter making the capture. If the next hole in the direction of sowing in the player's row is empty, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite that hole are also placed in the store. *this source says a series of consecutive empty holes also make captures which is not corroborated in Leakey* Play continues until both players have only single counters in holes. These are then collected and placed in the store. If each player has the same number of counters, the game is a draw. If the number of counters is unequal, the player with fewer counters arranges them in their row however they wish. The opponent then matches this arrangement, placing any extras in the store. If the player has fewer than half of the original number of counters, the board is decreased in size by one hole. If less than a quarter, it is decreased by two holes, and if less than one eight, decreased by three holes. If in subsequent rounds a player regains more than one half/one quarter/one eighth of the original total, the board size is increased appropriately. Play continues until one player has all the counters.
Content "KIKUYU, GIUTHI. Among the Kikuyu giuthi is played primarily by young boys when they are herding cattle of goats. Since the game is played on a very casual basis, holes dug in the ground are the most common form of board. Wooden boards are practically nonexistent. Small stones are used as counters, or sometimes the seeds of the mubuthi tree. The board consists of two rows with anywhere from five to ten pits in each. Two-by-eight is preferred. The number of stones in each pit varies from four to nine; six is preferred. At present, knowledge of the game is being lost among the Kikuyu. Even those who can play it, often make mistakes in the rules and have to reminded by a bystander who happens to remember. One of them said, “If you haven’t been herding you don’t know the game.” And many of the boys today have not been herding. There were special names for various pits and for certain moves, but no ones eems to know them now... The player to start the game is decided as follows: One player takes a stone or seed and hides it in one of his hands behind his back so that his opponent does not know which hand the stone is in. He may place a small wad of mud in the other hand. The two hands are then brought forward and the opponent must guess which hand holds the stone. If he guesses correctly, he begins the game. (I wonder if this practice was introduced by Europeans as it appears to be unique.) To make a move, a player picks up the entire contents of any one pit on his own side and sows the stones, one in each succeeding pit, in either direction. When a handful ends, he picks up the entire contents of that pit and sows them in the opposite direction. Each time he picks up a new handful, he changes direction. This complete lack of a mandatory direction is unique to giuthi. One is not permitted to start with a single stone. A move is not considered valid until the player has crossed the border over into the other side of the board. If he lands in an empty pit before this he gets another turn. If, after having crossed the border, he ends in an empty pit on his own side, and the pit opposite contains one or more stones, these stones are captured. The stone making the capture is also taken off. Captured stones are put in some safe place off the board. If the pit making the capture is followed by a string of one or more empty pits each of which has at lest one stone in its opposing pit, these are also captured. The move is over after all captures are completed and it is the opponent’s turn. In any case, the move is over once a player has landed in an empty pit on either side after having crossed the border at least once. If a player cannot make a move because he has only single stones in any of his pits, he loses his turn until such time as he has more. If, at any time, he has none, that game is over. The stones left on the opponent’s side belong to the opponent. The winner is the one with the most stones. As with the Maasai, it is common practice to continue the game into a second phase. One proceeds like this: The person with the less beads replaces them on the board in any arrangement he chooses. Much experience is required to take maximum advantage of this opportunity. Some versions of the game do not require one to replace all the seeds that one has on the board. In addition, if the loser of the first game has less than half of his original number of seeds, he may ask that the board be shortened by two pits in each row, to a minimum of three. His opponent, the one with the most seeds, places an equal number of seeds in each pit on his side opposite to the ones placed by the loser. Some versions require that the winner place double the number in each of his pits, if the loser has less than half. The game then continues as before until one player cannot continue. The second game is begun by the loser; after that the two take turns." Driedger 1972.
Confidence 100
Source Driedger, W. 1972. "The Game of Bao, or Mankala, in East Africa. Mila 3(1): 7-19.

Id DLP.Evidence.646
Type Ethnography
Game Tablut
Location Lapland
Date 1732-01-01 - 1732-12-31
Rules 9x9 board. The central square is the castle, which only the king can enter. There are two sides: one with the king and 8 pieces, another with 19 undifferentiated pieces. The king begins on the castle space, and his associated pieces are arranged with two pieces on each orthogonal side of the king. The opposing side is arranged on the sides of the board, one piece on each of the three central squares on each of the four sides, and one further piece on the next row in on the central square of the row. Pieces move orthogonally any number of squares. Pieces cannot jump. If a piece is caught between two opposing pieces, it is removed from play. The king, when in the castle, can only be captured when surrounded on four sides. Otherwise, it is captured like any other piece. If the king moves to the edge of the board, the player controlling the king wins. If the opposing side captures the king, they win.
Content Tablut. 1. arx regia. Konokis Lappon., cui nullus succedere potest. 2 et 3. Sueci N:r. 9 cum et eorum loca s. stationes. 4. Muscovitarum stationes omnes in prima aggressione depictae. O. Vacua loca occupare cuique licitum, item Regi, idem valet de locis characterisatis praeter arcem. Leges. 1. Alla få occupera och mutare loca per lineam rectam, non vero transversam, ut a ad c non vero a ad e. 2. Nulli licitum sit locum per lineam rectam alium supersalire, occupare, ut a b ad m, alio aliquo in i constituo. 3. Si Rex occuparet locum b et nullus in e, i et m positus esset, possit exire, nisi mox muscovita aliquod ex locis nominatis occupat, et Regi exitum praecludit. 4. Si Rex tali modo exit, est praelium finitum. 5. Si Rex in e collocaretur, ned ullus s. ejus s. hostis miles esset in f g sive i m, tum aditus non potest claudi. 6. Ut Rex aditum apertum vidit, clamet Raihi, si duae viae apertae sunt tuicha. 7. Lichtum est loca dissita occupare per lineam rectam, ut a c ad n, nullo intercludente. 8. Suecus et muscovita in gressibus alternant. 9. Si quis hostem 1 inter 2 sibi hostes collocare possit, est occisus et ejici debet, item Rex. 10. Si Rex in arce 1 et hostis in 3bus ex N:r 2, tum abire potest per quartum, et si ejus in 4to locum occupare potest, si ita cinctus et miles in 2 collocatur, est inter regem et militem qui stat occusis, si quatuor hostes in 2 tum rex captus est. 11. Si Rex in 2, tum hostes 3, sc. in a a et 3 erint, si capiatur. 12. Rege capto vel intercluso finitur bellum et victor retinet suecos, devictus muscovitas et ludus incipiatur. 13. Muscovitae sine rege erint, suntque 16 in 4 phalangibus disponendis. 14. Arx potest intercludere, aeque ac trio, ut si miles in 2 et hostis in 3 est, occidat." Linnaeus 1732: 147-148.
Confidence 100
Source Linnaeus, C. 1732. Iter Lapponicum.

Id DLP.Evidence.647
Type Artifact
Game Bao Ki Arabu (Zanzibar 1)
Location Zanzibar
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Three counters in each hole. Players pick up counters from any of their holes and sow them in either direction. If the last counter falls into an occupied hole, they pick the counters in this hole up and continue sowing. Sowing ends when the last counter falls into an empty hole. If the empty hole is in the inner row, the player captures any of the counters in the opponent's two holes opposite it. Play ends when all of one player's seeds have been captured.
Content "In each hole are three seeds, and two rows of holes for each player. The starting player picks up the seeds from one hole, and passing either to right or to left, drops one into each hole. If the last of the seeds in his hand drops into a hole with more seeds in, all are picked up and distributed till at last one falls into an unoccupied hole. He then picks up all the seeds of his opponent in the two holes immediately opposite. The second player goes on, and the game continues till one or the other captures all his enemy's seeds."Ingrams 1931: 256-257.
Confidence 100
Source Ingrams, W. H. 1931. Zanzibar: Its History and People. London: H. F. & G. Witherby.

Id DLP.Evidence.649
Type Ethnography
Game Mefuvha
Location Bavenda
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 4x6-28 board; between sixteen to twenty is most common. Two counters in each hole except the leftmost on the inner row, which is left empty, and the one to its right which contains one counter. Players sow by picking up the counters in any of their holes and sowing them in an anti-clockwise direction. Sowing continues when the last counter falls into an occupied hole by picking up the counters in that hole and continuing in the same direction. When the final counter lands in an empty hole in the inner row, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite in the inner row are captured; if there are also counters in the opponent's outer row opposite, these are also captured. The player is also entitled to capture counters in any other hole on the opponent's side. The turn ends with a capture and the opponent's turn begins. Play always begins with a stylized move, where the counters are taken from the third hole from the left in the inner row, sowing and making captures as described above. Players may not sow single counters unless there are no holes on their side containing multiple counters. Play ends when one player has captured all of their opponent's counters.
Content "This game is played by men only, on a solid wooden board made from the trunk of a tree, in which four rows of square holes are cut out. At either end there may be two larger hollowed recesses which are used as receptacles for the counters. There are an equal even number of holes in each of the four rows. but there may be any number of holes from six to twenty-eight in a row, the usual number being between sixteen and twenty. Sometimes, instead of on a board, the game is played in little holes scooped out in the ground. There are two players, each man commanding two rows. Each starts by putting two stones or pips into each hole in his own two rows, except the left-hand hole of the front row, which is empty, and the adjoining hole into which he only puts one. The game represents a cattle raid and the stones are the cattle. The player who first removes all his opponent's stones is the winner. Some of the ejaculations, used to describe moves and positions, appear to be archaic words, and could not be explained by the players. Method of Play 1. The moves are made anti-clockwise, and there is a regular opening move which is always followed. 2. Stones are picked up from one hole and placed one in each following hole. If, however, the last stone does not fall in a vacant hole, the pile is picked ip and the stones again dropped, one at a time, in the following holes. This is repeated until eventually one stone ends in a vacant hole. A single move may entail many movements of stones around the two rows before a vacant hole is obtained. 3. When the counter finally comes to rest in a vacant hole in the front row the player shouts "Thuku!" a hit (onomatopoeic, implying that the shot has hit the mark). After achieving a thuku, the player removes all the stones in the hole immediately opposite and the hole behind it on his opponent's side; if there are no counters in the hole immediately opposite, he may not remove those behind and no hit is scored. 4. After scoring a thuku, the player is entitled to a forfeit, the thuro. He may take the contents of any hole on the opponent's side as his thuro. This ends the move, and the next player has a turn. 5. As long as any hole contains two or more counters no single stones may be removed. ... It is tabu to play this game after sunset, for fear that, by playing at cattle raiding after dark, a real raid might be provoked. During the rainy season is it tabu to use fruit pips as counters for fear that hail will fall instead of rain. ... Opening move: B. no. 3, two stones taken, one to No. 2, and to No. 1. Thuku! (I hit). Remove stones from No.6 and No.12 A. Thuro. Take stones from No. 10A. ..." Stayt 1931 (1968):364-366.
Confidence 100
Genders Male
Source Stayt, H. A. 1931. The Bavenda. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.650
Type Ethnography
Game Isolo
Location Sukuma
Date 1979-01-01 - 1979-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Play begins with two counters in each hole. Opening moves: Players place all of the counters in the outer row into their rightmost hole. They then take one counters from each of the holes in the inner row and redistribute them into the outer row, one in each hole. Then, each player sows counters in an anti-clockwise direction beginning from the rightmost hole in the inner row, proceeding, picking up the contents of holes when the last counter falls into an occupied hole and continuing sowing. However, the final counter that would fall into the rightmost hole in the outer row (which should now contain 17 coutners) is not placed there, but rather on the second to right hole in the inner row, which should now contain one counter. Initial phase: In the initial phase, the rightmost hole in the inner and outer row for each player are out of play. All sowing and capturing only occurs on the remaining holes. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. When the final counter of a sowing lands in an empty hole, the turn ends. When it falls into an occupied hole in the player's inner row and the opponent's opposite holes in the inner and outer row are occupied, these are taken. These are then sown in the player's holes beginning with the next hole after the one making the capture. If the final counter of a sowing falls into an occupied hole that cannot make a capture, then the counters in this hole are picked up and sowing continues. Second phase: The initial phase ends when a player plays from the rightmost hole in the outer row. This can be by necessity or by choice. Once this happens, that player must play in all of their holes. The opponent may remain in the initial phase after this point until they play from their rightmost hole. The same sowing and capturing rules as before. Play continues until one player can no longer move.
Content "En position initiale, les pions sont répartis à raison de edux par case (cette distribution est uniforme dans tous les solo, elle permet aux joueurs de vérifier le nombre des pions). Dans la première partie, le trait est adjugé par tirage au sort ou, plus souvent, par accord entre les joueurs. Pour les parties suivantes, l'usage est de joueur à tour de rôle. Pour effectuer un coup, le joueur choisit dans son camp un liha, c'est-à-dire une case qui contient au moins deux pions. Les singletons, donc, ne sont pas jouables –ce que les Sukuma expriment par <>. Ensuite, le joueur prend les pions de cette case de départ et les sème un par un dans les cases suivantes, en respectant la direction obligatoire. Si la dernière graine de son semis tombe dans une case occupée en face de laquelle aucune prise n'est possible, il ramasse tous les pions qui s'y trouvent et enchaîne un nouveau semis. Il peut effectuer une prise si la dernière grain de son semis tombe dans une case occupée de sa rangée interne faisant face aux deux cases adverses de la même colonne. Dans ce cas, le joueur prend le contenu de ces deux cases adverses et le transfère dans son camp, pour enchaîner un nouveau semis à partir de la case de départ de son précédent semis. En un seul coup, il est donc possible de faire plusieurs captures. On peut également procéder à un très long safari en enchaînant des semis sans gain (kutagata). Le coup se termine lorsque le dernier pion d'un semis tombe dans une case vide: le joueur qui vient de <> (kucha) passe la main à son adversaire. Gagne celui qui parvient à immobiliser son adversaire, ce qui se produit lorsque ce dernier n'a que des singletons ou même (très rarement) plus de pions du tout. Jeu de garçons, Position initiale: Pour obtenir cette disposition, le protocole ludique exige que l'on procède de la manière suivante: on commence par la position de contrôle (deux pions par case); puis, chacun des joueurs ramasse tous les ions de sa rangée externe et les dépose dans sa case H/h; les pions sont alors placés comme indiqué par la figure 6. Les joueurs prennent ensuite un pion de chaque case de la rangée interne et les déposent dans la case symétrique de la rangé externe. Après quoi, chacun des joueurs prend le pion de la case I/i, le dépose dans la case J/j, récupère les 2 pions de celle-ci et les sème; parvenu à la case L/l, il enchaîne pour arriver en N/n, et ainsi de suite jusqu'à ce qu'il ait atteint H/h. A l'issue de cette manoeuvre, cette dernière case contient 18 pions. Pour obtenir la position initiale de cette variante, il suffit d'ôter un pion de H/h et de le déposer en J/j. Pendant la phase d'ouverture, les cases H et h, qui contiennent chacune 17 pions, sont des ng'hana (cases privilégiées): tant que leur propriétaire ne les a pas entamées, elles sont imprenable et, de ce fait, les cases I/i se trouvent protégées (de même, réciproquement, I/i protègent H/h). Ces quatre cases, le temps d'ouverturee, sont exclues des circuits de déplacement des pions, si bien que chacun évolue dans un camp rétréci. La durée de la phase d'ouverture est déterminée par la maintien des ng'hana: elle est donc différente pour chaque partenaire. Ainsi lorsque Sud décide ou est contraint de redistribuer les pions de cette case, la phase d'ouverture est close pour lui, il n'a plus de cases privilégiées et son camp recouvre ses dimensions normales. Son adversaire peut toutefois continuer à bénéficier des avantages d'une ouverture prolongée. Quant au reste, les joueurs appliquent, dans les deux phases, la règle énoncée plus haut." Popova 1979: 113-115 (Jeu de garçons).
Confidence 100
Source Popova, A. 1979. "'Isolo,' jeu royale des Sukuma." Cahiers d'études Africaines 19: 111-123.

Id DLP.Evidence.652
Type Ethnography
Game Abalala'e
Location Eritrean Highlands
Date 1971-01-01 - 1971-12-31
Rules 3x6 board. Each player owns the row closest to them and the half of the central row to their right. Play begins with three counters in each hole. During the first phase of the game, the players race each other (i.e., do not take turns) to be the first person to drop the last counter into an empty hole. Play moves from left to right in the row closest to the player, right to left in the central row, and left to right in the furthest row. Upon reaching the final hole in the opponent's row, play continues with the first hole in the player's own row. In the first phase, Players take counters from the leftmost hole in their row and sow them in the appropriate direction. When the final counter lands in a hole with counters, they are picked up and sowing continues until the last counter is dropped into an empty hole. Play continues in phase two in the same manner as before, but the players take turns and the player who "won" the first phase plays first. Players capture counters when placing the last counter of a sowing into one of their own holes which is empty. If the hole is on the left half of the board, any counters in the two holes of the opponent facing it are captured. If the last hole is on the right half of the board, any counters in the opponent's one hole facing it are captured. The player then continues to move using the last counter placed which effected the capture, and placing it in the next hole. This move can result in further captures (if the hole is empty), continuation of sowing (if there are counters in it), or the end of the turn (if hole is empty and there are no opponent's counters to be captured). Play continues until a player has no counters in their holes. The opponent then captures the remaining counters. Players then redistribute their counters, three in each hole, starting from the leftmost hole in their row in the direction of play. The player with fewer counters distributes all of their counters on the board, even if they cannot place three in the final hole of the counting. The player with more counters then places three counters in the same number of holes as the other player, taking any remaining as their winnings. Play continues in this fashion until one player captures all of the counters.
Content "Gabata in the central highlands of Eritrea is played by males and females on boards, or in holes in the ground, particularly in the period of marriages, the latter taking place largely after the harvest season, i.e., between November and January. During the weeks after the marriage the young people associated with the event spend many hours playing gabata, but it would be unusual, at least in public, for the newly married husband and wife to play together, for to do so might appear too intimate or familiar. This highland game was played for the present writer by Abba Pawlos Tzadua of Serae and his colleagues Abba Zacharias of Akala Guzay both of the Catholic Cathedral in Addis Ababa, as wel as by several Eritrean students at Haile Sellassie I University, notably by Michael Yaqob of Akala Guzay and Gabra Sellasé Gabra Amlak of Serae, to all of whom, as to the other players mentioned later, the warmest thanks are due. This game, often referred to in Tigrinya as abalala'e, or "eating," is probably the game msot widely played in the highlands of Eritrea. It is played by two players on a three-row board of sixteen holes, half of which are considered to belong to each player. Each player owns the whole of the row nearest to him and half of the central row to the right. At the outset of the game three balls or counters are placed in each of the eighteen holes.Play then begins, by the two players moving simultaneously—more or less it should be noted, as in Ethiopian chess, or santaraj—with a view of racing each other to an empty hole. Each player would thus start by picking up the entire contents of the left-hand hole in his nearest row (i.e., PLayer A in hole 1 and Player B in hole 10), and would then distribute them one by one in the ensuing holes to their right. On dropping the last of his balls in his or her hand into any hole each player would pick up the entire contents of that hole, and distribute them in turn in the ensuing holes. He would thus move from left to right across his own row, from right to left along his half of the middle row, from right to left across his opponent's principal row, and finally from left to right along his opponent's half of the middle row. Having thus traversed all eighteen holes he would start again in his left-hand corner hole, and proceed as before, unless of course he has already stopped at an empty hole. Such hole was called kwah in Tigrinya, an onomatopoeic word symbolising the sound of the ball alighting on the board. The first player to come to a halt at this stage of the game would be the first to move, and thereafter—there is again a parallel with santaraj—the players would move alternately in accordance with the following rules. Each player would always start in one of his own holes by picking up its entire contents. Following the above specified direction of play he would then distribute the ball or balls he had in his hand one by one into the ensuing hole or holes, which, because of the previous play, now had an unequal number of counters in them. Should the last ball in his hand alight on an empty hole his move would come to an end, but if the last ball landed on an occupied hole he would pick up its contents and continue in this way until finally alighting on an empty hole. On thus stopping in an empty hole the player could under certain circumstances take, in Tigrinya balé, or "eat" the contents, of one or more of his opponent's opposite holes. The rules for such captures are as follows: 1. A player stopping in an empty hole is any of the three holes to his left, i.e., facing two rows of his opponent, would capture the contents, if any of the opposite holes in both rows of his opponent. 2. A player stopping in an empty hole in any of the six holes in the two rows on his right, i.e., facing a single row of his opponent, would capture the contents, if any, of the opposite hole in that single row, irrespective of whether he landed in the first or second row. After making such a capture or captures the player would continue his move by picking up the counter with which he had effected this gambit, and would place it in the ensuing hole. This latter gambit, depending on circumstances, would result in one of the following three situations: (a) the capture of a further ball or balls, if the counter again fell into one of the player's empty holes facing an occupied hole or holes on his opponent's opposite row or rows. (b) continuation of the move if the counter fell on an occupied hole, the contents of which the player would then pick up and redistribute. (c) end of the move if the counter landed in an empty hole (kwah) from which a capture could not be effected, i.e., because the opposite hole or holes on the opponent's opposite row or rows were empty, or because the hole in which the counter stopped was itself on the opponent's side. Players were entitled to count balls and holes in order to estimate how best to play. A player wishing to cancel and repeat a move, on account for example of a miscalculation, would say in Tigrinya aygushetoyn, i.e., literally "I must change," but a player could prevent this by saying "gushetoka," i.e., "you must not change." Play would continue until one player's side of the board was entirely empty and its owner was therefore unable to move. The other player would then appropriate the remaining balls, i.e., those in his holes, and add them to his previous takings. The two players would then count out their winnings by placing the balls they had taken, three by three, into the holes on their own side, and would do this by following the routine order of play, i.e., left to right in the first row and right to left in the middle row. If the two player's takings were not equal the weaker player would fill as many holes as he could, being allowed to occupy the last hole with two or even one ball if he did not have the requisite three. His opponent would fill the corresponding holes on his own side with an identical number of balls to those deployed by the first player and would put the remainder aside as his winnings. Part of the central part of the board would thus be left unoccupied but the holes in that area are continued to belong to their original owners, and were played over in exactly the same manner as before. Play would continue, round by round, until one or other player had captured all the balls, and thus driven his opponent from the field." Pankhurst 1971: 163-164.
Confidence 100
Source Pankhurst, R. 1971. Gabata and Related Board Games of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia Observer 14(3):154-206.

Id DLP.Evidence.653
Type Ethnography
Game ||Hus (Nama)
Location Namibia
Date 1907-01-01 - 1907-12-31
Rules 4x16 board. Can be played with up to 22 holes Two counters in each player's outer row and the right half of the holes in the inner row. The opening move is stylized; Player makes chooses of the following moves and the opponent copies it: Take counters from outer row, seventh from the right: Place one each in inner row fifth and sixth from right; or take counters from outer row, eighth hole from right: place one each in inner row sixth and seventh hole from right; or take counters from eighth hole from right in the inner row: place one each into seventh and sixth holes from right in inner row; or take counters from ninth hole from right in outer row: place one each in seventh and eight hole from right in the inner row. Players then sow from any of their holes in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last counter of a sowing lands in an empty hole, the turn ends. If the last counter falls into an occupied hole, the counters in that hole are picked up and sowing continues, unless the opposite two holes on the opponent's side are occupied, in which case the counters in the opponent's two holes opposite are captured. The captured counters are then sown on the player's side of the board, starting with the hole following the one from which the capture was made. The game ends when one player captures all of the counters
Content "Weit verbreitet in Südafrika und von Hottentottenkindern ebenso gern gespielt wie von Erwachsenen, ist das Grubenspiel, Hus genannt, bei dem ich den Eingeborenen mit besonderem Interesse zugesehen habe, da es Überlegung erfordert und mit Leidenschaft gespielt wird. Ohne Bezug darauf zu nehmen, wie diese weitverbreitete Spiel in andere Teilen Südafrikas gehandhabt wird, seien hier nur kurzdie Beobachtungen mitgeteilt, die ich über diesen Gegenstand unter Hottentotten gemacht habe. a) Das Spiele wird ausgefochten von zwei einander gegenübersitzenden Parteien (I und II) mit beliebig vielen Teilnehmern. Die Parteinmitglieder können jeden Zug gemeinsam beraten, einer führt ihn aus. b) Das Spielfeld besteht aus 4 Reihen von je 16 bis 22 mit der Hand im losen Sande ausgehobenen Gruben, Huti, die sich gleichmäßig auf beide Parteien verteilen. In der ersten Reihe (a) jeder PArtei jedes Loch mit zwei Marken besetzt, in der zweiten Reihe (b) nur die rechte Hälfte jeder Spielfront. Als Marken dienen kleine Steinchen, häufig auch Ziegenmist. c) Vie Anfänge sind möglich. Es kann gesetzt werden: aus a7 in b6 und b5; oder aus a8 in b7 und b6; oder aus b8 in b7 und b6; oder aus a9 in b8 und b7. d) Das Setzen der Marken. Nur beim ersten Anziehen ist es erlaubt, aus der Mitte der einen Reihe in die andere zu setzen. Im übrigen erfolgt das Setzen, ohne ein Loch zu uuberspringen, nur gegen die Richtung des Uhrzeigers. Ein Übergang von einer Reihe zur anderen erfolgt für jeden Spieler nur an der rechten Ecke seines Spielfeldes (seihe Pfeil). Das Setzen besteht darin, daß der Spieler die Marken einer seiner Gruben aufnimmt und einzeln auf die folgenden Gruben verteilt, Diese Marken aufnehmen muß jeder, der beim Setzen mit mehr als einer Marke in einer Gruber endet. Die Marken dieser Grube werden also ausgenommen und weiter gesetzt. Kommt in das lezte Loch, das besetzt wird, nur eine Marke zu liegen, so spielt der Gegner weiter; kommen in das jeweilige letzt Loch, das benutzt wird, zwei oder mehr Marken zu liegen und hat gleichzeitig der Gegner in der entsprechenden (gleichzahligen) Grube seiner Reihe b eine oder mehrere Marken, so nimmt man die eigene Grube, in der man endete, nicht aus, sondern raubt dem Gegner alle Marken, die, kurz gesagt, in der Flucht dieser Gruben liegen (d.h. alle Marken, die in den gleichzahligen Löchern der a- und b-Reihe des Gegners sich befinden). Die geraubten Marken legt man sich nach den Regeln, die für das Setzen gelten, in die eigenen Gruben. Die Zahl der Marken in einer Grube kann beliebig steigen. Gewonnen hat, wem es gelingt, dem Gegner auf dem angegebenen Wege alle arken abzunehmen." Schultze 1907:313-315.
Confidence 100
Source Schultze, L. 1907. Aus Namaland und Kalahari. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Id DLP.Evidence.657
Type Ethnography
Game Bao Ki Arabu (Zanzibar 2)
Location Zanzibar
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 4x7 board. Two counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. When the last counter falls into an occupied hole, the counters in it are picked up and sowing continues. Sowing ends when the last counter falls into an empty hole. When this hole is in the inner row, the counters in the opponent's inner row opposite it are captured; if there are also counters in the opponent's outer row opposite, these are also captured, but not if the inner row is empty. Play continues until one player has lost all of their counters.
Content "Bao is a game played on a board, having four rows of eight holes in it, with the grey seeds of a shrub that grows on the seashore. There are three forms, Kiswahili and two forms of Kiarabu. Kiswahili is very complicated, but Kiarabu is more simple. The debased form is as follows: In each hole are three seeds, and two rows of holes for each player. The starting player picks up the seeds from one hole, and passing either to right or to left, drops one into each hole. If the last of the seeds in his hand drops into a hole with more seeds in, all are picked up and distributed till at last one falls in an unoccupied hole. He then picks up all the seeds of his opponent in the two holes immediately opposite. The second player goes on, and the game continues till one or the other captured all his enemy's seeds. The true for form Arabia is playes, using only seven holes in each of the four rows and only two seeds in each hole. Otherwise it is the same as the form described above, except that all movement is anti-clockwise, and if there are no seeds in the opponent's front like, those in his back line cannot be taken." Ingrams 1931: 256-257.
Confidence 100
Source Ingrams, W. H. 1931. Zanzibar: Its History and People. London: H. F. & G. Witherby.

Id DLP.Evidence.658
Type Ethnography
Game Iyogh
Location Kukuba
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x8 board. Four counters in each hole Play begins with both players placing all of the counters in the rightmost three holes in their row into the rightmost hole. Counters are sown in an anti-clockwise fashion, but they can be sown clockwise only if it leads to a capture. Counters are captured when the final counter is sown into a hole opposite a hole containing one or three counters, and those are take. If the hole opposite the next hole also contains one or three, these are also taken, continuing until a hole with any other number of counters is reached. Instead of taking counters from one of their holes, a player may sow any or all of the counters they have captured, beginning from the leftmost hole. The same rules for sowing apply. The game ends when one player has no counters in their holes.
Content Recorded by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria: "Nigeria, Kukuba Tribe, near Jos, Plateau Pr: Iyogh (K.C. Murray). 2x8 holes. Apparently no stores since captures are held in the hand. The board is called agumu. Four beans (iyogh) in each hole; one lap to the move; one round; moves anticlockwise, but clockwise moves may be made to effect a capture. The players begin by rearranging their beans, both making the same series of moves; X transfers all his beans in F and G to H, and three beans from E, two from D, and two from C to B; Y then makes the same transfers on his row.... When lifting beans from a hole for sowing, one bean must be left in the hole from which they are lifted. Captures are made when the last bean in hand is sown in a hole on either row opposite to a hole containing one or three beans, and these beans are taken. If the next hole in the direction in which the beans were sown, or an unbroken sequence of holes in the same direction also contain one or three beans, these are also taken. Thus, the game seen began by lifting eleven beans from H and sowing them clockwise in G, F...A, h, g...D, the hole opposite e, then contained three beans, and C also contained three beans, so the contents of D and C were taken. A player, when it is his turn to play, may, instead of lifting beans from one of this holes for sowing, enter some or all of the beans which he has already taken, beginning from his left-hand end-hole, and sowing anti-clockwise, or clockwise if the latter leads to a capture. The game ends when one player has no beans in his holes." Murray 1951: 189-190.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.660
Type Ethnography
Game Adjiboto
Location Saramacca
Date 1929-01-01 - 1929-12-31
Rules 2x5 board. Ten counters in each hole Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction, sowing first into the hole from which the counters originally came. Opening phase: In the first ten turns, each player must sow from each of their five holes. Main phase: Captures are made when the last counter of a sowing falls into a hole preceding a hole containing one, three, or five counters. These counters are taken. Any subsequent holes also containing one, three, or five counters are captured, until a hole is reached that does not have one of these numbers of counters. The exception to this is in the first move when no captures are made. Sowing cannot begin from a hole with a single counter. A player wins when his opponent can no longer sow. However, if a player can no longer move, they can redistribute their captured beans into their holes, and if all five can be filled with ten, the game is a draw.
Content "The game is played by two players, each of whom uses five of the ten playing- holes, and an extra hole for captured pieces called his boto, to his right. Each player has fifty beans, which he places ten to each of his five playing-holes. The play commences when the first player, selecting any hole on his side of the board, takes out nine of the beans, leaving one in the hole from which he played, and dis- tributes them, one to a playing-hole, moving around the board in a counter-clockwise direction until the beans in his hand are exhausted. His opponent then selects a hole on his side (in which there will now be eleven beans) and does the same. In the first ten moves of the game, all of the ten playing-holes must be emptied, and it is only after these more or less formal moves, which get the game under way, have been played that the essential tactics can show themselves. The object of the game is to reduce one's opponent to a position where it is impossible for him to move. To this end, beans are captured in the following manner: if, after distributing the beans which have been in a given hole the final bean falls into a hole (the native term being kaba, " to end ") which precedes another hole containing 1, 3, or 5 beans, or any sequential combination of ones, threes or fives, he captures these beans and places them in his bot-the hole at his right hand. The only exception to this rule is the opening move of the game, since the final bean must fall in the hole preceding the one where play was started. This bean cannot be captured. It makes no difference whether the captured beans be in holes on the player's side of the board, or on his opponent's, he must take if. he ends before a hole having 1, 3, or 5 beans. When beans are distributed from a hole, one must be left, nor may a hole containing only one bean be played. Empty holes can only result from a capture.Therefore, when the play has reduced the number of beans, and the holes of one's opponent contain no beans or only one apiece, he is unable to move in his turn, and the game is lost. There is a way, however, in which the game may be tied: after .one player can no longer move, he redistributes the beans in his boto, that is, the ones he has captured in the course of the game, into the holes on his side. If he can fill his holes, or, in other words, if he has captured fifty beans during the play, the game is a draw. This is signified by drawing the finger across the centre of the board, between the opposing holes." Herskovits 1929: 123-124.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.661
Type Ethnography
Game Fanorona
Location Madagascar
Date 1896-01-01 - 1896-12-31
Rules 9x5 intersecting lines with diagonals. Each player has 22 pieces, starting on the intersections of the lines except in the centre position. Pieces move to an adjacent intersection along the lines. Players must capture pieces when possible. Capturing is accomplished by moving to an adjacent intersection to an opposing piece in the continuing direction of the capturing stones movement, or by moving away from an adjacent opposing pieces in such a direction. When an opponent's piece is captured, all other of the opponent's pieces in that line are also captured. Multiple captures can be made, but cannot be done by moving twice in the same direction. Multiple captures are optional. A player wins by capturing all of the other player's pieces.
Content "The fanorona board is a rectangular parallelogram, divided into 31 equal squares. Gather these, in your eye, into eight larger squares, containing four each; draw the diagonal lines in each of the eight, and the fanorona figure is complete. Forty-four movable plieces are required for the game—twenty-two on each side. With the Malagasy these are usually little pebbles and potsherds, or beans and berries. We, however, will cal then the Black and the White pieces. The two players sit opposite each other, having the long sides of the fanorona adjacent to them. The pieces are then arranged on the corners of the angle-points, not on the squares, as in chess or draught. There are five of these long lines on the board, each containing, of course, nine angle-points, and the pieces are thus arranges: Black: First line 1.....9 Second Line 1....9 White: Fourth Line 1.....9 Fifth Line 1.....9 The third, or central line, is occupied by the eight remaining pieces, placed alternately thus: Black 1, 3, 6, 8 White 2, 4, 7, 9 One point remains unoccupied, the central angle-point of the board, the fifth and the third line. The represents the royal seat in the public gatherings, but in the fanorona game it is called the fòibény (navel). The object aimed at by each of the players is, as in draughts, to remove the whole of the adversary's pieces from the board... First, that a piece may be moved in any direction—forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally, to the first station in a direction, if such station be vacant. Second. If there be now no other vacant station between the attacking piece just moved and the enemy's piece along that line, these, whatever their number, are captured at once, as far as they stand in unbroken order on the line attacked. If, however, a vacant position occurs in their line, or another hostile piece is among them, then only the piece or pieces nearest the assailant are captured. Thirdly. The pieces of the enemy may be captured by a retreat as well as by an advance. A piece that has been standing in an adjoining station to some piece or pieces of the enemy may capture it or them by retreating one point along that line, if such point happens to be vacant. The limitation defined immediately above applies in this case also. Fourthly. At the beginning of a game one move only is permitted to the first side. After that side has moved once, any piece that is moved is permitted to run amuck in the enemy's lines, and to go on as long as he finds foes to capture, provided (a) that he does not return immediately to any point he has just left, and (b) that he does not take a foe behind him immediately after taking one in front of him, nor one on his right hand immediately after taking on his left hand, and vice versa. "Don't eat at both ends, like a leech," says the Malagasy proverb..." Montgomery 1896: 151-155.
Confidence 100
Source Montgomery, W. 1896. The Malagasy game of Fanorona. The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine 3: 148–157.

Id DLP.Evidence.662
Type Ethnography
Game Nsumbi
Location Nsumbi
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Two counters in each hole. No captures during the first turn.
Content "B1.1.2: Règles du Sombi: Nous donnons ici les règles les plus simples telles qu'elles valent pour le Nsumbi des Taabwa (Shaba). Les formes plus compliquées seront traités ultérieurement. B1.1.2.1.On dispose au départ 2 billes par case. On ouvre le jeu en ramassant les 2 billes d'une case quelconque et en les égrenant normalement. La prise est interdite a tous les deus joueurs pendant leur premier tour. 2. Si la dernière bille en main tombe dans une case vide le joueur "dort" et passe la main; si elle tombe dans une case occupée mais face à laquelle aucune prise n'est possible, toutes les billes qui s'y trouvent sont ramassées et égrenées normalement. 3. Si la dernière bills tombe dans une case occupée de la rangée intérieure face à laquelle se trouvent deux cases occupées de l'adversaire, toutes les billes dans celles-ci sont "mangées" et réintroduites du côté du joueur à partir de la case où il a commencé la semaille précédente. Plusieurs prises sont possibles pendant un seul tour. 4. Il n'est pas permis de jouer une bille unique. 5. Est vaincu, celui qui n'a plus des cases contenant un minimum de 2 billes. Il est très rare qu'un joueur arrive à vider totalement le camp de son adversaire." Townshend 1977: 23-25.
Confidence 100
Source Townshend, P. 1977a. Les jeux de mankala au Zaïre, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Les cahiers du CEDAF 3: 3–76.

Id DLP.Evidence.663
Type Ethnography
Game I Pere
Location Dogon
Date 1938-01-01 - 1938-12-31
Rules 2x5 board; the right-most hole is the store. Four counters in each hole. Sowing in an anti-clockwise direction. Play begins by each player placing the counters in their fourth hole into their store. Moves may begin from any of a player's holes except the store. If the last counter of a sowing drops into a hole making it contain two or three counters, these are taken and placed in the store. As soon as a player has thirteen counters in their store, they are picked up and sown, omitting each player's store and takes any counters in the opponent's holes which now contain two or three counters. The player who captures the most counters wins.
Content "I pere. Chaque joueur dispose de 5 trous (numérotés de 1 à 5 de gauche à droite) dans chacun desquels sont disposés 4 pierres. LE trou de droite est dit oho, hogon. Chacun tentera d'y accumuler le plus de pierres possible. Les deux joueurs sortent le contenu de 4 et le mettent en 5. Puis à tour de rôle ils prennent le contenu d'un quelconque de leur trous, sauf celui du <>, et le répandent pierre à pierre, dans leur rang d'abord en procédant vers la droite et dans le rang adverse en allant de droite à gauche. Si la dernière unité est déposée dans un trou ne contenant déjà qu'une ou deux pierres, le tout est pris par le joueur qui le place dans son <>. Le premier qui possède 13 pierres dans le <> les prend et les répartit une à une dans le rang adverse (de droite à gauche) et dans le sien (de gauche à droite), en évitant d'enm déposer dans les <>. Il ramasse alors le contenu des trous adverses de 2 et 3 pierres qui se suivent à partir du <>. L'autre joueur fait le même quand il a réussi à rassembler 13 pierres adns son <>. Puis chacun prend, dans le rang adverse, les pierres des trous qui en contiennent 2 et 3. Celui qui a le plus de pierres est le vainqueur. Le jeu recommence alors, après que le vainqueur a partagé avec l'autre son excédent, en lui infligeant les insultes ou les brimandes suivantes... ...CE jeu ne doit pas être pratiqué après le coucher du soleil, sinon la mère des joueur meurt. Pour éviter ce malheur en cas d'infraction à cette règle, il faut avaler un caillou blanc. Garçons, filles (ensemble). Saison sèche. De jour." Griaule 1938:169-170.
Confidence 100
Source Griaule, M. 1938. Jeux dogons. Paris: Institute d'ethnologie.

Id DLP.Evidence.664
Type Ethnography
Game Gabata (Adowa)
Location 14° 9'47.41"N, 38°53'36.72"E
Ruleset Gabata (Adwa)
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Rules 3x6 board. Play begins with three counters per hole. Each player owns the row closest to them and the right half of the central row. Variant: Can be played with three players, where one player has a full row of six and each other player has two rows of three on either half of the board. Sowing occurs in the following direction: from left to right in the player's full row, right to left in the player's half of the central row, proceeding to the opponent's full row and sowing right to left, then left to right in the opponent's part of the central row, then proceeding back to the player's full row and proceeding as before. Sowing always begins from a player's own holes. When the last counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends. If the last counter falls into an occupied hole, the contents of that hole are picked up and sowing continues. Captures are made by dropping the last counters of a sowing into an opponent's hole which contains three counters, making it have four counters. Captures cannot be made until after the original three counters placed in the holes at the beginning of the game have been moved. Once such a hole is captured, the player owns this hole, but cannot sow from it. When a player captures a hole like this, they may continue sowing from any hole on their side of the board. During sowing, if the final counter lands in an opponent's captured hole, the player captures the last counter dropped and one of the counters from the hole, or just the final counter if the hole is now empty. Play ends when all the counters are captured or have accumulated in captured hole. The player with two or more counters more than the original number captures one hole from the opponent; one hole for every three extra counters, taking these holes from the opponent's left hand holes. If the player only has two extra counters, the opponent gives the player one more counter to make three extra. Play continues as before. Play ends when one player has captured all of the holes.
Content "Gabata in Northern Tigre is played on the three-row board already described for the central highlands of Eritrea, and, again as in those highlands, made use of three balls er hole. The mode of play is, however, radically different, the method of capturing in particular having more in common, s we shall see, with the games of central Ethiopia. The game is, however, played by basically the same cross-sections of the population as further north, and is similarly often a pastime during the celebrations after marriage. The Adowa Area The gabata of the Adowa area here described was played by two Haile Sellassie I University students, Alamayehu Gabra Heywat of Maymesham and Haylu Belay of the Gabriel quarter of the city. The arrangement of the board and direction of plat is the same as in the three-row gabata of the highlands of Eritrea. Normally the game would be played by two players, but three could also play, in which case one would own the whole of one row of six holes, while the two other players would each be allotted two rows of three holes on either side of the board. Players would move alternately (or in the case of three players consecutively) , without racing as in the highlands of Eritrea. The first plater would begin any-where on his side of the board by picking up the entire contents of any of his holes and would then drop the balls one by one in the ensuing holes, picking up the contents of the hole in which the last ball fell, and proceeding in this manner until he reached an empty hole after which he would stop, it being then his opponent's turn to move. EAch player, who could start a move only from one of his own holes, would have as his objective the capture of a hole on his opponent's side, preferably the latter's extreme left hole, known as ayni eda or "eye of the house." (If the game was played by three players each would try to capture the hole immediately after his own block of holes in the direction of play.) The process of capturing, or wagika, the word employed for piercing with a spear, was effected by dropping the last ball in any hand into one of the opponent's holes containing three balls, which were thus increased to four. (This method of capture, as we shall see, is characteristic of several of the games further south). Such a hole was referred to as wegue, but could not be captured until the original clusters of three balls in each hole had been destroyed. A player could under no circumstances pick up the contents of a wegue he had captured, but could tax or "eat" mebelae, from s wegue belonging to his opponent, in which case he would put aside two balls, the last in his hand and one from the wegue, as his takings. Should the wegue become empty the opponent landing there with the last ball in his hand would pit aside only that ball, i.e., not two as previously, but whenever the holle filled again the previous method of "eating" involving two balls would be resumed. A player capturing a wegue continued his move, doing so by moving the contents of any of the holes on his side. The prolongation of the move was known as belu'eka sini, or "escorting." There was (unlike in some other types of gabata) no limitation on the number of wegue a player could capture, and the two players (or in the case of three players, all three)could simultaneously own such holes, for a wegue once captured could not be lost in that round. A player unable to move on account of lack of counters on his side (always excluding wegue holes from which he could not in any case pick up balls) would lose the right to play, but could do so again whenever in the course of play one or more balls returned to any of his usable holes. The round would come to an end when all the balls had been either captured and put aside or had accumulated in one or more wegue. The players would then count out their total takings i.e., those removed from the board or accumulated in wegue, by putting them back in their holes three by three. A player winning two or more than his original complement of counters would capture holes from his opponent, one hole for every three balls captured, and would take these from his opponent's left-hand holes. Whenever a player found himself with an extra two counters, he would gain a complete hole, for his opponent, with one extra counter, would surrender the latter to him. If towards the end of the game a player was reduced to one hole which was subsequently captured as a wegue the capturer would pick up three of the four balls as his takings, thus leaving the other player one counters with which to continue to move. The game would be won when one or other player captured all the holes and thus became the victor." Pankhurst 1977: 164.
Confidence 100
Source Pankhurst, R. 1971. Gabata and Related Board Games of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia Observer 14(3):154-206.

Id DLP.Evidence.665
Type Ethnography
Game Gabata (Aksum)
Location 14° 7'55.67"N, 38°43'8.99"E
Ruleset Gabata (Aksum)
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Rules 3x6 board. Play begins with three counters per hole. Each player owns the row closest to them and the right half of the central row. Variant: Can be played with three players, where one player has a full row of six and each other player has two rows of three on either half of the board. Sowing occurs in the following direction: from left to right in the player's full row, right to left in the player's half of the central row, proceeding to the opponent's full row and sowing right to left, then left to right in the opponent's part of the central row, then proceeding back to the player's full row and proceeding as before. Sowing always begins from a player's own holes. When the last counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends. If the last counter falls into an occupied hole, the contents of that hole are picked up and sowing continues. Captures are made by dropping the last counters of a sowing into an opponent's hole which contains three counters, making it have four counters. Captures cannot be made until after the original three counters placed in the holes at the beginning of the game have been moved. Once such a hole is captured, the player owns this hole, but cannot sow from it. When a player captures a hole like this, they may continue sowing from any hole on their side of the board. During sowing, if the final counter lands in an opponent's captured hole, the player captures the last counter dropped and one of the counters from the hole, or just the final counter if the hole is now empty. Play ends when all the counters are captured or have accumulated in captured hole. The player with two or more counters more than the original number captures one hole from the opponent; one hole for every three extra counters, taking these holes from the opponent's left hand holes. If the player only has two extra counters, the opponent gives the player one more counter to make three extra. Play continues as before. Play ends when one player has captured all of the holes.
Content "The Aksum Area Gabata as played in the Aksum area is little different from that described above for the country around Adowa, and thus once more makes use of three rows of six holes, with three halls per hole. The game was played by Wasihun Tatamke, Amha Sahay and Abraha Berhe, all of the city, now studying at the Baeda Maryam School, Addis Ababa, to whose Director, Walter Grisdale, we are much indebted. The game, as in Adowa, is based on the capture of an enemy hole as wegue, once more prefereably on the extreme left of one's opponent's main row, i.e., on his left. That hole was known as chafa enda, and, to facilitate its capture by his opponent, a player was not allowed to pick up its contents unless they numbered more than three balls, though this was permissible if he had no other counter with which to play. The purpose of this restriction was of course to facilitate a capture in the hole in question. Apart from this restriction the game is as described from Adowa." Pankhurst 1977: 164-165.
Confidence 100
Source Pankhurst, R. 1971. Gabata and Related Board Games of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia Observer 14(3):154-206.

Id DLP.Evidence.666
Type Ethnography
Game Makonn
Location Seychelles
Date 2007-03-22 - 2007-03-24
Rules 4x10 board
Content De Voogt 2013: 160-162 "The players The National Historic Museum at Mah ́e owns one Makonn playing board [access number 0119/99]. It consists of four rows of ten holes and, according to the museum information, was brought in by World War I soldiers as a souvenir. With the assistance of the senior curator Ms Bella Rose and assistant senior Curator Miss Jeanne Pothin, the following players were located near the capital Mah ́e. On March 22, 2007, Barry Marengo (1933–) was invited to the museum and illustrated the game using the museum board. He confirmed that the name was Makonn and that the configuration had always been four by ten holes. He played with stones, although cowry shells are also known to be used, that were placed one by one in each hole and he spread the stones in anti-clockwise direction. Singles were not allowed to be played unless the player had singles only. He had learned the game at age fourteen and used to play in a group of circa eight players. Two days later a visit was paid to Robin Pierre Marie (1934–) who owns a lakanbiz or baka-bar in Pointe La Rue, south of Mah ́e. In his bar there was one Makonn board, a ten by ten draughts board and another board game similar to draughts and known as Damn la tete. On arrival players were involved in playing Makonn. Mr Marie started his bar in 1989 and used a self-made board for play. The players in the bar were mostly taught by the owner although in former days other players, already familiar with the game, had also joined. He started playing the game at age sixteen and also played in Diego Garcia from 1959 onwards with other men from the Seychelles and Mauritius. He later played in Desroches, part of the Amirantes archipelago and Aldabra. In 1988 he left Desroches and returned to Mah ́e where he had resided since he was nine. He was originally brought up on the island of La Digue. The game was not known to him with any configuration other than four rows of ten holes. Since the game is associated with drinking baka, women do not commonly play with men but they are known to play the game in separate areas. Both Mr Marie and Mr Marengo were not familiar with any competition or tournament play for this game. The National Sports Council produced a document in which the game of Makonn is described but the rules cannot be inferred from this description [3]. The following rules were obtained after observing, playing and asking questions about the game of Makonn in Pointe La Rue. The Makonn rules Makonn is played on a board with four rows of eight holes. It needs forty counters, usually stones or shells. Each player owns two rows of eight holes that are closest to the player as well as the counters in those rows. The object of the game is to capture all counters of the opponent. The game can be divided in three stages. The opening The game starts with one counter in each hole. One player begins by rear- ranging the counters in the two rows owned by that player. The player may rearrange these counters in any way as long as they remain on the board and on the player’s side of the board. One counter may be placed in order to capture the opposite occupied holes of the opponent (for capture moves, see middle game). Once ready, the other player may rearrange the other part of the board and, if possible, also place a counter to capture the content of the opposite hole(s). The middle game Once the counters have been arranged, the first player starts a move by picking up the contents of a hole on the player’s side that contains more than one counter. These counters are placed one-by-one in consecutive holes in counter-clockwise direction within the player’s own two rows. When the last counter of such a sowing reaches an occupied hole, that hole is emptied and the contents are sowed starting in the next hole and in the same way and direction. This continues until the last counter of a sowing ends in an empty hole. When the last counter ends in an empty hole the move ends or the player makes a capture. The player can only capture if this empty hole is directly adjacent to an occupied hole of the opponent. The complete contents of the opponent’s hole and, if present, the contents of the hole directly behind this hole in the back row of the opponent, are captured and taken from the board. This game continues until one player has nothing left and lost the game or when one player has only holes with single counters in which case this player enters the singles game. The singles game If a player has only single counters in the two rows of holes, this player is still allowed to play. The player may now move a single counter in the same way and direction, but only into an empty hole. It is not allowed to play a single into a hole that already contains a counter. Captures are made in the same way as in the middle game. Since the game starts with all holes containing a single counter, it is necessary that in the opening game at least one change is made to allow the players to make a move."
Confidence 100
Source de Voogt, A. 2013. "Makonn and the Indian Ocean: East African Slave Trade and the Dispersal of Rules." Board Game Studies 8: 159-164.

Id DLP.Evidence.667
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Mangala (Turkey)
Location Turkey
Date 1979-01-01 - 1979-12-31
Rules 2x7 board. Five counters in each hole Play begins from a player's hole, sowing in a counter clockwise direction. If the last counter is sown in a hole containing one or three counters, they are taken. if the previous hole also has one or three, these are also taken. Play continues until all the holes are empty. The taken stones are then placed five in each hole, and the player with more counters than that needed to fill the holes in their row wins.
Content "A game which is remarkabkle for its particularly wide distribution, especially in Africa, is Mancala (or in Turkish spelling Mangala...In fact, in current Turkish in some areas like Gaziantep in Southeast Anatolia, the game is still sometimes called Mangala. The game is generally played in brazier-like holes, either twelve or fourteen of them In most cases it is played by two players in the following manner. Each player digs seven small holes in the ground in lines opposite each other and places five stones in each hole. Each player in turns picks up all the stones out of any hole on his side, and distributes them one by one counter-clockwise in the other holes beginning at the first hole on the right of the one from which he has taken the stones. Should the last stone end in a a hole which either contains one or three stones (not two), the player may take them and place them on one side; alkso, if the one immediately next to it on the right, in which a stone has been put., contains either one or three, it may also be taken. The game is finished when all fourteen holes are empty. The stones are then replaced five in each hole and the player whose stones exceed the number needed to fill the holes in his line wins." And 1979: 52.
Confidence 100
Source And, M. 1979. 'Some notes on aspects and functions of Turkish folk games.' The Journal of American Folklore 92(363): 44–64.

Id DLP.Evidence.668
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Mangala (Suez)
Location Sinai
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Eight counters in each hole; any two holes on one half and one holes on the other half of the player's row is left empty. Sowing in an anti-clockwise direction. No captures in first two turns. If the last counter falls into a hole that is occupied, these are picked up and the sowing continues. When the last counter of a sowing falls into an empty hole, the counters in the opposite hole are captured. The player continues play by moving the counter that made the capture into the next hole, and continuing play. If the last counter falls into an empty hole and the opposite hole is also empty, the turn ends. When a capture is made, the opponent much begin their turn at the hole after the one where the other player ended.
Content "The Arabian game differs greatly. As a preliminary, any two holes on one side and one hole on the other are left empty; in each of the other nine holes are placed eight cowry shells, which are termed "Dogs." Play begins anywhere on the player's own side of the board, and always goes to the right. "Sowing" is effected as in Puhulmutu, until the last shell drops into an empty hole. If this occur during the first two sowings round the board, in which no captures are made, the player stops, and the opponent begins to play; but on subsequent occasions he "eats" the Dogs in the opposite hole, whether on his own or his opponent's side of the board, as in the Daramutu game. He then continues his play, moving into the next hole the last shell which he had just put down, and sowing the shells out of that one, and so on, until his last shell falls into an empty hole opposite which there are no Dogs to be eaten. The other player then commences, and plays in the same way. After each player has once sown the shells, the succeeding player must always begin at the next hole to that at which his opponent ended, unless it be empty, in which case he begins at the following one containing shells. The game is a rapid one, and ends with the first round, the winner being the person who has "eaten" the most Dogs." Parker 1909: 601.
Confidence 60
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.669
Type Ethnography
Game Mangala (Bedouin)
Location Arabia
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Seventy counters. One player distributes the counters unevenly in the central four holes (central two holes of each row). The opponent then has the option to flip the board around if they are not satisfied with the distribution. Opponent begins play. The first move must be from the fourth hole in the row. Sowing occurs in a clockwise direction. Capturing cannot happen on the first move. If the last counter is dropped into a hole, creating an odd number of counters in it, play ends. If the number is now even and the hole in the other player's row also has an even number, the contents of both holes are captured. If the final hole is now even but the other player's row does not have an even number of counters, the counters are picked up and a new sowing begins. If the final hole has more than ten counters it cannot be captured and sowing must continue from this hole whether the number is even or odd. Play ends when a player has no more counters on their side of the board. The player who has captured the greatest number of counters wins.
Content "Mangala (Bedawi) This game is played with 70 cowry shells, called "Dogs." At first all the shells are deposited by one of the players, without counting them, in the four middle holes, the eight end ones being left empty. His opponent feels them with the backs of the fingers of a closed fist, and if he be satisfied with the distribution he begins to play. In case the arrangement be not to his liking he turns the board round and tells the other player to begin. Play commences on the player's own side of the board, at the right-hand filled hole, and always passes to the left,. The shells are "sown" as in Puhulmutu, but each player stops when his last shell falls into a hole in which it makes an odd number. But in the early part of the game if it fall into one of the holes full of shells they are not counters; it is assumed that the number is an even one, and the player takes all out and continues to sow them round the holes, commencing at the next one. After both players have had one turn at sowing they begin subsequent sowings at any hole on their own side of the board. If, when a player has dropped each last shell, there be any even pairs of shells in opposite holes on the two sides of the board, whether twos, fours, sixes, eights, or tens, beyond which they are said not to run, he "easts" the whole of these pairs. This is the only way in which the shells are captured. The game ends in one round, when one of the players has no shells on his side of the board after his opponent stops playing; and the winner is he who has captured or "eaten" the greatest number. The Bedawi who showed me the game assured me that his people know no other way of playing..." Parker 1909: 601-602.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.670
Type Ethnography
Game Hoyito
Location Hoyito
Date 2002-01-01 - 2005-02-28
Rules 2x6 board. Variants: can be up to two rows of twelve Four counters in each hole A player moves by picking up the contents of one of their holes and sowing them in an anti-clockwise direction. If the final counter lands in an occupied hole, the contents of this hole are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends. If the final counter falls into a hole containing three counters, making it four after the sowing, then these counters are captured and the turn ends. If at any time during sowing a player drops a counter into a hole to make it contain four, these are captured. If a player cannot move because there are no counters in their holes, they pass. When eight counters are left, the player to first capture a group of four also takes the remaining four counters on the board.
Content "Hoyito (also known as El Hoyito, Casitas or Mate) is the generic term used in the Dominican Republic for many different mancala games. Hoyito means "little hole". The games were first described by Víktor Bautista i Roca, who together with Salvador Cases i Majoral interviewed Dominican expatriates in Catalonia (September 2004), and then conducted a field study for three weeks in the Dominican Republic (January-February 2005). Hoyito variants are played the provinces of Barahona, Bahoruco and Independencia collectively known as "El Sur". These provinces are rather poor, and thus have a low population density and a strong emigration rate. They were observed in Neiba, Villa Jaragua, Los Ríos, Postrer Río, La Descubierta and Jimaní, but not in Barahona, the largest town in the area. Generally Hoyito is not played in the centre of bigger villages or along the main road even in smaller villages. It is more popular in the countryside, where it is played outdoor, either in the courtyard or near the river. Hoyito was once enjoyed by everyone, though mostly by women. Today it is a children's game, rarely played by adults who often view it in a depriciatory manner. It is considered a waste of time by many adults and sometimes children are punished for playing it. A woman reported that she was scolded as a girl for playing it because she didn't do her homework, and another person said that children skipped school to play it. As a match takes a long time, players may change. Although there are no competitions, it is widely believed that girls are playing better than boys. Some older people still think that the game invites misfortune. One woman remembered that in old days it wasn't allowed to dig holes on Good Friday, so the board was made on Holy Thursday. The game was played with seeds of bottle gourds (Crescentia cujete) known as mate seeds, but today pebbles have replaced them. The holes are either dug into the earth or drawn on concrete. There are no wooden boards. Sometimes the game is played for a little stake such as glass beads. Today Hoyito has lost much of its former popularity, although it could be argued that the game might be a useful tool to teach children mathematical skills. Hoyito I is almost equal to Ba-awa, except that a four is captured by the one moving, not by the one owning the hole. Rules Hoyito is played by two persons on a board, which consists of two rows of six holes called casitas ("little houses"). Sizes up to 2x12 were also recorded, but are far less common. Initially each hole contains four counters. Initial Position On his turn a player picks up the contents from one of his holes and then distributes them, one by one, into the following holes in a counterclockwise direction. If the last stone falls in an occupied hole, its contents (including the last distributed counter) are distributed in a new lap starting in the next hole. However, if the last stone made a casa ("house"), that is a four, the contents are captured and the turn ends. If, at any moment, a casa is made in any hole of the board, the player who is moving captures these counters. When the last stone is dropped into an empty hole, the turn ends. If a player cannot move because he has no stones in his holes, he passes until he can move again. The player who captured the last group of four but one, also gets the last four seeds and the game ends. The winner of the game is the player who captured more stones. Match Rules Once a game is over another one can be started. The following rules are observed: Each player fills as many holes on his side with four pieces from his captures as possible. The empty holes are not used in this round, but can be recovered in the next game. The winner of the preceding round starts. The player who leaves his opponent with less than four pieces at the end of a game, wins the match. (Bautista wrote "with no pieces at all", but a player with less than four can't claim a hole)." Gering and Bautista I Roca 2005.
Confidence 100
Source Gering, R. and V. Bautista I Roca. 2005. "Hoyito I." Mancala World. https://mancala.fandom.com/wiki/Hoyito_I. Accessed April 23, 2020.

Id DLP.Evidence.671
Type Ethnography
Game Dongjintian
Location 23°25'52.63"N, 101°41'4.76"E
Date 1994-03-01 - 1994-03-31
Rules 2x5 board. Five counters per hole Sowing can happen in either direction. When the last counter falls into a hole, sowing continues if there are counters in the following holes; these are picked up and sowing continues from there. When the hole after the end of a sowing is empty, the counters in the next hole following it are captured. If a pattern of alternating empty and occupied holes continues after this, the counters in the occupied holes are captured, until there are two occupied or two empty holes in a row. Four player variant: Four rows of five holes Five counters per hole Players can sow from any hole. Sowing occurs orthogonally in any direction, and a player can change direction orthogonally at any point in the move, but can never double back. Rules for continuing to sow are the same as for the two player game. The hole from which the sowing continues will always be the next one in the opposite direction from the penultimate hole in which a counter was dropped. Therefore, if the sowing ends when a sowing hits an edge or corner, sowing does not continue. Captures are made in the same way as the two player game, but captures cannot be made when the final counter falls into a hole from which a new direction must be chosen. Captures cannot be made from the central two holes of the board. The player who captures the most counters wins.
Content "The game dongjintian is played in Simao Prefecture, Mojiang County, Jiulian Town (the county seat). The name of the game, which is Chinese, means 'moving (in the) golden fields.'. My principal informant, a Hani, knew no term for mancala in the Hani language. The game for two players is standard (2x5, no stores; five stones per hole, no large stones; pussa kanawa relays and captures, either sense of play, no rounds). But for four players there is a rather unusual game, as follows: Principal informant: Wang Hongbin, 23, male, Hani nationality. Interviewed March 1994. Configuration: The board is 4 x 5, with five stones per hole. There are no large stones. Sectors: None, A player may play from any of the 20 holes on the board. Sowing: The first stone may be sown in any hole horizontally or vertically neighboring the hole being played; subsequently stones are sown forward, left, or right, but may not double back. Thus if a corner hole is lifted it may be sown in two directions; if one of the ten holes on the edge of the board which are not corners are played there are three possible directions, and if one in the middle six holes is lifted, there are four possible directions. If a stone has been sown in a corner, edge, or middle hole and there remain stones to be sown, there are respectively one, two, or three possible choices for the hole in which to sow the next stone. This results in a huge number of possible moves. For example, if four stones are lifted from one of the holes diagonally neighboring a corner, there are 52 different ways in which they can be sown. Relays and captures: These are pussa kanawa, but can only be made straight aead in the direction in which the last stone was sown. That is, after the last stone of a sowing is played, the contents of the neighboring hole in the opposite direction from the hole in which the penultimate stone was sown are lifted and sown. If this hole is empty, the contents of the hole beyond, if any, are captured. This results in diminished possibility of relay and capture. If the last stone lands in a corner, no relay or capture is possible. If the last stone lands in an edge-hole, but the penultimate stone was sown in a middle hole, again there is no relay or capture. Stones lying in one of the two holes at the midpoints of the two internal rows cannot be captured at all." Eagle 1995:57-58.
Confidence 100
Source Eagle, V. 1995. "Some Newly Described Mancala Games from Yunnan Province, China, and the Definition of a Genus in the Family of Mancala Games." In A. de Voogt, ed, New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies, 48-63.

Id DLP.Evidence.672
Type Ethnography
Game Pallankuli
Location South India
Date 1928-01-01 - 1928-12-31
Rules 2x7 board. Six counters in each hole. Play begins from any of a PLayer's holes, even if there is just one. Sowing occurs anticlockwise. When sowing, if the contents of a hole are brought to four, those are picked up and sowing continues until the last counter is sown. If sowing ends in an empty hole, the contents of the next hole are taken and turn ends. If they end in a hole with counters, these are taken and sowing continues. Play ends when a player has no counters in their holes, remaining player takes all the remaining counters. In the next round, the player with the smaller number of counters captured from the previous round fills as many of their holes as they can, starting from the left and filling each hole with six counters. Leftover counters are placed in the player's store. The opponent then does the same. Any holes remaining empty are out of play for this round, otherwise play continues as before. The right to begin alternates from round to round. Further rounds are played until one player has fewer than six counters.
Content "In South India there are several variations of a game known in Tamil as pallanguli, or "Manyholes." In view of the fact that it resembles-superficially, at any rate-the universal African game, and that several notes on the African varieties have recently been published, the following description may be of interest. Pallanguli is played on a wooden board which may be quite plain or may be beautifully carved and ornamented. The board has two parallel rows of holes scooped out. The number of holes varies, but in the particular variation which I propose to describe there are seven holes each side. Sometimes at either end of the board is a large hole for holding the captured pieces. The stones of the tamarind, tiny pebbles, or small cowrie shells are used as pieces, the last-mentioned being preferred because they make an attractive sound as they fall into the holes in course of play. The two players sit down with the board between them and begin by placing six pieces in each of the seven holes on their own side. The first player picks up the pieces from any one hole on his own side, and, moving always in a counter-clockwise direction, places one piece in each of the holes as he goes, leaving, of course, the hole from which he picks up the pieces empty. Having deposited the last piece in a hole containing others (either on his own or his opponent's side) he picks up all the pieces in the hole next the one he ended in and proceeds as before still in the counter-clockwise direction. The move ends when he puts his last piece into a hole next to an empty one. When he does this he captures all the pieces in the hole on the further side of the empty one in the clockwise direction. If this hole is also empty the move ends, but he captures nothing. It is now his opponent's turn to play. He may start anywhere on his own side, and, moving in the counter-clockwise direction, he proceeds in the same way until his move ends in a capture or a blank. Each player plays thus in turn until the board is cleared. During the course of the game empty holes gradually become filled, and as soon as the number of pieces in a hole becomes " four " the players on whose side the " four " is removes them from the board and adds them to the pieces already captured. A "four" is called a pasu, which means a "cow," which is interesting as being a probable survival from days when, as in Africa, the game was a parody of cattle raiding. At the end of the first round, when the board is cleared, each player puts back his winnings, six to a hole, into as many holes on his own side as he can fill. The loser of the first round will not be able to fill all his seven holes, and into the empty holes he puts a bit of paper or leaf or other rubbish to show that it is not in use, and these holes are known as peekkuli, or dung holes. Any pieces left over less than six are retained. The winner of the last round fills each of his seven holes with six pieces and, of course, will have a balance of few or many pieces in proportion to the number of holes his opponent has been unable to fill. The right to play first alternates round by round, and who ever did not begin last round starts off on his own side before, and the game proceeds exactly as in first round, except that the rubbish holes are left out. The game goes on until eventually one or other of the players has not even enough pieces to fill one hole. During any round by skillful play' it may be possible to capture sufficient pieces to enable the player to reopen one or more rubbish heaps, and even, of course, turn the tables on the other, and, consequently, a great number of rounds may have to be played before the game is won outright. Pallanguli is really a women's game in South India, and they play it when the morning's work is finished. Men do sometimes play it as a gambling game. I believe there are penalties for cheating, but I am not certain, as I do not remember ever having incurred any. No deliberate counting of pieces before a move is allowed, but observant and experienced players can tell at a glance what is the best move." Durai 1928: 185-187.
Confidence 100
Genders Female
Source Durai, H. 1928. "Pallanguli: A South Indian Game." Man 28: 185-186.

Id DLP.Evidence.673
Type Ethnography
Game Gifia
Location Umon
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x4 board with two stores on the ends. Six counters in each hole. Instead of owning the row of holes closest to them, players own the holes on the left half of the board. Play begins from any of the player's holes, sowing in either direction. When the last counter is sown, making the hole contain two or four counters, these are captured. If the adjacent holes also contain two or four counters, these are also captured. If the last counter falls into a hole, making it contain a number other than two or four, and adjacent holes contain two or four, the counters from only one of these adjacent holes may be captured. Play ends when each player is reduced to one counter. A second round begins with each player placing six counters in as many of their holes as they can, returning surplus to the store. Play continues as before. Rounds are played until one player loses all their counters.
Content Recorded by K. C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria "Nigeria, Umon, Aro Division, Calabar Pr.: Gifia. 2 x 4 holes and two stores, one at each end of the board. Each player owns the two holes in each row and the store to his left side. Six beans in each hole; one lapt to the move; several rounds; moves can be made in either direction, and go round the board in the usual way. A move may begin from any of the player's holes. When a player has only a few beans left in his holes, he may refrain from moving when it is his turn to do so. If a move ends in a hole making its contents two or four beans, he takes these, and if the adjacent hole on either side also contains two or four beans, he takes these, and if the adjacent hole on either side also contains two or four beans, he takes them also. If a move ends in a hole making its contents other than two or four beans, but the adjacent hole on either side contains two or four beans, he takes from one of theses hole, but not from both. When each player is reduced to one singleton, the round ends and each player takes the singleton in his own row. Each player then arranges his beans in his own holes, putting six in as many of his holes as he can, and returning any surplus beans to his store. The rouns is played in the same way, and rounds are played until one player has lost all his beans." K.C. Murray recorded the first round of a game played by two women in Umon. Murray 1951: 192-193.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.674
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Gundru
Location Tibet
Date 1926-01-01 - 1926-12-31
Rules 8x8 board, pieces are played on the intersections. 16 pieces per player, one player is black, the other white. Pieces begin placed on the edge of the board: Black on the top and right, white on the bottom and left. Sixteen others are held in reserve for each player. Pieces move any distance orthogonally along the lines. Opponent's pieces are captured when they are surrounded by two of a player's pieces. When this is done, the surrounded player's pieces are removed and replaced with the pieces of the player that surrounded them. If multiple opponent's pieces are in a line and the other player places their pieces at either end of the line, all the pieces in between are captured. When a player is reduced to one piece, it gains the ability to capture by jumping, and has to be closed in by two pieces on each side in order to prevent this. The player that removes all of their opponent's pieces wins.
Content "Here is a parlour game, called Gun-dru, for grown-up people. My plan shows the board with the pieces in position for the game to commence. On two sides of the square are sixteen Black pieces; on the other two sides, sixteen White pieces. Sixteen more of each are held in reserve. The pieces can move across any number of squares you please, but must move, or course, along the lines. The purpose is for the one side to take all the pieces of the other, and the game is then won. You can take the pieces not as in your draughts by hopping over them, but by manoeuvring your pieces until they shut in the enemy on one side, thus: BWWB. The two Whites are then dead, and you remove them and put two Blacks in their place. The longer the sequence yo ucan get the better, and the sequence is not broken by going round a corner, thus: W B B B B B B B W in this case these Blacks are dead, and are replaced by Whites from the White reserve. You go on until all the pieces of one side or the other are dead, so that at the end of the game there will be thirty-two pieces of the winning side on the board and none of the losing side. If you get into the position of having taken all of the enemy's pieces save one, this acquires the additional power of taking pieces by hopping as in draughts, so that, to prevent this, it has to be closed in on each side by two pieces instead of one. If it takes a piece it of course replaces it with one of its own; it is thus possible to win, even when reduced to this desperate position, but of course most unlikely." Lha-Mo 1926: 143-144.
Confidence 100
Source Lha-Mo, Rin-Chen. 1926. We Tibetans. London: Seeley Service and Co., Ltd.

Id DLP.Evidence.675
Type Ethnography
Game Mbelele
Location Mba
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Content "Le jeu de Mbelele (Manga: Haut-Zaïre). A3.0. Les Manga (Mba) sont un peuple soudanais qui vit directement au nord de Kisangani. Ils occupent la route Kisangani-Buta entre les km. 17 et 118 (près de Banalia). Ils constituent le saillant situé le plus au sud de tous les peuples soudanais du Zaïre. A3.1. Le jeu de Mbelele est un des plus singuliers de toute l'Afrique. Leur planche de jeu - et ici les mots "tablier: ou "tableau" semblent déplacés- consiste en un morceau peu taillé de bois très léger de l'arbre "kombo-kombo" d'environ un mètre de long dans lequel sont brûlées (et non sculptées) 36 cases disposées comme suit: (Fig 5) Les cases sont nettement moins grandes que celles de jeux à 4 rangées, car il est rare qu'une seule case contienne un nombre élevé de graines. Chaque joueur est la propriétaire de la rangée la plus proche de lui, de la case de bout à sa droite et de celle intercalée entre les 2ème et 3ème paires à sa gauche; ces deux cases s'appellent ses "teka" (pas d'autre sens). Une planche pareille se trouve depuis 1975 au Musée National à Kinshasa. (objet 75.115.1). A.3.2. Règles du jeu 1. Au départ 3 graines sont disposées dans chaque case, y compris les "teka". 2. Le sense du jeu est au choix, mais arrivé au bout de sa propre rangée on rebrousse chemin au lieu d'entrer dans la rangée de l'adversaire. Les deux "teka" sont inclues d'entret dans la semailles qui suit l'ordre de l'alphabet dans la fig. 5: 3. On effectue des captures en terminant sa semaille dans iune case vide de sa propre rangée et en mangeant les graines, que contient éventuellement la case d'adversaire située immédiatement en face. Après une capture le joueur dort et passe la main. 4. Au cas où l'on termine se semaille ans une des deux "teka" (c ou r; C ou R) ce sont les graines de la "take" ennemie correspondante qui sont mangées. Ainsi, X pose sa dernière graine en C il mange le contenu de c. 5. Les graine capturées sont mises de côté hors jeu. Il n'est pas nécessaire de tenir séparés les graines des deux joueurs. 6. On peut jouer une seule graine; celle-ci ne pourra cependant capturer plus d'une graine unique de l'adversaire. 7. Si la dernière graine d'une semaille tombe dans une case déjà occupée, toutes les graines qui s'y trouvent sont à leur tour semées, et obligatoirement dans le même sens. 8. Bien qu'un joueur puisse semer, p.ex. 4 graines de p en q, r, q, et de retour en p (maintenant vide) pour obtenir le droit de manger en face (en B), il n'eat pas oermis d'effectuer un mouvement semblable avec deux graines à partir de q pour revenir manger en face de q. 9. Une graine unique se trouvant dans la case dernière celle choisie pour un nouveau mouvement (compte tenu du sens de ce mouvement) s'appelle "kiba" (pas d'autre sens); une fois la dernière graine de cette semaille déposée, le joueur a le droit de revenir chercher le "kiba" pour le déposer dans la case suivant la dernière ayant reçu une graine, afin de réaliser une capture plus profitable. 10. Le but du jeu est de vider la rangée de l'adversaire. 11,. Une seule partie ne dure pas d'habitude très longtemps et il est par conséquent usuel de jouer une série de parties avant de juger du gagnant." Townshend 1977: 16-17.
Confidence 100
Source Townshend, P. 1977a. Les jeux de mankala au Zaïre, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Les cahiers du CEDAF 3: 3–76.

Id DLP.Evidence.676
Type Ethnography
Game Main Chongkak
Location Malaya
Date 1900-01-01 - 1900-12-31
Rules 2x8/2x9 board with a store on either end. Play starts with same number of counters in each hole as number of holes in the row (6 counters if 6 holes in a row, etc). Store on either end. A player's store is the store to their left. Play is clockwise; stores included when sowing. Played by women. Play begins from any hole belonging to the player. Counters are sowed clockwise: if the final counter lands in an empty hole, in player's own row, they take the counters in the opposite hole and place them in the store. If play ends in the store, they can then take counters from any of their holes and sow again. if play ends in an empty hole in the opponent's row, play ends. if play ends in a hole with counters, those are collected and sowing continues. A round ends when there are no counters left in a player's row. The opponent then takes all remaining counters and adds them to their store. Next round begins with each player taking the counters from their store and placing the same number of counters in the holes as when the game began, starting from right to left. Surplus counters are placed in the store. unfilled holes are excluded from play in this round. Play continues as before. Play continues with as many rounds as needed until one player does not have enough counters to fill a single hole.
Content "Main chongkak, again, is a game played with a board (papan chongkak) consisting of a boat-shaped block. In the top of this block (where the boat’s deck would be) are sunk a double row of holes, the rows containing eight holes each, and two more holes are added, one at each end. Each of the eight holes (in both rows) is filled at starting with eight buah gorek (the buah gorek being the fruit of a common tree, also called kĕlichi in Malacca). There are usually two players who pick the buah gorek out of the holes in turn, and deposit them in the next hole according to certain fixed rules of numerical combination, a solitary buah gorek, wherever it is found, being put back and compelled to recommence its journey down the board. A similar game is, I believe, known in many parts of the East, and was formerly much played even by Malay slaves, who used to make the double row of holes in the ground when no board was obtainable." Skeat 1900: 485-486
Confidence 100
Source Skeat, W. 1900. Malay Magic: Being an Introduction to the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula. London: Macmillan and Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.677
Type Ethnography
Game Mweso
Location Buganda
Date 1912-01-01 - 1912-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. 32 counters per player. Players may arrange the counters however they like in their holes. Players sow by taking the counters from one of their holes and dropping them one by one in an anti-clockwise direction only in the two rows closest to them. When the last counter lands in an empty hole, the turn is over. When the last counter falls into an occupied hole, the contents of this hole are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter falls into an occupied hole in the inner row, and the two holes opposite it in the opponent's rows are occupied, the counters in these two rows of the opponent are taken. They are then sown on the player's side of the board beginning from the hole that received the first counter of the sowing that led to the capture. Both of the opponent's holes must be occupied to capture. Clockwise sowing is allowed in certain circumstances. If a clockwise move from the four holes on the left hand side of the players board (i.e., the left two holes in the outer row or the left two hole in the inner row) can lead to a capture, a clockwise move is allowed. When capturing, the captured seeds made from such a move may also be sown in a clockwise direction if they lead to a capture, otherwise they must be sown in the normal direction. Sowing cannot occur with single counters. The player who can no longer move loses. A player may also win by capturing the counters at both ends of the opponent's rows in the same move.
Content "1. The Board. The board is divided into 32 squares arranged in four rows of eight. The players sit at the long sides of the board so that each has two rows of eight squares before him. 2. The Men. The game is played with 64 men, 32 for each player. 3. The object of the game: The object of the game is to capture all the opponent's men but the game stops when the opponent's men are so reduced in number that he cannot move, or when all the men are taken from the squares at both ends of each row in one move. This last coup is called "Nkutemye":—"I have cut your head off". 4. Commencement of the game. Before the game proper starts each player distributes his men four to each square in his first row. The object of this is to ensure that each player has the correct number of men. Having checked this each player proceeds to allot his men betweenthe sixteen squares on his own side of the board as best pleases him. There is no rule as to the number which may be placed in any square and any square may receive any number of men or none at all...In his own interest he will not place men in squares or rows one and to which are opposite to each other, as this is the position in which his opponent can take them 5. Choice of first move. With the Baganda this is a matter of mutual agreement and they do not usually bother to spin a coin or decide in any other arbitrary way. In second and subsequent games the loser always starts. 6. The move. A player moves by taking all the men which are in any one square (provided there are two or more) and distributing them one at a time to each successive square starting at the square next to the one vacated and moving in an anti-clockwise direction. It does not matter whether a square traversed by the hand is occupied or vacant - each square receives one man and no more. If the last man falls into a vacant square the move is finished, but if it falls into a square already occupied the move is relayed, i.e., the men in that square together with the one which has just arrived are taken up and distributed one at a time to each successive square, still moving in an anti-clockwise direction, and starting from the square on the anti-clockwise side of the square just vacated. (By anti-clockwise side of a square is meant the left hand side of a square in the second row or the right hand side of a square in the first row. if men are taken from the left hand end of the square of the second row the first man is dropped into the left hand end square of the first row. If taken from the right hand end square of the first row the first man is dropped into the right hand end square of the second row.) 7. Taking of opponent's men. If the last man of a player's move falls into a square in the second row which is occupied and if the two squares directly in line with it in the opponent's first and second rows are occupied the player takes whatever number of men are in those two squares and distributes them one at a time to each successive square, moving in an anti-clockwise direction, but starting from the square on the anti-clockwise side of the square on which own side of the board which he last left empty. If, when he has done this, the last man again falls into an occupied square which is opposite to two occupied squares of his opponent he takes whatever men are in those squares and distributes them in the same way, starting necessarily from the same square as previously, because that will again be the one in the anti-clockwise side of the square last left empty. He continues to repeat the operation so long as the requisite conditions prevail, i.e., his last man falls into an occupied square in line with two occupied squares of his opponent. If, however, his last man falls into an occupied square which is in line with two of his opponent's, only one of which or neither of which is occupied he just relays his move as provided under Rule 6. He continues taking and relaying until such time as his move finishes because his last man falls into an empty square. 8. Moving backwards. Moving backwards, i.e., in a clockwise direction, is only allowed in the following circumstances:- (a) It is only permissible to move backwards by starting from the two squares at the left hand end of the first row or the two squares at the left hand end of the second row row. (b) The move must immediately result in the taking of some opponent's men. The distribution of the men may be started from either side of the square last left empty, but in the case of a start from the square on the clockwise side of the empty square the move must immediately result in the taking of some more opponent's men. Having taken all the men possible by moving in a clockwise direction, the player continues his move in an anti-clockwise direction by starting to distribute the last lot of captured men from the square on the anti-clockwise side of the empty square, relaying where possible, and finishing when the last man falls into an empty square. Moving backwards is known as "Okutebuka"—"To go back." 9. Penalties: A player upsetting the board loses the game. There is no penalty for making a mistake in distributing men, but the mistake, if noticed, must be corrected. 10. Counting men. As a square may contain so many men that it is impossible to see at a glance how many there are, a player may at any time count the number of men in any square on either his own or his opponent's side of the board." Shackell 1934: 14-20.
Confidence 100
Source Shackell, R. 1934. "Mweso - The Board Game." Uganda Journal 2: 14-20.

Id DLP.Evidence.678
Type Ethnography
Game Kpo
Location Vai
Date 1896-01-01 - 1896-12-31
Rules 2x6 board with stores on either end. Four counters in each hole. Players sow in an anti-clockwise direction. When the last counter falls into a hole, and it now contains two or three counters, these are captured. VARIANT: 3 player: the game can be played with three players, one player with the first two holes in both rows, the next with the middle two rows in each row, and the last player with the final three holes in each row. The rules are the same except that three counters are placed in each hole at the beginning, and captures are made from the next hole in the direction of the sowing when the last counter causes a hole to contain two or three counters. Sowing may also occur in any direction. VARIANT: 4 player: The same rules as the 3 player variant except each player takes one half of a row as their holes.
Content "Prince Momolu Massaquoi, son of the King of the Vei tribe, described to me the manner of playing the game among the Vei. They all the game Kpo, a word having an explosive sound resembling a note of the xylophone, mimicking the noise made by the seeds or ivory balls with which the game is played when tossed into the holes on the board. The boards, which are made with twelve holes in two rows, with large holes at the ends., are called by the same name. The boards used by the chiefs are often very expensive, being made of ivory and ornamented with gold. He had seen boards which cost 20 slaves. The holes in the boards are called kpo sing or kpo kungo, kungo meaning . "cup." The game is usually played with sea beans, which grow on vines like the potato on the west coast, or by the chiefs with the before-mentioned ivory balls. These seeds are called kpo kunje, kunje meaning "seed." He identified a board from the Gaboon River as suitable for the game, although he said that much more elaborate ones, like those of the Liberian exhibit, were common. The depression in the middle of the board from the Gaboon River is intended to catch pieces that do not fall in the hole for which they are intended. Cheating is practiced, and to guard against it players must raise their arms and throw the pieces upon the board with some violence. Two, three, or four play. The game differs somewhat from that played in Syria and Egypt. A player may commence at any hole on his side. His play ends when the pieces first taken up are played. He wins when the number in the last hole is increased to two or three. He does not take those in the hole opposite. When two play, four beans are put in each hole, but when three or four play three beans are put in each hole. When two play, the pieces are dropped around in the same direction s in the Syrian game, but when three or four play they may be dropped in either direction. When two play, each player takes one side of the board; when three play, each takes four hole, two on each side, dividing the board transversely into three parts, and when four plat, each takes three holes. When two play, a winner takes only what he "kills" (fá); but when three or four play, when one completes two or three in a hole by this play, he takes those in the next hole forward. When a man takes a piece with one next to it, he uses his fingers to squeeze the pieces into his hand, the operation being called "squeezing" (boti), but this can only be done when one of the pieces is in one of the player's own cups and the other one or two in that of an opponent. Players sit crosslegged upon the ground. and when the chiefs play large numbers often assemble to watch them. I have given Prince Momolu's account somewhat in length, as several African travelers have declared the game incomprehensible to a white man." Culin 1896: 603-604.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1896. Mancala, the National Game of Africa. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Id DLP.Evidence.679
Type Ethnography
Game Galatjang
Location Macassar
Date 1859-01-01 - 1859-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Seven counters in each hole. Play moves in an anti-clockwise direction and players sow into the store on their right hand side. A move may begin from any of the player's holes except their store. If the last counter falls into the store, they can sow again from any of the holes in their row. If it lands in a hole with counters in it, these are picked up and sowing continues. If the last counter falls into an empty hole the move ends, but if the hole is in the player's own row, any counters in the hole opposite it are captured and placed in the store. When no more moves can be made, a new round begins and each player fills as many holes as they can by putting seven in each. Surplus counters are placed in the store. Any unfilled holes are excluded from play. Play continues until one player has all of the counters.
Content "Dit spel wordt gespeeld door twee personen, dat zij ieder aan hunne regterhand een groote opening, anrong genamd, hebben, welke dan ook elk als de zijne beschouwt. Nadat de zes, soms ook meer, kleine openingen, kalobeng genaamd, die ieder can de spelers vóór zich heeft, elk metzeven bagôré-pitten, of dergelijke, gevuld zijn, begint men tegelijk uit één der kalobangs aan zijne zijde de pitten te nemen, en telt die, can de linkerhand naar de regter- voortgaande, één voor één in de daaropvolgende gaten, ook zijn eigen anrong niet te vergeten, uit; alleen de anrong van de tegenpartij wordt overgeslagen. De pitjes van de kalobang, waarin men het laatste pitje dat men in de hand heeft, uittelt, dienen om op dezelfde manier voor te tellen. Treft het echter, dat men het laatste pitje juist in zijn eigen anrong uittelt; zoo mag men op nieuw met één der kalobangs aan zijn eigen' zijde beginnen uit te tellen. Op deze wijze gaat het voort, totdat één der spelers het laatste pitje in een ledig gat uittelt, hetgeen dotjo heet. Alsdan gaat de ander voort, totdat ook hij dotjo wordt, waarop de eerste wederom aan de beurt komt, enz. Bij dit dotjo worden, valt op te merken, dat, wanneer men het laatste pitje in een' ledige opening aan zijn' eigen kant uittelt, en er in he tegenover gelegen kalobang pitjes aanwezig zijn, neb zeggen mag: tembami, en alsdan het regt heeft, om die pitjes tegelijk met dat laatste pitje in zijn eigen anrong te gooijen. Dit neemt echter niet weg, dat onze beurt voorbij is, en de ander wederom moet spelen. Wanneer het eindelijk zoover gekomen is, dat één der spelers aan zijne zijde geen pitjes meer heeft, om meê te tellen, neemt men van weêrszijde de pitjes uit zijn' anrong, en ziet, hoeveel kalobangs men daarmede, evenaks bij het begin van het spel, vullen kan. Zoo nu één der spelers één de kalobangs niet met seven pitjes vullen kan; heet dit: nisoe-soeloe-mi si-balla (er is één huis in brand gestoken). Bkijven er twee ledig, zoo sprekt men van: nisoesoeloe-mi roewam-balla, enz.—De ledig gebleven kalobangs worden met het een of ander digt gestopt en mogen niet meer gebruikt worden bij de eerstvolgende partij. Zoodra nu wederom één der spelers biuten magte is om te tellen, vult men op nieuw de kalobangs san zijne zijde met de pitjes uit zijn' anrong, en komt men ook nu te kort, zoo worden al wederom één of meer der kalobangs digt gestopt. Hij, wiens kalobangs eindelijk alle digt gestopt zijn, krijgt een kongkong, of streepje, aan. En het spiel is uit. Heeft men echter het geluk, om bij de tweede of derde, of één der volgende partijen wederom al de kalobangs te kunnen vullen; zoo wordt één der digt gestopte kalobangs op nieuw gebruikt, en zoo duurt het spel soms metfwisselend geluk geruimen tijd voort." Matthes 1859: 82, 898-899.
Confidence 100
Source Matthes, B. 1859. Makassaarch-Hollandsch Woordenboek. Amsterdam: Frederik Muller.

Id DLP.Evidence.680
Type Ethnography
Game Deka
Location Bas-Congo
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Rules Two rows of six holes encircling a larger hole in the center. Two counters in each hole, except the center hole. Players move by removing the counters from one of the holes in their row and sowing them in an anti-clockwise direction. If the final counter of the sowing falls into an occupied hole, these counters are picked up and sowing continues. When the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends. If the final counter falls into a hole already containing two others, the player takes these counters and covers the hole. The three counters are sown beginning with the following hole. When sowing, if a player reaches a covered hole in their row, they skip it and continue sowing with the next available hole. If the player reaches a covered hole in the opponent's row, the counter that would fall into it is instead deposited into the central hole. If this is the final counter, the turn ends. The two holes on the end cannot be closed. It is possible to sow a single counter. The player who can no longer sow from their row loses.
Content "Au Bas-Zaïre on joue le plus fréquemment à même le sol dans des trous creusées à l'aide p. ex. d'une carapace d'escargot. L'emploi d'un tablier en bois fait plutôt exception. Chez les Yombe le tablier comporte 12 cases et une case plus grande au centre, disposées de la maniere suivante... Au Bas-Zaïre des noyaux de noix palmistes servent de pions lorsqu'on joue dans le sol, des graines "nkandi" lorsqu'on joue sur un tablier en bois. Dans le Haut-Zaïre ce sont plutôt les graines de l'arbre pictantus makombo (=ngola). A2.2 Pour énoncer les règles nous nous sommmes tenus au jeu de Deka des Yombe: 1. Au départ 2 graines sont placées dans chaque case, à l'exception du dépôt au centre. 2. Il n'y a pas d'ouverture spéciale: chaque joueur ramasse à son tour toutes les grains d'une case choisie de sa propre rangée et les sème dans le sens contraire à celui des aiguilles d'un montre. 3. Si la dernière graine d'une semaille tombe dans une case occupée appartenant au koueur, ou dans une case de l'adversaire contenant déjà 1 ou plus de 2 graines, le joueur ramasse le tout et continue en les égrenant. 4. Si la dernière graine en main tombe dans une case vide, le joueur dort et passe la main. 5. Si par contre elle tombe dans une case de l'adversaire qui en contient déjà 2 autres, le joueur ramasse les 3 graines et ferme cette case à l'aide d'une papier, d'une feuille, etc. Puis il sème les 3 graines à partir de la case suivante. Plusieurs cases peuvent être fermées au cours d'une même partie, voire d'une même tour. 6. Quand un joueur arrive au cours d'une semaille à une case fermée de sa propre rangée il la saute et continue à semer à partir de la case suivante. 7. Si par contre il arrive à une case analogue chez l'adversaire, il doit verser une graine dans le dépôt central avant de sauter. S'il s'agit de la dernière graine de la semaille, il passe la main. 8. Les deux cases de bout, appelées "nti" (=tête), ne peuvent pas être fermées. 9. Il est permis de jouer une graine unique. 10. Aura perdu le joueur qui ne possède aucune graine lorsque son tour est venu de jouer. Une victoire sur un adversaire qui n'a fermé aucune case en vaut deux. 11. Le fait que dans ces jeux il n'y ait ni captures ni gains, dans le sens strict des termes, mais plutôt des forfaits qui sont versés dans une même dépôt leur donne leur cachet distinctif et a comme effet que la victoire est fonction de la disposition finale des graines et non d'un calcul quelconque de gains." Townshend 1977: 12-13.
Confidence 100
Source Townshend, P. 1977a. Les jeux de mankala au Zaïre, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Les cahiers du CEDAF 3: 3–76.

Id DLP.Evidence.681
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Halusa
Location Mesopotamia
Date 1694-01-01 - 1694-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Play begins with six counters in each hole. Sowing is anti-clockwise. If the last counter of a sowing lands in the player's own hole making it even, the counters are captured. If the contents of the hole before it is also even, these are also taken, continuing until an odd or empty hole is reached. If the last counter makes a hole odd, the turn ends. If a player has no counters in their holes at the end of the turn, the opponent must play so that the player can play on the next turn. Play ends when neither player is able to move; the last player who was able to move takes the remaining counters and the player with the most counters captured wins.
Content "Hic Ludus in Oriente tam apud Arabes quam Turcas frequens est. Ex nomine autem videatur origine Arabicus: ab omnibus enim vocatur (vulgo Mangala), idque propterea quod transferunt calculos a loco in locum et ab uno latere ad alterum. Adeo ut Mancala Latine Tralatorius seu Tralatitius Ludus merito dici queat. Eit autem Mancala apud Mesopotamienses duplex seu duarum specierum, quarum altera quae simplicitor, vocatur Halusa seu Halusi, ab extenuando; altera vero quae elegantior et intricatior, dicitur Bakura, a findendo, aperiendo et dilatando: nam in illa est sinplex Calculorum minutio, in hac autem transferendo dividuntur et dispescuntur in alteram partem Tabellae. De Instrumento in quo hic Ludus exerceri solet, loquitur Thevenotus in Intinerario Orientali, Saepissime ludunt Mancala, quod sit in Pyxide duos circiter Pedes longa et semipedem lata, quae in utraque parte habet sex serobes parvas, nempe 6 in ipsa Pyxide et 6 in Operculo Pyxidi juncto, quod aperitur tanquam scaccarium. Uterque lusor 36 habet Conchylia, ex quibus 6 in initio Ludi ponuntur in unaquaque Scrobe. Dictam Pyxidem aliquando sic mihi formarunt Turcae, ut et Hieremias Sacerdos Graecus, qui hujus Ludi optime gnarus fuit: sed apud ARabes 7 ex utraque parte Scrobiculi haberi solent. Appositae Notae Numerales utriusque Lusoris initium et progressum inter ludendum indicant, et ludendi ordinem monstrant. Tabella ut vides, est sesquipedalis longitudinis, et dimidiae ejusmodi latitudinis, fitque vel ad modum Valvarum, vel ex uno integro Assere crassiore, in quo tot Cavitates seu Cellulae inciduntur. Singularum Cellularum seu Scrobiculorum Diameter commode potest este duarum Uniarum seu latorum Pollicum, cum profunditate unciali; ita nempe ut Calculi extremis digitis facile eximi possint. Sed loco Pyxidis, ejusmodi Schema eandem formam prae fe ferens in plana quavis mensa aut in Charta delineatum, usui ludentium sat commode inservire potest. Luditur quidem vel Fabis discoloribus, vel Calculis sine Lapillis aut Conchyliis, quorum uterque lusor habet (ut dictum) 36, viz. sexies sex, i. e. sex pro squavis scrobe; hic schil. Albos, alter totidem Nigros. Vel si vis, omnes Calculi ejusdem coloris esse possunt: cum non sit opus ut tuos Calculos, sed tantum tuos Cellulas ab eis illius distinguas. His hic modo comparatis, ad Ludum proceditur: et ille cujus est incipere, (quod sortiendo dignoscitur ut in omnibus aliis Ludis,) aliquam ex suis Cellulis (puta secundam) evacuat: nam semper debet evacuare eximendo omnes Calculos, quos in sequentes ex sua parte Cellulas sigillatim et unatim distribuit; et duos reliquos in primam et secundam ex adversis cellulis injicit, ut hoc modo totus exemptorum numerus absumatur. Deinde similiter, lusorum alter evacuat aliquam ex Cellulis suis, (puta quintam) et exemptos calculos distribuit, unum in suam sextam, reliquos vero in 1, 2, 3, 4,5 cellulas adversi lusoris. Notandum enim est, quod ab utroque lusorum quasi in gyrum ludatur; nempe a sexta cellula ex sua parte in primam ex adversa parte, donec rursus incipiat a suis. Lucrum autem et vincendi ratio in eo consistit, quod sc. ille qui ita prudenter suos calculos novit distribuere, ut in aliqua ex suis cellulis aequalem calculorum numerum (puta 2 vel 4) legitime consituat, sintue ex calculis suis solis sive mixtim cum adversis, omnes ex aedem sua cellula reporter tollatque: nam ex adversa parte cellulave non aufert, quamvis numeros ibi effercerit aequales. Et eadem ratione si effecerit ut in pluribus suis Cellulis simul sit numerus par, modo nullus numerus impar sit interpositus. Sed ulterius quam ludendo processeris, non potes tollere. Ideoque tuos ita debes distribuere, ut numerum parem in adversis cellulis relinquas; ne forte adversarius addendo unum, suum numerum faciat parem unde ei liceat talem cellulam evacuare: id enim in ipso actu ludendi ac movendi faciendum est, dum quisque suos motos unatim distribuere tenetur. Et quamdiu numeros tuos habes pares, tamdiu tutus es: quia adversarius addendo unum faciet imparem, quo ille nihil lucratur, tua autem paritas et lucrandi libertas tollitur; nisi quod proxima motione addendo unum, paritatem restituere et ad aequalem numerum reducere potes. Si autem in processu lusu mihi sint aliqui calculi superstites, et non illi; tum debeo itsa movere ac distribuere meos in illius cellulas, ut ille etiam ex sua parte aliquos habeat quibus ludat: alias enim lusus statim finiretur, cum ille calculos ex mea parte seu in meis cellulis tangere non debeat. Si ex mea parte restent plures unitates, tum licitum est pro libitu unam alteri addere, ut fiat numerus par, qui auferatur. Tandem Victoria est, quando alter lusorum omnes perdidit. Hae sunt Regulae Ludi Halusa, qui uno circuitu finiri potest: Bakura autem non nisi pluribus circuitibus." Hyde 1694: 226-230.
Confidence 100
Source Hyde, T. 1694. De Ludis Orientalibus Libri Duo: Historia Nerdiludii, hoc est Dicere, Trunculorum, cum quibuidam aliis Arabum, Persarum, Indorum, Chinensium, & aliarum Gentium Ludis tam Politicis quam Bellicis, plerumque Europae inauditis, multo minus visis: additis omnium Nominibus in dictarum Gentium Linguis. Ubi etiam Classicorum Graecorum & Latinorum loca quaedam melius quam hactenus factum est explicantur. Oxford: E Theatro Sheldoniano.

Id DLP.Evidence.682
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Baqura
Location Mesopotamia
Date 1694-01-01 - 1694-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Each player has 36 counters which they arrange however they like in their holes. Play begins from any hole in a player's row. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. When the last counter falls makes an odd number of counters in the final hole of the sowing, these are picked up and sowing continues. If the last hole is made to be even, these are captured, as well as the contents of the opposite hole. If the previous hole is also even, those counters and those in the opposite hole are also taken, continuing until there is an odd or empty hole. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, play ends. The round ends when one player in unable to move. A new round begins. The player with the smaller number of counters distributes them as they like in their holes. The opponent then copies this arrangement, keeping the surplus of counters. Play continues as before. Rounds are played until one player has no remaining counters.
Content "Bakura quidem iisdem plane instrumentis, sed alio diverso modo luditur. Nam si tuum sit incipere, consultum est lusum ordiri a cellulis tuis medianis, quarum unam prime vice evacuabis, et exemptos inde calculos sigillatum per circuitum distribues, donec aliquos ad aequalitatem adductos lucraberis; et deinde pergas rursus omnes eximendo a proxima uni desinebas cellula: et hoc faciendum est in cellulis quae ex tua parte, ut supra. Et deinde perges ludendo et lucrando, donec tandem desinas in unitate, quae Battal, i.e. otiosum, seu nihilum et inane reputatur. Postea, te desistente, alter faciet eodem modo. Sed si potest fineri, praecogitandum est ut lucreris calculos in aliqua ex tuis cellulis quae ex adverso habet aliam adversarii cellulam calculis bene plenam: nam quando lucraris (i.e., omnes eximis) eos qui in aliqua cellula ex tua parte, simul auferes omnes qui sunt in adversarii cellula huic opposita. Hoc facto, Perditor seu ille qui tunc amittit, refundit et lusui addit omnes quotquot calculos lucratus fuerat, si quos habet, et lucrator itidem tenetur reponere et lusui addere ex suis tot quot periditor refundebat: et hi omnes sigillatum in Cellulas distribuendi sunt. Et deind lucrum, ut supra, est ubi definis in pari numero ex tua parte, i.e. in 2 vel 4: et, si poteris in pluribus cellulis simul numerarum parem constituere, (modo nulllus interponatur numerus impar,) omnes auferes quosque processeris movendo: si autem interponatur aliquis numerus impar, tum lucraberis eam tantum cellulam ubi definebas, non autem penultimam, quamvis erat aequalis. Si vero in processu lusus acciderit ut cellulae in altera Pyxidis extremitate fuerint omnino vacuae, non erit tibi commodum ut utaris illis; sed potius evitare et transilire debes. Est autem consultissimum ut (si sieri potest) extremae cellulae servantur plenae. Et, in processu lusus, si habes ex tua parte numeros habes Victoria tandem deciditur inter duas cellulas duabus aut tribus motionibus, per illum qui habet vicem movendi: et cum alter collusorum suos omnes amiserit, tum finitus est lusus. Et hoc facto, ille qui perdit, in erecta pyxide tanquam in trabe aut sedili sedere solet. In hoc ludo expertus computista alios facile vincet, quia potest faciliori negotio computare quomod calculos in suum commodum optime disponat, et praesertium ut desinat in cellula quae oppositam habet aliam bene repletam, de qua re praecogitandum. In hoc ludo Bakura per circuitum ludendum est: sed tolles primo es tua parte; deinde hoc jure ab altera parte. Et quidem privilegium est incipere; quod si facis ab Angulo seu extremitate, prima vice lucraberis 16: et sic si a tertia aut quinta cellula: at a secunda, quarta, et sexta non item." Hyde 1694: 230-232.
Confidence 100
Source Hyde, T. 1694. De Ludis Orientalibus Libri Duo: Historia Nerdiludii, hoc est Dicere, Trunculorum, cum quibuidam aliis Arabum, Persarum, Indorum, Chinensium, & aliarum Gentium Ludis tam Politicis quam Bellicis, plerumque Europae inauditis, multo minus visis: additis omnium Nominibus in dictarum Gentium Linguis. Ubi etiam Classicorum Graecorum & Latinorum loca quaedam melius quam hactenus factum est explicantur. Oxford: E Theatro Sheldoniano.

Id DLP.Evidence.683
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Azigo
Location Bende
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x20 board. Opening arrangement: Each player has this opening arrangement (number of counters in each hole, starting from the leftmost hole): 5-5-5-5-5-5-5-1-1-5-2-1-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0. Opening phase: Players remove the counters in their final four holes with counters and conceals them from the opponent. Players take the counters from any of their holes and sow them in an anti-clockwise direction. When sowing, the first counter is dropped into the hole from which it just came, unless it is a single counter. If the last counter lands in the opponent's row and the opposite hole contains one or three, counters, these are taken and added to the concealed store. Also, if the hole from which a capture was made is preceded by an unbroken sequence of holes with one or three counters, these are also taken. In place of a move, a player may add all of the counters from the concealed store, sowing from the leftmost hole in their row. If the sowing reaches the rightmost hole in this row, sowing may continue from the leftmost hole or may continue into the opponent's row. If the player continues into the opponent's row, subsequent holes after the one in which the final counter was dropped are captured if they contain one or three counters, in an unbroken sequence.
Content Reported by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria "7.5.47. Nigerio, Ibo tribe, Item, Bende Division (also at Abiribi, and Onafia, but not at Edda): Azigo (K.C. Murray). 2x20 holes. The initial arrangement only differs from 7.5.45 bu having one bean in I and one on L. X removes nine beans from i,j,k, and l, and Y nine beans from I,J, K, and L. Or the stronger player removes one bean fewer, leaving the bean on l or L. The rules only differ from 7.5.46 in two particulars: only one or three beans can be taken from any hole, and, when a player enters beans from his store, he must enter all of them, and if sowing reaches his right-hand end-hole before all are sown, he has the choice of either returning to his left-hand end-hole to sow the remaining beans in his hand, or to continue sowing along his opponent's row, in which case, if the hole next beyond that in which he sowed his last bean, or an unbroken sequence of holes contain one or three beans, he takes these. Any beans that he has so sown in his opponent's holes now belong to his opponent and he can lift them for sowing. At Abiribi, only men play azigo." Murray 1951: 189.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.684
Type Ethnography
Game Pereaüni
Location Didinga
Date 1927-01-01 - 1927-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. (VARIANT: Longarim and Topotha tribes enlarge the board, up to four rows to sixteen maximum) Two counters in each hole. Opening play: Two players play simultaneously, lifting and sowing counters from their outer rows. Rules for sowing and capturing are the same as in the main phase of the game except that all holes in each player's outer rows are considered to be in opposition and back captures can be made from them. Once a counter has been sown into the inner row, this ceases and captures can only be made from the inner row. The opening ends when both players reach an empty hole, and the first player to do so begins play in the main phase. Main phase: Play begins from any hole on the player's side of the board with counters in it. Singletons cannot move. Sowing happens in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last counter lands in an empty hole, the turn is over. For capturing: four holes are in opposition when one player has the front row hole occupied and the opponent has both of the holes opposite it occupied. If the last hole in a sowing is in opposition, the player takes the counters in both of the opponent's holes and places them in the empty hole from which the player lifted the counters. The player then sows the captured counters from this hole. Further captures in the sowing can occur in the same way. If the last counter lands on a hole that is occupied but not in opposition, these counters are picked up and sowing continues. Play ends when one player captures all the opponent's counters or one player cannot play. The player who cannot play loses.
Content "Definitions. 1. The game is played by two principals, but any number may assist on each side. The one in play or about to start a move is called the PLAYER and the other his OPPONENT. They take alternate moves. 2. A MOVE consists in the complete operation, comprising one or more laps, by which the player manipulates the marbles till he comes to rest in an unoccupied hole. When he reaches an unoccupied hole the move is completed and it is his opponent's turn to make a move.3. A LAP may be of two kinds, simple or incremented. A SIMPLE LAP may constitute a move if it ends in an unoccupied hole, and in the Lango version an incremented lap may also constitute a move. But one move may include many simple and incremented laps. By a SIMPLE LAP iS meant the act of lifting two or more marbles from a hole and dropping them one by one in the succeeding holes, according to the rules of the particular code. If the final marble rests in an unoccupied hole both the lap and the move are completed. If, however, the final marble rests in a hole containing one or more marbles, these are again lifted together with the marble dropped into the hole and the movement is continued as before, constituting a new lap of the same move. In this way there may be a succession of simple laps before the marble finally comes to rest in an unoccupied hole, when the move is completed. By an INCREMENTED LAP is meant a lap which starts by capturing and confiscating marbles from the opponent's half of the board, in accordance with the rules of the particular code. Only in the Lango version can an incremented lap begin a move. A move may thus consist of a series of simple and incremented laps, and the order of their succession is conditioned by no limiting rules, but purely by the positions occupied by the marbles of the player and his opponent. 4. By INCREMENT is meant the seizure of such of the opponent's marbles as may be en prise according to the rules of the particular code. A player has no option in the matter but is obliged to take marbles which are lying en prise, and should he by an oversight fail to do so his opponent may insist on a replay of the move. 5. The OPENING consists of the preliminary moves, which are made by the two players simultaneously in order to obtain position. The player who first completes his opening has the first move in the game. General Principles. The game is played on a BOARD* containing 32 holes, arranged in four parallel rows of eight holes each. The two inner rows are known as FRONT ROWS, the two outer rows as BACK ROWS. Each hole contains two marbles. The board is divided into two halves, each player having 16 holes for play and 32 marbles. On the chart the holes of player A are indicated by capital letters, those of player B by small letters. The block of four left-hand holes of each player constitutes a TURNING BASE. The object of the game is to deprive the opponent of all his marbles or of as many of them as will prevent his moving. In order to make a move at least two marbles must be together in the same hole. Didinga Variation. The marbles are moved counter-clockwise and are dropped one in each hole starting at the hole next to that from which they have been lifted. Thus 10 marbles at hole c, if moved, would be dropped singly in d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, 1, m. Should m be vacant the move then ends. Should m however be occupied by one or more marbles, these, together with the marble dropped in m, continue the movement, starting at n, and the move continues in this way till the last marble in the hand coincides with an empty hole. If the last marble in the hand drops into a hole in the player's front row which is already occupied, and both the corresponding holes on the opponent's side of the board are also occupied, the marble is left in the hole and the marbles from the opponent's two holes are treated as increment and are captured. With these marbles the player plays an incremented lap, starting again to drop the marbles singly at the hole from which he began the move or, if there have been more than one lap, at the hole from which the last lap started. For example, the player starts at m with 4 marbles, and drops one each at n, o, p, a, but finding 2 marbles at a (which now number 3) he takes them up and drops them at b, c, d, d is occupied by one or more marbles, and at I there are three marbles and at L there are four marbles. These 7 marbles form an increment which the player picks up and with them begins again at b, which was the starting hole of the last lap of the move, and dropping one at each hole ends at h. If h is unoccupied the move now ends; but if it is occupied and E and P are also occupied, he takes up his new increment from E and P and staits again from b. If neither or only E or P is occupied, he continues the move with the marbles which he finds at h, as before. The player may start his move from any hole which he thinks most advantageous, and it is not incumbent on him to make a move which will result in an increment. Though increments are necessary in order to attain the final object of the game, at certain stages and in certain dispositions a tactical advantage may often be gained by so playing as temporarily to avoid an increment. The players make their moves alternately till one is rendered immobile, either through having lost all his marbles or through his remaining marbles being disposed singly. At the beginning of the game the board is arranged with two marbles in each hole, and before the game proper commences the opening has to be played. The preliminary opening is conducted as speedily as possible by both players simultaneously, starting generally at aA or bB. The two marbles are lifted by each from the hole and they proceed as described above, taking the opponent's marbles whenever they are en prise, and each continuing until he ends in a vacant hole. Should the players start the opening further to the left than aA, say at pP, it is obvious that, as there are only two marbles in the hole, the first lap of the opening will end while the players are still in the back row. For the purpose of the opening only and not in the game proper an opponent's marbles are en prise at this stage of play even if the player concludes a lap in the back row. Thus a player starts at 1 and drops a marble at m, n: if his opponent has not moved his marbles from FO, he may take these (which will of course number 4) and drop them at m, n, o, p: similarly he takes the marbles from HM (if they are still there) and again drops them at m, n, o, p. p must now contain 4 marbles, viz., the original 2 plus 1 from each increment, and taking these up he continues the move by dropping them at a, b, c, d and so on until the move is completed. The opponent's marbles are only en prise to the back row at the beginning of the opening: once the player has turned the corner and reached c increments can only be taken from the front row. Usually players start their opening simultaneously from the same hole and generally from aA or bB; but this is not obligatory and an expert player will often start from another hole unobserved by his opponent in order to secure a different " position " or arrangement of marbles which he can exploit by his superior technique to greater advantage. There is a great deal of finesse in the opening and an expert by observing his opponent, who is playing simultaneously, and by increasing or retarding the speed of his own play may secure a disposition of marbles which will give him a tactical advantage even if he has to concede his opponent the first move in the game." Driberg 1927: 170-172.
Confidence 100
Source Driberg, J. 1927a. "The Game of Choro or Pereauni. Man 27: 168-172.

Id DLP.Evidence.685
Type Ethnography
Game Kisolo
Location Luba
Date 1977-01-01 - 1977-12-31
Content "B5. Cisolo ou Kisolo. B5.0.01. Il s'agit ici du jeu des tribus Luba, Lulua et Songye. Les même règles valent pour tous ces peuples. Le jeu s'appelle Cisolo aux Kasaïs, Kisolo au Shaba. Les noms dérivent de la racine "Solo" sont parmi les plus largement répandus de l'Afrique- il n'ya que les variantes de "wuri" et de "mankala" qui peuvent rivaliser avec eux- mais le jeu qui sera décrit ici, sous le nom de Cisolo est un des plus particuliers, n'ayant presqu'aucun trait commun avec les jeux des peuples avoisinants et seulement deux parallèles plus lointains, dont l'un (le jeu Lango de Coro en Ouganda, voir B5/3) constitue un des grands mystères de la distribution du Mankala. B5/1.1 Le materiel du jeu. Le tablier traditionnel repose le plus souvent sur un piédestal rond et comports 4 rangées de 7 cases. Les cases sont généralement rondes, bien que des cases carrées soient connues, surtoiut au Shaba. Il existe des tabliers, rares dans cette partie de l'Afrique, soutenus per des figures humain assises (voir MRAC, objet no. R.G. 59.8.3). Les dimensions du tablier varient en fonction des graines employées: dans le cas ou celles-ci sont les graines des arbres "pictantus makombo" (lingala: "ngola" or "canarium schweinfurtii" (ciluba: "menga") le tablier peut atteindre 70 cm de long et 35 de large, mais si l'on utilise les petites graines rondes d'arbres comme le kapokier il ne dépasse guère les 40cm x 20 cm. Dans ce dernier cas, les cases sont probablement un peu plus profondes que d'habitude pour empêcher les graines de sauter d'un trou à l'autre pendant la semaille. B5/1.2 Règles. 1. Au deebut on place 3 graines dans chaque case de rangées extérieures, ceci pour contrôler le nombre total. 2. Le jeu peut partir de cette disposition régulière et simple ou les joueurs peuvent préférer une parmi plusieurs dispositions spéciales où le plus souvent figurent une ou plusieurs banques, p. ex. 3. On ramasse toutes les graines d'une case librement choisie, et les égrène une par une, dans le sens contraire `za celui des aiguilles d'une montre. 4. On peut choisir de joueur une graine uniquer. 5. Les étapes d'une manoeuvre à relais sont enchaînées d'une manière qui diffère do tous les autres jeux connus au Zaïre: quand la dernière graine d'une semaille est versée, l'on ramasse les graines so trouvant dans la case suivante et continue de jouer en les semant normalement. 6. Si cette case suivante est vide, le joueur "dort" et passe la main. Ceci fait qu'on peut dormir indifféremment dans une case occupée ou vide, pour autant qu'elle soit précédée d'une case vide. 7. Les prises sont également effectuées de manière particulière: on "mange" les graines se trouvant dans les deux cases, ou seulement dans la case de la rangée intérieure, opposées à une case occupée de sa propre range intérieure. Au cas où deux cases sont menacées toutes les deux doivent obligatoirement être vides. Les prises se font avant de jouer ses propres graines ou de procéder à une étape subséquente d'une manoeuvre à relais. 8. Dans le cas d'une étape subséquente, la prise se fait dans la case ou les cases face, non à celle où fut déposée la dernière graine de la semaille, mais à la suivante, c'est-à-dire celle d'où l'on ramasserait les graines pour l'étape subséquente. Il s'en suit qu'aucune prise m'est possible, là où une nouvelle étape ne peut pas être enchaînée. 9. Les graines ainsi capturées, sont introduits dans le camp du joueur, à partir de la case occupée de la rangée intérieure qui à justifié la prise. 10. Pour gagner, il suffit de vider la rangée intérieure de l'adversaire.... 12. Ajoutons qu'une partie de Cisolo dure en général moins de temps qu'une partie des autres jeux où les captures sont introduites du côté du joueur. Il est ainsi de coutume de jouer une série de parties. Dans ce cas le score est tenu par le moyen d'une poignée de plumes: le gagnant de chaque partie en donne une au perdant, qui la remettra s'il gagne une victoire subséquente. ..." Townshend 1977: 45-47.
Confidence 100
Source Townshend, P. 1977a. Les jeux de mankala au Zaïre, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Les cahiers du CEDAF 3: 3–76.

Id DLP.Evidence.686
Type Ethnography
Game Whyo
Location 4°47'35.35"N, 8°13'51.55"E
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x6 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Players sow in an anti-clockwise direction from a hole in their row. Sowing ends when the last counter falls into a hole, making it contain four counters, which are taken. Sowing also ends when the last counter falls into an empty hole. Sowing continues in any other scenario by picking up the contents of the hole where the last counter was dropped and continuing to sow. The game ends when one player can no longer move. The remaining counters are taken by the last player that was able to move and put into the store. A new round begins: The winner of the previous round now owns seven holes - the six in his row and the next hole in the opponent's row. Player takes fours from the extra hole.
Content Documented by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria "7.5.37. Nigeria, Oron clan, Ibibio tribe, Oron, Calabar Pr.: Whyo (K.C. Murray). The informant said that the name whyo came from Lagos and was taken from the English 'why Oh', a slang expression referring to smart or deceitful tricks. It seems more likely that the name is a perversion of the Yoruba ayo, 'mancala.' 2x6 holes neatly cut in the ground; four beans (usually palm seeds) in each hole; several laps to the move; one round; play anticlockwise. The game only differs from 7.5.36 in the following particulars: when the game comes to an end, each player adds any beans left in his holes to his store, and if another game is played, the winner of the first game now owns seven holes, six in his own row and one in the opponent's row, and takes fours from his extra hole." Murray 1951: 186.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.687
Type Ethnography
Game Obridje
Location Ijaw
Location 5°54'11.25"N, 0°59'12.65"E
Date 1946-01-01 - 1946-01-30
Rules 2x6 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Play may begin from any of the player's holes. Counters are sown anti-clockwise. If the last counter falls into an empty hole or a hole in either row, making that hole contain four counters, play ends, and the four counters are taken. Also, if at any time during the sowing a hole contains four counters, the player on whose row this occurs takes those counters. Otherwise, the player lifts the counters in the hole in which the final counter lands and continues sowing. Play ends when one player can no longer move. The player with the most counters wins.
Content Recorded by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria "7.5.36. Gold Coast, Kets: Adi; Nigeria, Ijaw Tribe: Obridje (K.C. Murray). 2x6 holes and two stores, one at each end of the board; four beans in each hole; several laps to the move; one round; play anticlockwise. A move may begin from any of the player's holes, and ends when, in playing a lap, the last bean falls in an empty hole or in a hole on either row, making its contents four beans, which are tken. Also, if at any time in the course of sowing, a hole contains four beans, the player on whose row this happens takes the four beans. The game ends when one player can no longer move, and the player wins who has taken the larger number of beans. The following game, played between two Ijaw women in January 1946, was recorded by K.C. Murray: ..." Murray 1951: 185-186.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.688
Type Ethnography
Game Ceelkoqyuqkoqiji
Location 26°57'15.13"N, 100°13'3.04"E
Date 1992-05-01 - 1993-05-31
Rules 2x5 board with one store on either end. The store to the right of the player belongs to the player. Play begins with five counters in each regular hole, with one larger stone in each store, but one is slightly smaller than the other. Game can be played with two or four players. With four players, two players control the larger stones, but cannot move the regular counters. Players throw out a finger (index, little, or thumb) to determine who plays first. index beats thumb, thumb beats little finger, little finger beats index. This happens at the start of each round. Counters are taken from any of the holes in the player's row, sowing them in either direction, including the stores. When the last counter of a sowing is dropped in a hole, sowing continues by picking up the counters in the next hole and continuing to sow in that direction. If the hole following the last seed of a sowing is empty, the counters in the hole following this empty hole are captured. If there is an empty hole following the captured hole, and then an occupied hole immediately after it, the counters in the occupied hole are also captured, and so forth until there are two occupied or two empty holes in a row. Moves may not begin from stores. Both stores are sown into normally by both players. Stores are considered to be empty, except when its large stone remains in it, then the large stone only can be sown or captured and not any other counters that may have accumulated there. Large stones can be sown in any order a player chooses during a sowing. If a player has no counters in their holes, they may opt to place one counter in each of their holes, taking counters from their store and continue play (called huelshe). If they opt not to, the opponent takes all the remaining stones on the board. If one of the large stones remains in its original store, the player cannot opt out. If the player doesn't have enough stones for all of the holes, they may choose which holes in their row to place the counters, but they must form a continuous sequence of holes with counters. When the round ends, players must buy back their large stones if they no longer have them, at a price determined in the beginning of the game (usually seven for the larger stone and six for the smaller). (VARIANT: they can both be worth five) Players then attempt to refill their holes with the original number of counters. The player that has fewer than the original number of counters must borrow counters from the opponent. Debt accumulates over subsequent rounds. When the debt reaches five, the player must sell one of their holes to the opponent. The selling player can choose which holes to sell. The seller then receives five holes to either repay debt or fill holes as long as debt does not exceed four. Sold holes are always meant to be empty. Anything sown into it is immediately taken by its owner and put in the store and it cannot be sown into during huelshe by either player. A player can buy back one of these previously sold holes, but must borrow counters from the opponent in order to fill it. (VARIANT: Two rows of seven with seven counters in each hole; large stones cost seven counters between rounds).
Content "A. Walking goats and buying holes: The Naxi game ceelkoqyuqkoqiji as played in Lijiang Prefecture, Lijiang County, Baisha Township, Longquan village Principal informants: He Hao, 64, male; Li Qiulan, 63, female, and Wang Qiaoxin, 43, male, all of Naxi nationality. Interviews conducted in May 1992 and May 1993 (ages as of 1992). Configuration: Normally the board is 2x5, with two larger storeholes, one at each end. Each of the 10 regular holes contains 5 stones at the outset. Each store contains one large stone. The two large stones are slightly different in size. The marger is the mu, female, ie the nanny-goat, the smaller is the gong, male, ie the billy-goat. (These terms are Chinese). Players and their sectors: The game is played either by two or four players. In the two-player game, each player's sector consists of the five holes on one side of the board. THe store to his right belongs to him, but is outside the sector, as no player can play from a store. In the four-player game, there are two inactive players, each owning a store, and two active players, each with the five holes on one side of the board. Only the active players sow. Terminology: The kolomei is a large hole, or storehole, one at each end. The kolosso is a small home, or regular hole. five on each side. The lubasso is a small stone ('mei,' meaning 'female,' here has a sense of 'large,' which 'sso', meaning 'male,' here means 'small.') Preliminaries: To decide who goes first, the two active players simultaneaously throw out either thumb, index finger, or little finger of their right hands. Then the result is determined by the following cycle: index finger (snake) beats thumb (frog), which beats little finger (centipede), which in turn beats index finger. This procedure is followed at the start of each round. PLay: Play is in either direction throughout the game. Captures and relays are of the standard pussa kanawa type: relay from the postultimate hole of a sowing; if this and the next hole are both empty, the move ends with no capture. If the postultimate hole is empty and the following hole is not, then capture from an alternating sequence of empty and non-empty holes beginning with the postultimate hole. Captures are removed from the board, and are set aside, to be reckoned at the end of the round. Following capture, a move ends. The large stones are played, relayed and captured just like the small stones. In sowing the contents of a hole containing both large and small stones, the stones may be sown in any order. Stores: A move may not begin from a store. Both stores are sown into normally by both players. The large stone which is originally in a store is captured and relayed normally by both players. But small stones are not captured or relayed from a store, nor is a large stone which has left its original store. Stores are sinks, in that whatever is sown in them never comes out, bu in effect has been captured by the owner of the store. Hence, except when a store contains a large stone which never left it, it is always 'empty.' That is, if the ultimate hole of a sowing is just before a store, then the stones in the hole following the store are captured. More generally, it counts as 'empty' in constituting an alternating sequence of empty and non-empty holes for a capture. Stones which have fallen into a store may be removed freely by the owner and added to his stock of captured stones. Huelshe: Whenever a player whose turn it is to move has no stones in any of the holes in his sector, he may 'huelshe' (Chinese "tianzi"), by placing a single stone in each hole in his sector, and then playing normally. If he declines to do this, the round ends, and his opponent confiscates all the stones on his side of the board. If there is still a large stone in its original store, then huelshe is obligatory, as otherwise the large stone would belong to neither player. If a player who wants to huelshe has fewer stones than holes, he may place his stones in as many holes as he can. The choice of holes is his, but there may be no gaps, that is the holes he places singletons in must be consecutive. The round ends by mutual agreement, each player taking the few stones left in his sector. Rounds: At the end of a round the players attempt to refill their holes as they were initially. The large stones, if they do not now belong to their original owners, must be bought back. Their value is by agreement, but most commonly is this: the mu is worth seven, and the gong is worth six. But it is also acceptable to value them both at five. (It is also acceptable, according to one informant, to play the game with seven holes in a row, seven stones per hole, and the large stones valued at seven). A player who, at the end of a round, has less than his original complement, must borrow from another player. The debt is remembered, and accumulates from round to round. A player who has a surplus may not refuse to lend. If a player's debt to another reaches five, he is obliged to sell a hole. The seller chooses which of his holes to sell. In return for the hole, the seller receives five stones, which he may use to repay debt and to fill holes, so long as the debt to any player does not exceed four. Sold holes: A hole which has been sold functions as a sink for the benefit of its new owner. It is always empty (that is, counts as an empty hole with respect to pussa kanawa captures for either player), and anything sown into it is immediately taken by the owner. At the start of a round it is empty, and on huelshe nothing is placed in it by either player. A player is free to relay or play a large stone into a hole he has bought,, thereby capturing it. If a player who has sold a hole originally in his sector accumulates the five surplus stones needed to buy it back, he may do so, and his opponent may not refuse the transaction. But he must still have or borrow the stones needed to fill it. Suppose, for example, in a two-player game, that at the end of a round, after debts have been cleared, one of the players has four of the original five holes remaining in his sector, his original large stone, and 26 small stones. He then places the large stone in its store, fills each of his four holes with five stones, buys back the fifth hole for five stones, places his single remaining stone in it, and borrows the four stones necessary to fill it from his opponent. The next round then starts." Eagle 1995: 53-5.
Confidence 100
Source Eagle, V. 1995. "Some Newly Described Mancala Games from Yunnan Province, China, and the Definition of a Genus in the Family of Mancala Games." In A. de Voogt, ed, New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: International Institute for Asian Studies, 48-63.

Id DLP.Evidence.690
Type Ethnography
Game Walak-Pussa
Location Sri Lanka
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction; the first player chooses the direction and all subsequent moves are made in that direction. Players sow beginning from holes in their row. If the last counter falls into a hole with counters, the counters in the next hole are picked up and sowing continues, and if this hole is empty, the counters in the hole following the empty hole are captured. If there is an unbroken sequence of alternating empty and occupied holes, the counters in the occupied holes are captured until there are two empty or two occupied holes. If the final counter falls into an empty hole the turn ends. The round ends when one player's holes are empty. Second round begins with the winner of the first round placing four counters in each of their holes, leaving any surplus in the store. The loser, starting from one end of the row, places four counters into as many holes as possible, leaving any extra in the store. The holes which cannot be filled are excluded from play for the round. A twig or piece of straw are often placed over it to indicate this. The losing player begins the round, moving in the direction of the excluded holes, and played in the same way as the first round. Rounds three and above: The winner of round two places four counters in as many of their holes as possible, and the remaining counters in the next hole. If it contains one, it is called puta, if two, naga, if three, wala. Holes with no counters are excluded from play for this round. If the loser has a puta hole, the opponent removes one counter from their hole opposite; if a naga, the opponent removes two from the opposite hole, if a wala, the opponent removes three. The removed counters go into their store. puta and naga holes are marked with a piece of paper or straw in them. Empty holes are excluded as before. The player with excluded holes begins play in the direction of the excluded hole. Counters cannot be captured or sowed from puta or naga holes. Play continues as before. When the final counter of a sowing ends in the hole preceding a puta or naga hole, these are treated as though they are non-existent and capturing holes hold for the next following hole. When one player has fewer than twelve counters, they may arrange them differently at the beginning of a round. They may put one or two counters in one end hole and not more than four in the other end hole, and one or two counters in the intermediate holes, leaving some empty and, thus, excluded. The opponent then puts four counters in each of their holes. There are no puta, naga, or wala holes in this round. The player with more counters plays as before, but the one with less has captures that are determined by the number of counters placed in the first end hole. If there were two in the end hole, the player captures when dropping the final counter into a hole to make it three; or when it makes two if there was one counter in the first end hole. Otherwise, the player does not sow in holes with one or two counters. Throughout the game, singletons cannot be moved is a player has a hole with multiple counters, and a singleton in the front hole cannot be moved if there are other singletons in the player's row. Play continues until one player has no counters.
Content "Walak-pussa, 'A Hole Empty.' This game is begun like the last (puhulmuti), but when the last seed of the set which is being sown has been placed in a hole he does not remove and re-sow the seeds out of that hole, but always takes those in the next one for the purpose. If this next hole be empty, the seeds in the following one, that is, the second one after that in which he placed his last seed, are captured or 'eaten,' the verb which expresses it being pussa kanawa, 'eating because of the empty (hole).' If the following or third hole be empty, the seeds in the one after it are also captured, and so on as long as there is a sequence of alternate empty and full holes. This is termed wael mutu ekilenawa, picking out the pearls of the necklaces.' He then stops playing and the opponent begins. At the commencement of the next or succeeding rounds the same arrangements as in Puhulmutu are necessary in case there be a puta, naga, wala, or 'blind' holes. in this and all the games, the player with the fewest seeds always begins the play after the first round, and it must go in the direction of the empty or deficient holes. When the last seed of the set which is being sown falls into an empty hole immediately preceding one containing a puta or naga (which is considered to be pussa, 'empty,' and the seeds in which cannot be captured these are passed over as though non-existent, and the seeds in the next hole to them are 'eaten.' Like the last, this game is almost interminable, and there is no 'Cutting Ash-pumpkins' to curtail it." Parker 1909: 597-598.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.691
Type Ethnography
Game Kotu Baendum
Location Sri Lanka
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Content "Kotu-baendum, 'Tying up the Enclosures.' This game is begun and played like Puhulmutu, excepting that it must be commenced from either of the two end hole in each player's row. During the rest of the game the players may begin each turn at any hole on their own side of the board. For re-sowing, the seeds are taken as in Puhulmutu out of the hole in which the last seed was placed; but if this previously held three seeds the four now in it are 'eaten,' and the next player then begins. When the last seed falls into an end hole in which there were three seeds, thus making four, that hole is said to be 'tied' (baenda); it becomes like a puta or naga hole, and the seeds in it cannot be captured, although others continue to be sown in it by both players, as usual. Such holes belong to the person who puts the fourth seed in them, whether they be on his own or his opponent's side of the board; and they receive a distinctive mark like the naga or puta. All four end holes may thus become 'tied.' When the last seed is sown in a 'tied' hole the player stops or 'sits down,' and the opponent begins, since the seeds in it cannot be taken out and played. The game is also a very long one, like the others." Parker 1909: 598-599.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.692
Type Ethnography
Game Daramuti
Location Sri Lanka
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction; the first player chooses the direction and all subsequent moves are made in that direction. Players sow beginning from holes their row. In the course of sowing, a player cannot sow into a hole containing three counters; if one is encountered, it is skipped and the counter is sowed into the next hole without three. If the final counter falls into a hole containing three counters, the contents of the hole are captured and the contents of the next hole are picked up and sowing continues. Otherwise, if the last counter falls into a hole with counters, these are picked up and sowing continues, or if it falls into an empty hole the turn ends. The round ends when one player's holes are empty. Second round begins with the winner of the first round placing four counters in each of their holes, leaving any surplus in the store. The loser, starting from one end of the row, places four counters into as many holes as possible, leaving any extra in the store. The holes which cannot be filled are excluded from play for the round. A twig or piece of straw are often placed over it to indicate this. The losing player begins the round, moving in the direction of the excluded holes, and played in the same way as the first round. Rounds three and above: The winner of round two places four counters in as many of their holes as possible, and the remaining counters in the next hole. If it contains one, it is called puta, if two, naga, if three, wala. Holes with no counters are excluded from play for this round. If the loser has a puta hole, the opponent removes one counter from their hole opposite; if a naga, the opponent removes two from the opposite hole, if a wala, the opponent removes three. The removed counters go into their store. puta and naga holes are marked with a piece of paper or straw in them. Empty holes are excluded as before. The player with excluded holes begins play in the direction of the excluded hole. Counters cannot be captured or sowed from puta or naga holes. Play continues as before. When one player has fewer than twelve counters, they may arrange them differently at the beginning of a round. They may put one or two counters in one end hole and not more than four in the other end hole, and one or two counters in the intermediate holes, leaving some empty and, thus, excluded. The opponent then puts four counters in each of their holes. There are no puta, naga, or wala holes in this round. The player with more counters plays as before, but the one with less has captures that are determined by the number of counters placed in the first end hole. If there were two in the end hole, the player captures when dropping the final counter into a hole to make it three; or when it makes two if there was one counter in the first end hole. Otherwise, the player does not sow in holes with one or two counters. Throughout the game, singletons cannot be moved is a player has a hole with multiple counters, and a singleton in the front hole cannot be moved if there are other singletons in the player's row. Play continues until one player has no counters.
Content "Daramutu, or Ellaewala-kanda. Play begins at any hole of the player's row. When the last seed of the set which is being sown falls in an empty hole the seeds in the opposite hole on the other side of the board are 'eaten.' The player then stops, and the opponent begins. If the last seed fall in a hole containing a puta or naga it is treated as an empty one, and those in the opposite hole are eaten. In other respects the game resembles Puhulmutu. The village women play all these games with astonishing rapidity. Without counting the seeds they are about to 'sow' they seem to know instinctively, perhaps as the result of long practice, at which hole it is best to begin in order to effect captures. An inexperienced person has no chance of beating them." Parker 1909: 599.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.693
Type Ethnography
Game Sonka
Location Iloko
Date 1927-01-01 - 1927-12-31
Rules 2x5 board with one store on either side. Six counters in each hole. Players play each turn simultaneously. Players sow from the holes in their row in an anti-clockwise direction, including their own store but not the opponent's store. When the final counter is sown, the contents of the next hole are picked up and sowing continues. If this hole is empty, the move ends and the player must wait for the other player to finish the move before they begin again. If the move ends in the player's own row, the player captures the counters in the opponent's row opposite to the one in which the last counter was dropped. Play continues until all of the counters are in the stores. The counters are then redistributed into the holes as at the beginning of the game. The player with extra counters places them in the store. Any holes that are not filled are left out of the game for the round.
Content "(Ag)s(inn)onka. A girls' game. Two playes (A and B) use a piece of wood in which there are a certain number of holes, generally twelve. Instead of using a piece of wood, they may also dig a certain number of holes in the ground. To each player belongs an equal number of holes (generally six), and in each hole (except the homes) are an equal number of pebbles. Then both players, at the same time, start taking the pebbles out of one of their own holes (any one of them), and distributing them one into each hole, moving toward the right. E.g:.: A begins with N o. 2, she drops a pebble into No. 3, one into No. 4, one into No. 5, one home, one into No. 1 of B, and so on, until they are all gone. Then they start with the pebbles of the hole next to that into which they dropped their last pebble, even though it be in their opponent's quarters. When arriving at their opponent's home, they skip it, not dropping any pebbles. If one of the players drops her last pebble into a hole followed by an empty one, she is "dead," and must wait until the other player also is "dead". If she dies in her own quarters, however, she is alowed (sic) to take all the pebbles from that of her opponent's holes which faces the hole into which she dropped her last pebble, and to drop them into her own home. When her opponent also dies, then both start again from any of their own holes. When all the pebbles are home, the players redistribute them into their own holes, placing the same number as before into each hole. If one of the players has more pebbles than she needs, she leaves the remainder at home. If one of the players has not enough pebbles to fill all her holes, the empty ones are called "burned." All burned holes have to be skipped by both players; if, by mistake, one of them drops a pebble into a burned hole, her opponent simply takes it out and drops it into her home. The player who has the largest number of pebbles at home, at the end of the game, is the winner." Vanoverbergh 1927: 236-237.
Confidence 100
Source Vanoverbergh, M. 1927. "Iloko Games." Anthropos 22(1/2): 216-243.

Id DLP.Evidence.694
Type Ethnography
Game Um el-Bagara
Location Sudan
Date 1925-01-01 - 1925-12-31
Rules 2x5 board. Play begins with five counters in each hole Players sow from any one of their holes. Sowing can occur in the following directions: From the leftmost two holes: clockwise. From the rightmost two holes: anti-clockwise. from the center hole: the player may choose either direction. If the final counter falls into a hole in the opponent's row containing either one or three counters, making it now contain two or four, these are taken. If the holes before them also contain two or four, in an unbroken sequence, they may all be captured. Single counters cannot be sown. When neither player can move, the single counters in each player's rows are taken by the player belonging to those rows. The player with the most counters wins.
Content "I. Mangala or Um El Bagara, or The Cow Game (northern Tribes) The two players, A and B, have each five "houses", usually hollows in the sand, each of which initially contains five counters (Fig. 4). The player to begin picks up the five counters of any one of his own houses, and moving in the direction indicated by the arrows, drops the counters one by one into successive houses. Thus, if B should begin to play and should decide to start with the house marked X, the result of his first move would be as shown in Fig. 5. It will be observed that if the contents of the middle one of the five houses be taken up, they can be distributed in either direction, at the player's choice, while counters from a house to the right of the middle one move to the right, and vice versa. It is now A's turn to move, and, though the players are still only manoeuvring for position, it is time to indicate their ultimate object. This is, that the last counter dropped shall fall into a house of the opponent's, containing already one counter or three counters. In either case the player removes from the board both the afore-mentioned last counter and the one counter or three counters on to which it falls. Moreover, if he scores with his last counter he is allowed to score with the penultimate counter also, if it falls on one or three; and if with the penultimate, then with the last but two also, if it falls on one or three, and so on. Thus at a late stage of the game, illustrated in Fig. 6, if the player A moves with the contents of the house marked Y, he will "eat" all the contents of B's houses. At house Z he is said to have eaten a cow, and in each of the other houses, a calf. A very important rule is that a single counter in a house cannot be moved. Thus the only way to protect a calf from being eaten is to make a move which leaves a second counter in the house with it. Anyone who cares to try it will find that a successful "end-game" depends solely on judicious appreciation of this rule. When all movement is over, each player removes such single counters as remain in his houses and the winner is the one who has taken most counters." Davies 1925: 140-141.
Confidence 100
Source Davies, R. 1925. 'Some Arab Games and Puzzles.' Sudan Notes and Records. 8: 137–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.695
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Okwe (Achalla)
Location 6°20'12.29"N, 6°59'16.90"E
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules Two rows of five holes arranged in a circle around four stores in the center. Each player has five holes on one half of the circle Ten counters in each hole. Players sow from their holes, and can choose to sow any number of counters, but must leave at least one in the starting hole. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. If sowing ends in a hole making its contents an odd number of counters, they are captured, but not more than nine. If the sowing ends and the last counter makes the contents of a hole an even number and the next hole has an odd number of counters, the contents of the odd hole are taken, but not more than nine. In both situations, if there is an unbroken sequence of holes with an odd number of counters, these are all taken, but not more than nine from each.
Content Recorded by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria. "7.5.55. Nigeria, Ibo tribe, Achalla (near Akwa), Onitsha Pr.: Okwe (K.C. Murray). 2x5 holes arranged in a circle and four stores within the circle. Boards are marked on the ground under the verandas of houses. Ten beans in each hole; one lap to the move; one round; play anticlockwise. Two, three, or four persons can play. A move may begin from any of the player's holes, but not more than nine beans can be lifted from any hole, and one bean at least must be left in the hole. If the move ends in a hole, making its contents an odd number of beans, these are taken, but not more than nine beans. If a move ends in a hole, making its contents even and the next hole has an odd number of beans, the contents of the odd hole are taken but not more than nine beans. If in either case the hole from which the beans are taken is followed by an unbroken sequence of holes with an odd number of beans, these are taken." Murray 1951: 191-192.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.696
Type Ethnography
Game Ako Okwe
Location 5°23'12.66"N, 7°54'15.47"E; 6°17'46.07"N, 9°17'42.53"E
Ruleset Murray
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x5 board with two stores. Ten counters in each hole Play begins from any of a player's holes, and sowing proceeds in either direction, at the player's choice. The first counter is sown in the hole from which the counters were taken. When the last counter of a sowing falls into a hole, making the contents of that hole odd (but not more than nine), the counters are captured. The first capture be of one counter.
Content Recorded by K.C. Murray, Surveyor of Antiquities of Nigeria "7.5.56. Nigeria...Owerri Pr.: Ako okwe or Ezu ahia ako okwe, 'buying market'; Aro, Calabar Pr.: Okwe; Okwa, Calabar Pr.: Akwa nsa (K.C. Murray). 2x5 holes and two stores. Ten beans in each hole; one lap to the move; one round; moves may be made in both directions. A move may begin from any of the player's holes, but one bean must be left in the hole from which the beans are lifted. Captures are made from the hole in which the move ends; if its contents are now odd and not greater than nine, they are taken, but the first capture must be of a single bean." Murray 1951: 192.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.698
Type Ethnography
Game Kara
Location Bagara
Date 1925-01-01 - 1925-12-31
Rules Can be played by any number of players; each player has three holes and one store. The stores are located in the center, with the players' holes surrounding them. Seven counters in each hole. Players begin by picking up the counters in one of their holes and sowing them anti-clockwise. If the final counter lands in an opponent's hole or the rightmost hole belonging to the player sowing, having dropped counters in the opponent's holes making them contain two, four, or six counters, the contents of those holes are captured. The player who has the most counters at the end of the game wins.
Content "3. Kâra This is a Bagara game of something the same kind as the last two described. Any number of players take part and each has three houses and a store for what he "eats" (a makkâla, plural makâkîl). Each house contains initially seven counters, generally small balls of dried clay, called collectively tûb (bricks). Fig. 7 shows the board set for four players, MM being the Makâkîl. A player moves by picking up the contents of any one of his houses and distributing the counters one at a time, round the board in an anti-clockwise direction. If his move comes to an end in an opponent's house or in the right-hand one of his own houses and also leaves two or four or six counters in any of the opponent's houses then the player "eats" any such householed of two, four, or six and the move passes to the next player. The winner is the person whose makkâla contains the most counters at the end of the game. If there are several players, any given house is apt to become very full of counters, with the result that it is difficult to foresee the effect of moving its contents. This explains an otherwise obscure allusion to the celebrated Sheikh Musa Mâdibbo, late Nazir of the Rizeigat tribe, as "bahr Kâra gharig"—"a deep sea of Kâra". The Nzir's reputation was that he would sit in council with his sheikhs and elders, and would listen to all their opinions, but would not disclose his own, so that the result of the "meglis" was as unpredictable as that f moving the contents of a very full hour of Kâra." Davies 1925: 142 .
Confidence 100
Source Davies, R. 1925. 'Some Arab Games and Puzzles.' Sudan Notes and Records. 8: 137–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.699
Type Ethnography
Game Leyla Gobale (Somaliland)
Location Somaliland
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 2x6, 8, or 12 board. Four counters in each hole. Play begins from a player's righthand hole and counters are sown clockwise. After this, a player may begin sowing from any hole in their row. When the final counter falls into an occupied hole, the counters in that hole are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends; if this hole is in the player's own row, the contents of the opponent's hole are captured if they contain one, two, four, or more counters. If it contains three counters, one of the opponent's counters is taken and placed into the hole where sowing ended, so that each now has two counters. These holes cannot be sown from for the rest of the game and are owned by the player whose turn created them. Play ends when one player can no longer play. The opponent then takes all of the counters in their own row, and each player takes the counters that have accumulated in their captured holes. The player with the most counters wins.
Content "5. leyla-gòbale. Related to the Arabian manqala, and to similar games found over thee greater part of Africa and India. Two parallel rows of 6, 8, or 12 holes are dug in the ground, and four balls of dry camel dung are dropped in each hole. Each of the two players takes possession of one row. The first one to play takes the contents of the hole at the right end of his own row (A) then distributes one ball in each of the followin pits: B, C, D, E; then he picks up the contents of the hole in which he has dropped his last ball (E), and distributes them in F,G, H, IJ; he distributes the contents of J in K, L, A< B, C; those of C in D, E, F, G, H, I, those of I in J, K, L, A, B, C. As his last ball drops in an empty hole (in C), together with the one which lies opposite (in J), and hiss opponent starts playing. Both players are henceforth free to start their turn at whichever hole they like, providing it belongs to their own row. When a player ends his turn in one of his opponent's holes he takes nother (abar, "famine"). When he ends it in one of his own holes, he looks at the opponent's hole which lies directly opposite; if the latter is empty he gets nothing (abar); if it contains 1, 2, 4, or more balls, he takes these, together with the one he has dropped last; but if it contains 3 balls, one of these is removed into the hole where his last ball dropped, so that each contains two balls; these two holes are now his 'ur, and any ball that drops into either of them cannot be touched until the end of the game, when they are taken by the owner of the 'ur. When a player is unable to play, owing to the fact that all his holes are empty-with the possible exception of some 'ur which cannot be touched-his opponent can take all that remains in his own row, always excepting the contents of any 'ur which may belong to the first. The object of the game is to secure the larger number of balls." Marin 1931: 506-507.
Confidence 100
Source Marin, G. 1931. Somali Games. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 61: 499-511.

Id DLP.Evidence.700
Type Ethnography
Game Leyla Gobale (Gabradarre)
Location 6°44'29.95"N, 44°15'43.61"E
Date 1971-01-01 - 1971-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Five counters in each hole. Play begins from any hole in a player's row and sown anti-clockwise. When the final counter falls into an occupied hole, the counters in that hole are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn ends; if this hole is in the player's own row, the contents of the opponent's hole are captured if they contain one, two, four, or more counters. If it contains three counters, one of the opponent's counters is taken and placed into the hole where sowing ended, so that each now has two counters. These holes cannot be sown from for the rest of the game and are owned by the player whose turn created them. Players cannot change their move mid-turn and counting of counters is forbidden. Play ends when one player can no longer play. The opponent then takes all of the counters in their own row, and each player takes the counters that have accumulated in their captured holes. A new game begins. The player with the fewest counters arranges them in their holes, distributing them as equally as possible. The opponent then mirrors this arrangement in their holes, placing aside any extras for use in subsequent games. If the player is reduced to four counters or less, these are arranged one to a hole and any empty holes are not used for the game (by either player). The player who captures all the counters wins.
Content "Leyla Gobale II This game (Game 36) varies somewhat from the above, and was played by Abdul Kadir Haji Abdulahi, a Radio Ethiopia entertainer from the Gabradarre area of Ogaden. The game has the basic characteristics described in Game 37, but also has several distinguishing points, as follows: 1. The game is said to be usually played on two rows each of six holes rather than on the larger number of holes mentioned by Marin. 2. The game is anti-clockwise not clockwise. 3. The first player can begin his move anywhere on his row, though more usually on the extreme left, rather than on the extreme right as stated by Marin. 4. There are initially five balls per hole, not four as in Marin's account. Abdul Kadir, whose play gives us more understanding of the game than is afforded by Marin, declares that a player having once began a move was not allowed to change it as a result of a change of mind, and that the counting of balls, other than at a glance was forbidden. He also tells us about the redeployment procedure adopted after the termination of one round and before the beginning of the next. He states that the player with least counters would rearrange these in his holes as he wished in order to have approximately the same number of balls in each of his holes. His opponent would then place his counters in an identical fashion so that the contents in each opposite pair of holes would be identical. the more successful player's surplus would be put aside for use in a subsequent round if need be. Should a player be reduced to four balls or less he would arrange them one to a hole, the unoccupied hole or holes being then closed down, the player's opponent doing the same with his opposite holes." Pankhurst 1971: 181.
Confidence 100
Source Pankhurst, R. 1971. Gabata and Related Board Games of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia Observer 14(3):154-206.

Id DLP.Evidence.701
Type Ethnography
Game Bosh
Location Darod Somaliland
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 2x5 board. Four counters in each hole Players move by picking up all of the counters in any of the holes in their row and sowing them anti-clockwise. If the next hole after the one in which the final counter is dropped contains counters, these are picked up and sowing continues. If the next hole after the one in which the last counter was sown is empty, the counters in the hole after this one are taken and the turn is over. If that hole is empty, none are taken. When all of the holes in one row are empty, the player whose row still contains counters captures these counters. A new game begins. Each player fills as many of the holes in their row with four counters. The player which cannot fill all of their holes with four counters removes from play all of the holes that cannot be filled, and sets aside the extra counters. The game ends when one player must close all of the holes in their row, thus being unable to play.
Content "6. bòsh (Daròd). This game belongs to the same class as the preceding one. (Some of the details below need confirmation.) Ten holes arranged in two rows are dug in the ground. At the outset of the game, each of the two players is provided with 20 stones, and places four of them in each of the five holes, which are on his side. The first player lifts up the four stones from any one of his own holes, e.g., E, and distributes them, one in each of the following pits, F. G> H. I, then he takes the contents of the hole which follows next, J, and distributes them likewise in A,B,C,D. The following hole, E being empty after he finishes his turn, and takes as his winnings the contents of the next pit, F. Then the other player starts, by picking up the contents of one of the holes on his own side, and proceeds in a similar way. When the pit where a player has dropped his last stone is followed by two empty stones, he naturally gets nothing (bosh). As in leyla gobale, when a person, whose turn it is to play, finds that all the pits on his side are empty, he foreits all the remaining stones to his opponent. As soon as all the holes are cleared, each player must replenish from his winnings the pits on his own side. The one who is unable to pay the full amount of four stones into each of his five pits, must close down with sand or earth those holes which he cannot keep going; they are considered as non-existent for the time being, but can be re-opened later, should the owner increase his wealth. The aim of the game is to reduce one's opponent's provision to less than four stones, in which case he is unable to continue the game, all his pits having to be closed." Pankhurst 1971: 181.
Confidence 75
Source Marin, G. 1931. Somali Games. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 61: 499-511.

Id DLP.Evidence.703
Type Ethnography
Game Um el Banât
Location Kababish
Date 1925-01-01 - 1925-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Four counters in each hole. Players sow from any of the holes in their row in an anti-clockwise direction. When the final counter of a sowing falls into an occupied hole (except in the scenario below), these are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter falls into either an empty hole or one of the opponent's holes with three counters, making that hole now have four counters, the sowing ends. When the final counter falls into a hole in the opponent's row containing four counters after sowing concludes, this hole is marked. If a player sows their final counter into their opponent's marked hole. the final counter and one of the counters in the hole are captured. The player then gets another turn. If the final counter falls into a player's own marked hole, the turn ends. The contents of marked holes cannot be sown. The game ends when only marked holes contain counters. These are then captured by the players who marked them. A new game begins. The player with the most counters places four in each hole beginning from the left hole in their row. Each hole that contains four counters is owned by that player for the new round. If the player has three counters remaining after filling as many holes with four as possible, they borrow one counter from the opponent to make four and own the corresponding hole. If there are two or one remaining, the opponent borrows these to fill and own the last hole. Play continues until one player owns no more holes.
Content "4. Um El Banât, or The Game of Daughters "This game is for two players, each of whom has six houses containing initially four counters each (Fig. 8). It introduces a new principle in counter-distribution, in that a player, picking up the contents of one of his own houses and dropping them one by one in an anti-clockwise direction, does not end his move with the fall of the last counter unless (a) it falls into a house previously empty, or (b) it falls on to three others in one of his opponent's houses. In other cases he picks it up, together with any together with any other counters contained in the house into which it just fell, and goes on distributing these counters, often moving several times round the board, until he is brought to a standstill by one of the happenings (a) or (b). In case (b) the player is said to have "begotten a daughter" in his opponent's house and the house has a mark put against it to indicate the fact. The "birth" to one player or the other, of one or more "daughters," introduces a new factor into the game, and that the determining factor. For if, now, A can so move that the last counter dropped falls into the house of B's daughter, he removes it and one other from that house and from the board and plays again. In doing so he is said to "peck" her. Also, if either player drops the last counter from his hand into the house of one of his own daughters, he is said to have "given her a drink" or to have "nourished" her and his move stops. Daughters, it will be observed, are a source for profit and a loss to their father, but all are not equally so. Fig. 9. shows a stage of the game at which B has two daughters in houses D1 and D2. If A is to move, he can begin with the two counters in house X, drop one into W and the other into D1, from which he then removes two from the board. Moving again, he can pick up the one counter just dropped into W, drop it into D1 and again remove two. Playing again from Y, he again removes two, after which he can again score by playing from W. D2, on the other hand, is much more immune from "pecking." It is true that by moving from Z, A can "peck" at her once, but he cannot repeat the process, while, also, practically every move which B makes adds to the counters in D2. The contents of a daughter's house cannot be piked up and moved, so that a stage of the game is completed when the board is left with no counters in it except those in the various daughter's houses. Each player then removes the counters pertaining to his own daughters, adds them to those previously removed by him from the board and divides them into fours. In the result, B has perhaps gained eight counters from A. The game is, however, by no means ended at this point. The board is reset, only this time B has eight houses and A only four, a state of affairs indicated by a deep groove in the sand (Fig. 10). If B has gained three counters, over and above some multiple of four from A, he borrows one more from A to make up a complete house, but if B has gained a multiple of four plus two counters or one, A borrows these back to make up his last house. Play proceeds until one player has driven the other off the board altogether, and therefore it may last for hours; for as the result of the second stage of play A may win back a house or more, and so the fortunes of the game may fluctuate for many successive stages. In practice, it requires great skill, or, rather swift and accurate calculation, to foresee the result of a given move. Some Arabs are quite extraordinarily good at it, notably Sheikh Ali El Tom, the Nazir of the Kababish, who, with hardly any hesitation, will accurately predict the result of a move which takes him three or four times round the board." Davies 1925:143-144.
Confidence 100
Source Davies, R. 1925. 'Some Arab Games and Puzzles.' Sudan Notes and Records. 8: 137–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.705
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Intotoi
Location Samburu
Date 1951-01-01 - 1951-12-31
Rules 2x12 board. Starting position, from the left hand hole, for each player: 0-3-3-0-3-3-0-3-3-0-3-3 In the opening play, one player must sow two counters from the second hole from their right. The opponent then makes the same play from their row, or from the fourth hole from their right. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues. A player's turn ends when the final counter falls into an empty hole. Players may now begin their move from any hole in their row, but only if it ends in an empty hole in their row or if it enters the opponent's row. If the final counter lands in an occupied hole in the opponent's row, these are picked up and sowing continues. If the final counter lands in an occupied hole in the player's row, the contents of the hole in the opponent's hole opposite it are captured. Sowing ends when a capture is made or when a counter falls into an empty hole.
Content Reported by "Miss Grindley" "7.6.20. Kenya, Samburu tribe (south-east of Lake Rudolf): Intotoi (Miss Grindley). 2x12 holes. The initial arrangement of beans is: A move may comprise several laps but only if the last bean in hand falls in a loaded hole on the opponent's row. Play is anticlockwise. Opening play. X lifts two beans from K and sows them in L and a. Y then lifts three beans, either from k or from i, and sows them, starting new laps until the last bean in hand falls in an empty hole. This will necessarily happen on X's row. This concludes the opening play. In the subsequent play, a player may begin his move from any hole on his own row, but only if the sowing ends in an empty hole on his own row or extends to his opponent's row. If it ends in a loaded hole on the opponent's row, its contents are lifted for a new lap, and further laps are played until the last bean in hand falls in an empty hole; if this hole lies on the player's own row and the opposite hole contains beans these are taken." Murray 1951: 200.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.706
Type Ethnography
Game French Wari
Location Barbados
Date 1932-01-01 - 1932-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Four counters in each hole. Moves begin from any hole in the player's row and sowing proceeds in an anti-clockwise direction. If the final counter of a sowing lands in an occupied hole, these counters are lifted and sowing continues. If the final counter lands in an empty hole, any counters in the opposite hole are taken and the turn ends.
Content "The form of wari that has been described in the preceding paragraphs is called "English wari" in Barbados and the other islands where the English tradition is predominant, but it is termed "French Wari" in the French-speaking islands. The fact that there must be a "French wari" played on the English islands, and an "English wari" on the French-speaking ones seemed a logical conclusion, and this for of lesser prestige was first encountered and learned at Barbados. It is a simpler form of the game than that which has just been described, and the rules are as follows. The cups that appertain to each player, the manner of moving the seeds, and the object of the game, are identical with the Ashanti-Djuka-Island form that has been last described. It is the manner of the play that differs. The first player, taking the four seeds from any one of his cups, plays them about the board and then, continuing to move, takes the seeds in the cup in which his last seed has dropped, and distributes these. This continues until his last seed falls into an empty cup, in which case he takes the seeds that are in the cup opposite the one in which he finishes his play, no matter how few or how numerous they may be. If there are no seeds in the cup opposite the one where he ends play, he captures nothing. ...It makes no difference if he ends on his own side or that of his opponent, he captures the seeds in the cup opposite the empty one in which he ends his play. He must begin his play, however, from some cup on his own side of the board. The winner is the player who at the end of the game has twenty-five or more seeds. I do not know whether this form of the game is played on the islands at which I touched other than Barbados and St. Lucia; Martinique and Guadeloupe were not visited" Herskovits 1932: 32.
Confidence 100
Source Herskovits, M. J. 1932. 'Wari in the New World.' The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 62: 23–37.

Id DLP.Evidence.707
Type Ethnography
Game English Wari (St. Lucia)
Location St Lucia
Date 1932-01-01 - 1932-12-31
Rules 2x6 board with two stores. Four counters in each row. For the opening move, a player may take all of the counters in one hole and add them to the next hole. Play continues with players sowing from any one of the holes in their row in an anti-clockwise direction. If a sowing reaches the hole from which the sowing began, this hole is skipped. If the final counter falls in a hole containing three counters, thus making it contain four counters, these are captured. An unbroken sequence of holes containing four counters moving backwards from the final hole are also captured. Single counters cannot be sown. If a player cannot move, the opponent must sow in a way that allows them to play on the next turn. Play continues until one player has no counters on their side of the board. The player with the most captured counters wins.
Content "Another addition to the rules of this form of wari, one that is possibly a local variant, was disclosed while playing...at St Lucia. Here, in breaking the holes, all four seeds may be taken from one cup and put into the next, as, for instance, in Fig. 4, Y might take the four seeds in "e" and place them all in "f," this making no seeds in "e" and eight in "f." This can only be done in the opening move, and the object is to make what is called on all the islands a "house,"—i.e. a cup that has a large number of seeds in it. Tactically this is good if the number of seeds in such a cup be carefully counted, for having such a "house" often gives the player who possesses it an opportunity to go completely around the board and, continuing on the second round, to fill holes on his opponent's side that are either empty or that have only one seed each. This makes a series of two's and three's, the player thus capturing a large number of counters." Herskovits 1932: 31.
Confidence 100
Source Herskovits, M. J. 1932. 'Wari in the New World.' The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 62: 23–37.

Id DLP.Evidence.708
Type Ethnography
Game Meusuëb
Location Aceh
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Content "Another game which is much played by women and children, resembles in principle the Javanese dakon and is played with peukula or gentuë seeds or pebbles. Wooden boards are sometimes used for it, but as a rule the required holes are simply made in the ground, the whole being called the uruë' or holes of the game. The little round holes are called rumòh, the big ones A and B geudong or choh and the pips aneu'. The game itself is known in different places under the names chato, chuka', and jungka'. There are four different ways of playing it in Acèh with which I am acquainted, called respectively meusuëb, meuta', meuchoh, meuliëh. Let us here describe the meusuëb as a specimen. The two players put 4 aneu's in each of six small holes. Then they commence to play, each in his turn taking the pips from any one hole selected at hap-hazard and distributing them among the other holes, dropping one in each they pass. The direction followed is from left to right for the six holes next the player, and from right to left in the opposite ones. The player takes the contents of the hole he reaches with his last pip, and goes on playing. Should he reach an empty hole with his last pip he is dead. Should it happen that when the player reaches the last hole which his store of pips enables him to gain, he finds 3 pips therein, he has suëb as it is called, that is to say he may add these 3 to the one he has still remaining and put these 4 as winnings in his geudong. He can then go on playing with the pips in the next hole (adòë suëb = the "younger brother" of the suëb); but if this next hole be empty he may retain the winnings but the turn passes to his opponent. Thus they go on until there are too few pips left outside the two geudongs to play round with. Then each of the players takes one turn with one of the pips which remains over on his own side of the board. If he is compelled to put his pip in one of the holes on the opposite side, he loses it and when all the pips are thus lost the game is finished." Snouck-Hurgronje 1909: 200-201.
Confidence 100
Source Snouck Hurgronje, C. 1906. The Acehnese. trans. by A. W. S. O’Sullivan. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.709
Type Ethnography
Game Nchuwa
Location Atonga
Date 1913-01-01 - 1913-12-31
Content "Nchuwa (Atonga) In this game the "board" is also made by scooping out the requisite number of holes in the ground, but it differs from Nchombwa in the numbers of holes, These are in four rows, as in the other games, but there are six, nine, twelve, or fifteen holes in each row. The number of seeds (machi) also varies with the number of holes (godi) (two for each), 48, 72, 96, or 120 being required. The Bau board may be used by dispensing with two end holes of each row. The 15-hole game is, however, much the most interesting. The gambit.—Two men are put in each hole. The first player takes up the two in the right hand end hole of the front row, and puts one in the second hole and one in the third. He then takes up the two in the next hole and puts one in each of the next two holes, and so on till there are twice the number of holes having three in them as there are empty. The positions being as drawn:— The opponent does the same. The first player then takes two men from any hole in the front row, and puts them in any empty hole in the back row. He then takes from his opponent the contents of the two holes opposite to that from which he moved the two men, and also the contents of any one other hole (back or front rows), and removes all of them from the board. His opponent does the same. This constitutes the gambit. The game then proceeds exactly as in the Angoni (Nsolo or Nchombwa) game." Sanderson 1913: 734.
Confidence 100
Source Sanderson, M. 1913. "Native Games of Central Africa." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 43: 726-736.

Id DLP.Evidence.710
Type Ethnography
Game Choro (Acholi)
Location Acholi
Date 1927-01-01 - 1927-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Two counters in each hole. Opening play: Two players play simultaneously, lifting and sowing counters from their outer rows. Rules for sowing and capturing are the same as in the main phase of the game except that all holes in each player's outer rows are considered to be in opposition and back captures can be made from them. Once a counter has been sown into the inner row, this ceases and captures can only be made from the inner row. The opening ends when both players reach an empty hole, and the first player to do so begins play in the main phase. Main phase: Play begins from any hole on the player's side of the board with counters in it. Singletons cannot move. Sowing happens in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last counter lands in an empty hole, the turn is over. For capturing: Holes are in 'opposition' when one player has the front row hole occupied and the opponent has both of the holes opposite it occupied. If the last hole in a sowing is in opposition, the player takes the counters in both of the opponent's holes and places them in the empty hole from which the player lifted the counters. The player then sows the captured counters from this hole. Further captures in the sowing can occur in the same way. However, each player has two hole from which clockwise plays can be made: the leftmost hole in the outer row and the second from the left in the inner row. Clockwise moves can only be made from these holes if they immediately lead to a capture. When the captured counters are sown, starting from the same hole, they can also be sown clockwise if they lead to a capture. If they cannot lead to a capture, they are sown anti-clockwise. Another alternative the player has is that, if the player plays clockwise from one of these holes and therefore makes a capture, the captured counters may be placed in the hole and left there, and the player may play instead from the other hole from which clockwise captures are allowed in a clockwise direction, if it leads to a capture. The player may continue playing from this hole as above until the possibilities to move are exhausted, and then may move from any hole in an anti-clockwise direction. Multiple captures can only be made in a clockwise direction from these holes if it is made on the first sowing of the turn. Otherwise, only one clockwise capture can be made and sowing must proceed in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last counter lands on a hole that is occupied but not in opposition, these counters are picked up and sowing continues. Play ends when one player captures all the opponent's counters or one player cannot play. The player who cannot play loses.
Content "Acholi Variation. This appears to be the Didinga variation modified by an adaptation of the Lango turning base, and its essential features may be summarised as follows. It will be seen, however, that the modifications are such that the game under this code differs materially from both the Didinga and the Lango variations. (i) As in the Didinga variation and in contrast with the Lango code, an incremented lap begins at the starting hole of the lap leading up to the increment. (ii) The opponent's marbles are not en prise at the beginning of the move but the player has first to move some marbles in order to reach the requisite position. That is to say, none of the opponent's marbles can be taken before at least one lap has been played. This again conforms with Didinga usage. (iii) The opponent's marbles are en pri,se only if, as in the Didinga code, both of the opponent's holes are occupied opposite an occupied hole in the player's front row in which the player drops the last marble of a lap. It is not permissable to take an inicrement if only the opponent's front row hole is occupied, as is allowable by Lango practice. (iv) The turning base has been incorporated in a modified form: (a) Clockwise motion is permitted only from IK and ik. (b) As in the Lango code, clockwise motion is only permitted in order to take the opponent's marbles which are en prise. (c) When an increment is taken the captured marbles are all placed in the hole from which the lap leading to the increment started. (d) If the increment is taken from the first lap of a move and the captured marbles, played clockwise, suffice to take another increment, they are taken from the hole and so played: but if there is no fresh increment available they must be played counterclockwise in the usual way starting from the hole forward of the one in which they have been deposited. (e) Alternatively the player may start the first lap in this way with a clockwise move from the turning base leading to an increment and after depositing the captured marbles in the hole from which the lap started may leave that lap entirely. He may then, if it is available, play another clockwise move from the other portion of the base and after taking the increment leave it in the same way. Having done all the execution possible by clockwise moves, he may start the move proper from that or from any other part of the board counterclockwise. (f) The rules given under (d) and (e) apply to a clockwise motion frona the turning base at the beginning of a move only. If during the course of a move a player's marble ends at iI or kK, at which there is already one marble or more, he may, subject to an increment being available, play one lap, but only one, clockwise. After taking the increment he proceeds again counterclockwise with the captured marbles, starting at jJ or IL, as the case may be. If the move continues and he again returns to the turning base and finds other of the opponent's marbles en prise, he may similarly play one clockwise lap and continue counterclockwise as before. That is to say, apart from preliminary attacks, in each circuit of a move only one clockwise lap is permitted...The opening is played in the same way as under the Didinga code with the addition of clockwise moves from the turning base. For the purpose of the opening only, the opponent's marbles are en prise to the player's back row, as has been described in the paragraph dealing with the Didinga opening." Driberg 1927b: 188-189.
Confidence 100
Source Driberg, J. 1927b. "The Game of Choro or Pereaüni." Man 26-27:186-189.

Id DLP.Evidence.711
Type Ethnography
Game Choro (Lango)
Location Lango
Date 1927-01-01 - 1927-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Two counters in each hole. Opening play: Two players play simultaneously, lifting and sowing counters from their outer rows. The game must begin from one of the rightmost two holes. Rules for sowing and capturing are the same as in the main phase of the game. The opening ends when both players reach an empty hole, and the first player to do so begins play in the main phase. Main phase: Play begins from any hole on the player's side of the board with counters in it. Singletons cannot move. Sowing happens in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last counter lands in an empty hole, the turn is over. For capturing: Holes are in 'opposition' when one player has the inner row hole occupied and the opponent has at least the opposite hole in the inner row occupied; if the outer row hole is also occupied it is also in opposition. However, if the opponent's inner row hole is empty and the outer row is occupied, it is not in opposition. If the last hole in a sowing falls into a hole that is is in opposition, the player takes the counters in the opponent's holes in opposition and places them in the outer row hole next to the hole from which the capture occurred. The player then sows the captured counters from this hole. If the capture is only of one counter, the contents of the appropriate outer row hole on the player's side are sown along with the one captured counter. Further captures in the sowing can occur in the same way. If a player can make a capture on the first sowing they must. Otherwise, they can choose any hole on their side to sow. However, each player has four holes from which clockwise plays can be made: the leftmost two holes in both the inner and outer rows. Clockwise moves can only be made from these holes if they immediately lead to a capture. When the captured counters are sown, they may, starting from the same hole, also be sown clockwise as long as they lead to a capture. If they cannot lead to a capture, they are sown anti-clockwise in the normal way from the outer row hole opposite the hole from which the capture was made. A player is not required to capture in a clockwise direction. If the last counter lands on a hole that is occupied but not in opposition, these counters are picked up and sowing continues. Play ends when one player captures all the opponent's counters or one player cannot play. The player who cannot play loses.
Content "Lango Variation. The Lango game is in principle the same, that is to say, the object is to capture the opponent's marbles or to leave him immobile in ones. But the code includes one important addition and several variations. (1) The opponent's marbles are en prise either if both holes opposite the player's are occupied or if only the hole of the front row. But if the opponent's front row hole is empty and there are marbles in the corresponding hole of the back row these are not en prise. (2) An incremented lap in a move does not begin at the starting hole of the previous lap, but at the hole opposite which the increment was taken—e.g., a player moving 4 marbles from b drops them in c,d,e,f, and opposite f takes an increment of 3 marbles fron GN. Under the Didinga code he would start dropping the three marbles at b, but under the Lango code he drops them at f,g,h. Should there be only a single marble however in the opponent's first row hole and none in the corresponding back row hole, this marble is taken up together with whatever marbles are in the player's corresponding hole and these are dropped singly from the next hole. hus in the last example supposing that instead of 3 marbles from GN the player took only 1 marble from G, he would add to this his own marbles from f and start dropping them from g onwards. (3) Whereas in the Didinga variant every move must be started by the player lifting a group of his own marbles and continuing the motion until he reaches a hole at which he stops, during the course of which he may have been in a position to capture some increment from his opponent: in this variant if the opponent's marbles are en prise, he must first take these and start dropping them at the hole opposite that from which they were taken, e.g., the player has a marble at f and his opponent is en prise at GN: the player must first take up the marbles from GN and drop them singly from f onwards and so continue the move in the usual manner. If more than one group of the opponent's marbles are en prise the player may choose the group which will be the most advantageous to himself. If none of the opponent's marbles is en prise the player starts his move in the same way as under the Didinga code. It is clear accordingly that in this variant a single marble in the front row may save the game even if all other marbles are taken, as it may ipso facto take any marbles in the hole opposite it. (4) The blocks of holes IJKL and ijkl form the turning bases of players A and B respectively. From these bases moves or laps may be played either clockwise or counter-clockwise, subject to the condition that a move or lap may only be played clockwise in order to take an increment which is en prise. After a lap played clockwise from the turning base, the marbles captured from the opponent may again be played clockwise from the same hole as originated the clockwise lap if their number suffices to take another increment, and this movement may continue as long as the captured marbles permit fresh increments. When no fresh increments are possible, the move must continue counterclockwise, starting from the hole opposite the last increment; but if during the course of the move the player on returning to the turning base finds another opportunity of taking his opponent's marbles by a clockwise lap, he is at liberty to do so. A player is not compelled to play clockwise even if an opponent's marbles are en prise in that direction, and it is sometimes a tactical gain to pass such an opportunity. The opening is played in the same way as in the Didinga variation, with the exception that the players must start either at aA or bB. Clockwise motion from the turning base is also permitted during the opening under the conditions described above. The opponent's marbles are never en prise to the player's back row." Driberg 1927b: 186-187.
Confidence 100
Source Driberg, J. 1927b. "The Game of Choro or Pereaüni." Man 26-27:186-189.

Id DLP.Evidence.712
Type Ethnography
Game Chongka'
Location Marianas
Date 1904-01-01 - 1904-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Seven counters in each hole. Players move from one of the holes in their row, sowing in a clockwise direction, and including the player's store, which is to the left, but not the opponent's store. If the final counter of a sowing lands in an occupied hole, sowing continues. If it lands into an empty hole, the turn is over. If the empty hole is in the player's own row, the contents of the hole opposite in the opponent's row are captured and placed in the store. The first person to capture all the counters wins.
Content ">>Tchonka<<: ein Holzbrett mit 2 Reihen zu je 7 Vertiefungen, in welchen bei Beginn des Spieles je 7 Steinen, SChnecken oder Muscheln liegen (Taf. III, Fig. 1). Beiderseits am Ende des Brettes ist die Kasse jeder der beiden Spieler. Der erste nimmt den Inhalt eines seiner 7 Häufchen und legt von rechts nach links je 1 Muschel in die nächstfolgenden, in seine Kasse, dann in die Fächer des Gegenspielers. Er endet in einem der letzteren, nimmt dessen Inhalt und zählt in derselben Weise weiter, ohne aber etwas in die Kasse des Gegners zu legen. Endet er in einem seiner Ställer, der leer ist, so darf en den Inhalt des gegenüberliegenden in seine Kasse legen, aber nicht weiter spielen. Endet er in einem leeren Stell des Gegners, so spielt dieser weiter. Es kommt darauf an, möglichst viele Muscheln in seine Kasse zu bekommen. Schliesslich sind nur noch wenige Muscheln in den Ställen und das Spiel kann sich sehr in die Länge ziehen." Fritz 1904: 57-58.
Confidence 100
Source Fritz, G. 1904. "Die Chamorro. Eine Geschichte und Ethnographie der Marianen." Ethnologisches Notizblatt 33: 25–110.

Id DLP.Evidence.713
Type Ethnography
Game Owela (Benguela)
Location Benguela
Date 1995-01-01 - 1995-12-31
Rules 4x12-20 board, even numbers preferred. Number of counters is three times the number of holes in a row minus two for a game with an even number of holes in a row; three times the number of holes minus one for odd. Counters are distributed beginning in the leftmost hole in the outer row, placing two counters in each hole in an anti-clockwise direction. Play begins from any of the player's holes, sowing anti-clockwise. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues, unless a capture can be made. Captures are made when the final counter falls into an occupied hole in the inner row, and the opponent's hole opposite contains counters. If it is, they are captured, and if the hole in to outer row opposite also contains counters, these are also captured. These are then sown from the hole following the one from which the capture occurred. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn is over. Single counters cannot be sown. Play ends when one player cannot move.
Content "Este jogo está muito espalhado entre os Umbundos e encontra-se com frequência ao longo da linha do caminho de ferro de Benguela, muito especialmente etre Lobito e Cubal. (foto 3). Aparece também, acidentalmente, em Luso e Teixeira do Sousa, levado pelos ferroviários naturais do litoral, onde, por influência lunda-quiocoa, é, às vezes, designado por Tchela, mas com o qual não deve ser confundido. Este jogo é simples e talvez o mais despido de tradições, por elas já se terem perdido nos longos anos de contacto o Branco, o que, aliás, também se verifica em todos os outros aspectos da vida do nativo na zona do litoral de Benguela: Quadrícula: 4 x 12 a 4 x 20, com número par de casas por linha, sendo a mais corrente 4 x 20. Um só informador se referiu a uma quadrícula ímpar de 4 x 15. Todos os outros dizem que as quadrículas ímpares não permitem boas disputas. Tabuleiro—Não existe, por a quadrícula ser materializada no chão, pela abertura de buracos (foto 23). Casas — Em forma de calote esférica de 4 a 6 cm de diâmetre, a que chamam akina (sing. kina). Pedras — Seixos, geralmente com 2 a 3 cm de dimensão máxima, que designam por ongombe (boi; pl. olombombi). O número de pedras inicial é, por jogador, igual ao triplo do número de casas duma fila menos duas (3n-2). No caso excepcional de n ser ímpar, é de (3n-1). A distribuição inicial das pedras é feita a duas por casas, a partir da situada na extrema esquerda da fila exterior de cada jogador e pelas que se lhes sequem, no sentido directo. Sentido: Cada jogador faz a distribuição das suas pedras no sentido directo. Casas de mão — Têm pertencer ao campo do próprio jogador e conter duas o mais pedras. Distribuição da mão — Faz-se só pelas casas do campo do próprio jogador. Se a última pedra da distribuição da mão cair numa casa já ocupada, esta pedra e as que lá se encontravam voltam a consituir uma mão, que é distribuída, seguidamente, como a anterior. Jogadas — Podem ser movimentos compostos ou cumulativos. Comer — Só podem ser comidas (daria = comer) pedras adversárias com a última pedra da distribuição de uma mão e desde que esta termine numa casa já ocupada da fila interior. Esta pedra come todas as que o adversário tenha nessa coluna, desde que a casa da fila interior esteja ocupada. As pedras comidas formam oma nova mão, que se distribui a partir da casa que se segue àquela em que terminou o lanço que permitiu a captura. Variantes — Não se conhecem. Tradições — Dizem que o jogo é originário de Cuanhama. Interdições — Não se conhecem. Prática — Praticado só por homens e rapazes, como passatempo recreativo, embora por vezes seja jogado a prémio. A disputa é feita entre dois indivúduos ou grupos de indivíduos, sem ser obrigatório haver igual número de cada lado. Como particularidade, há que assinalar o hábito de os jogadores baterem com força a última pedra de distribuição de uma mão sobre as que se encontram na casa onde vai ser despositada, antes de comer as pedras do adversário. Este procedimento, além de ser uma manifestação de júbilo, serve tembém para avisar o adversário." Silva 1995: 75-77.
Confidence 100
Source Silva, E. R. S. 1995. Jogos do quadrícula do tipo mancala com especial incidência nos praticados em Angola. Lisbon: Instituto de investigação cientifica tropical.

Id DLP.Evidence.714
Type Ethnography
Game Muvalavala (Quioco)
Location Moxico
Date 1995-01-01 - 1995-12-31
Rules 4x6-16 board. Number of counters is four times the number of holes in a row minus two. Counters are distributed only in the outer row, with two counters in each hole containing two counters, except the hole on the far left which contains the rest. The counters are then redistributed so that there is one in every hole, except the one on the extreme left in the inner and outer hole. The one on the left in the inner hole remains empty and the one in the inner row retains the same number initially placed there. Play begins from any of the player's holes, sowing anti-clockwise. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues, unless a capture can be made. Captures are made when the final counter falls into an occupied hole in the inner row, and the opponent's hole opposite contains counters. If it is, they are captured, and if the hole in to outer row opposite also contains counters, these are also captured. These are then sown from the hole following the one from which the capture occurred. If the final counter falls into an empty hole, the turn is over. Single counters cannot be sown. Play ends when one player cannot move.
Content Informants: João Mutenga and Amaro Cacoma da Silva, from Cazombo, and José Alfredo, from Gago Coutinho. "2.1.4 — Muvalavala (variante A), dos Luenas e Bundas Os Luenas e Bundas praticam duas variantes de Muvalavala, que diferem fundamentalmente no destino das pedras comidas ao adversário. Na que vamos descrever, as pedras comidas permanecem em jogo (Classe A) e na outra, que descrevemos a seguir em 2.2.1, saem do jogo (Classe B). A presença destas duas classes de jogos Mancala IV entre os Luenas e os Bundas explica-se, por estarem numa zona de transição entre áreas de jogos de profundas tradições e classes perfeitamente definidas— os Cuanhamas (Classe A) e o Quiocos (Classe B). Sendo assim, as duas variantes do Muvalavala não serão mais do que adaptações do Owela e do Tchela. No entanto, é do Muvalavala a única tradição da origem do jogo que recolhemos: Quadrícula — 4 x 6 a 4 x 16. O número de casas por linha não obedece a qualquer norma fixa, diminuindo à medida que desejam obter um jogo de desfecho mais répido. Não usam mais de 16 casas por linha porque, dizem, se torna incómodo oara jogar por causa das deslocações que têm de fazer para movimentar as pedras do jogo. Este motivo é na mesma considerado quando se defrontam dois grupos de jogadores. Tabuleiro — Não existe, por a quadricula ser materializada no chão. Os buracos de quadrícula são geralmente abertos, rodando no solo uma pedra bicuda facetada, à semelhança duma broca. Casas — Em forma de caloe esférica, de 4 a 6 dm de diâmetro, a que chamam buraquinho, (kauina, pl. tuina). As casas da extrema esquerda da linha exterior de cada jogador são designadas por limbo. Esta designação é também dada no decorrer do jogo a todas as casas que tenham mais de três pedras. Pedras — Geralmente pequenos frutos, quer em verde quer depois de secos, com 8 a 10 mm de diâmetro, a que chamam salia, ou missalia (sing. lissalia), duma árvore a que dão o nome de mussalia (Pseudolachinostylis dekindtii Pax ?). Usam também sementes de mandioca (Manihot utilissima) e doutras plantas, e pedras. O número inicial de pedras por jogador é igual a quatro vezes o número de casas por linha menos duas (4n-2); a sua distribução faz-se só na linha exterior de cada jogador, à razão de duas por casa, excepto na da extrema esquerda, onde se colocam as restantes (2n). Por este motivo é que estas casas da quadrícula são chamadas quimbos. Sentido — É seguido o sentifo directo. Casas de mão — Têm de pertencer ao campo do próprio jogador e conter duas ou mais pedras. Distribuição da mão — Da mesma forma que o Owela. No Muvalavala há que distinguir duas fases distintas do jogo: 1.a fase (distribuição inicial): neste fase, em que se procuram distribuir as pedras, uma a uma por todas as casas de quadrícula (semelhança com o Tchela), não se podem jogar as pedras dos quimbos nem incluir no circuito de distribuição das pedras as casas A1, a1, B8 e b8 (caso da figura 16), pelo que estas são consideradas como se não existissem. Quando se fica com uma soó pedra em cada casa, inicia-se a 2. fase (jogo propriamente dito): esta fase é obrigatoriamente iniciada pelo quimbo, o que resulta da proibição de não se poder iniciar um lanço por uma casa com uma única pedra. A partir deste momento passam a ser utilizadas todas as casas da quadrícula. Jogadas — Podem ser movimentos compostos. Comer — De mesma forma que no Owela. Variantes — Não são conhecidas... Interdições — Não se conhecem. Prática — É praticado por homens, mulheres e crianças como passatempo, embora se façam às vezes apostas insignificantes, especialmente entre as crianças. Algumas designações especiais usadas: kulia (comer) — comer pedras ao adversário; nassavala mu mussenge (ir dormir no mato) — diz-se duma jogada que termina na linha exterior, e, portanto, sem qualwuer consequência para o adversário; limbo (quimbo=aldeia) — grupo de mais de três pedras numa casa, ou a casa que as contém; ngunakutape (degolei-te) — expressão que o vencedor dirige ao adversário ao ganhar o jogo." Silva 1995: 83-85.
Confidence 100
Source Silva, E. R. S. 1995. Jogos do quadrícula do tipo mancala com especial incidência nos praticados em Angola. Lisbon: Instituto de investigação cientifica tropical.

Id DLP.Evidence.715
Type Ethnography
Game Muvalavala (Luena)
Location Moxico
Date 1995-01-01 - 1995-12-30
Rules 4x6-16 board. Two counters in each hole. The first move must be from the inner row. Play begins from any of the player's holes, sowing clockwise. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues. Captures are made when the final counter falls into an empty hole in the inner row, and the opponent's hole opposite contains counters. If it is, they are captured, and if the hole in to outer row opposite also contains counters, these are also captured. If the final counter falls into an empty hole and a capture cannot happen, the turn is over. Play ends when one player cannot move.
Content "2.2.1 — Muvalavala (variante B), dos Luenas e Bundas Como já dissemos, supomos que as variantes do Muvalavala são adaptações do Owela cuanhama e do Tchela quioco. Embora na variante A apareça somente a influência do Owela, nesta é notória a influência dos dois jogos, o que explica o uso de quadrículas superiores a 4 x 8 e a ausência de tabuleiro, peça fundamental de importância bem vincada nas tradições do povo quioco: Quadrícula — 4 x 6 a 4 x 16. O número de casas por linha não obedece a qualquer norma especial, sendo válido neste caso o dito para a variante A (influência do Owela). Tabuleiro — Não existe, por a quadrícula ser materializada no chão (influência do Owela). Casas — Idênticas às da variante A, não havendo neste caso a designação limbo. Pedras — São utilizados como pedras os mesmos materiais que na variante A. O número inicial de pedras por jogador é igual a quatro vezes o número de casas por linha (4n) e a sua distribuição faz-se a duas pedras por casa. Sentido — É seguido o sentido directo, que, neste caso, concorda com o movimiento a direita para a esquerda, como o velho ensinou e é descrito na lenda de origem do jogo, porque a primeira jogada tem de ser iniciada por uma casa da linha interior. Casas de mão — Têm de pertencer ao campo do jogador: O primeiro lanço é sempre iniciado por uma casa da linha interior; Podem ter uma só pedra. Distribuição de mão — Segue a regre general. Jogadas — Podem ser movimentos compostos. Comer — Se a última pedra de distribuição de uma mão cair numa casa vazia da linha interior, esta pedra pode comer as pedras adversárias existentes nessa coluna se a casa da linha interior estiver ocupada. As pedras comidas saem do jogo... Prática — Como no Muvalavala (variante A)." Silva 1995: 87.
Confidence 100
Source Silva, E. R. S. 1995. Jogos do quadrícula do tipo mancala com especial incidência nos praticados em Angola. Lisbon: Instituto de investigação cientifica tropical.

Id DLP.Evidence.716
Type Ethnography
Game Dabuda
Location Afar
Date 1971-01-01 - 1971-12-31
Rules 2x10 board. Four counters in each hole. Play begins from one of the rightmost four in the player's row, sowing in an anti-clockwise direction. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these counters are picked up and sowing continues. Captures are made if the player's final counter lands in an empty hole in their row; the contents of the opponent's hole opposite and the final counter are both captured. If the hole opposite is empty, nothing happens. If the empty hole is in the opponent's row, the turn ends. After each player performs this move, they may sow from any hole in their row, provided the sowing leads into the opponent's row or finishes in an empty hole in the player's own row. Play continues until one player cannot play because their holes are empty. When this happens, the opponent captures the remaining counters. Each player counts their captured counters, four by four, into their holes. The player who has the most counters wins.
Content " Dabuda I This game (Game 33), the best known among the Afar, is based on two rows, each normally consisting of 10 holes, with four balls per hols, and was played by Haji Ali Muhamad Salah of the Damohoita tribe, a trader resident in Asaita, Ahmad Al-Jowari, a Radio Ethiopia entertainer from Jibuti and Mahmouda Ahmed Gassa, a Haile Selassie I University student from Thio. The first player would begin, as Haji Mohamad says, by lifting up the balls from his extreme right hole, or, as Ahmad Al-Johari says, at least from one of the four right-hand holes, and would then distribute these balls, in an anti-clockwise direction, by dropping them one by one into the following holes. On dropping his last ball into a hole he would lift up the entire contents of that hole, and would proceed in this manner until he reached an empty hole. If that happened on one of his own holes, with one or more balls in his opponent's opposite hole, the player would take his last ball or counter, together with the opposite ball or balls as his winnings, but if his opponent's opposite hole were empty the player was entitled to take nothing, and this was the case also if he alighted in one of his opponent's empty holes. It would then be the second player's turn to move. The players, who were allowed to count the contents of their hole so as to calculate their moves, could now start from any of their holes provided the last ball in their hand fell on one of their own empty holes or led on to the enemy row, in which latter case it was permissible for a ball going round the board finally to alight on the player's own side... Captures would always be effected by alighting in an empty hole belonging to the player and facing an occupied enemy hole. Play would continue until one of the players was unable to move because his holes were all empty. His opponent would at this point appropriate the remaining balls )which were of course now only in the latter's row) and would place them with his previous winnings. The two players would then count out their takings, four by four, into their holes, the player with the largest number of balls being the victor. Ahmad Al-Johari states that a player capturing enough balls to fill three or more of his opponent's holes would be considered to have gained a particularly notable triumph, and would say, farasal kokaysé, literally "I beat you by a horse." Pankhurst 1971: 180.
Confidence 100
Source Pankhurst, R. 1971. Gabata and Related Board Games of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia Observer 14(3):154-206.

Id DLP.Evidence.717
Type Ethnography
Game Mbangbi
Location Nsungli
Date 1938-01-01 - 1938-12-31
Rules 2x5 board with two stores. Eight counters in each hole. When sowing, if the final counter makes two or four counters, these are taken. Can be played with 2 or 4 players. **Does not indicate direction of play.
Content "Spielsachen sind unter der Jugend nicht vorhanden.Die Kinder sind darauf angewiesen, Sand, Steinchen, Früchte und Hölzchen zum Spielen benutzen. Da die Mädchen vielfach mit die Wartung der jüngeren Geschwister beschäftigt sind, und sie auch schon frühzeitig zur Feldarbeit mit herangezogen werden, so sieht man sie recht wenig beim Spiel. Doch sind der der Jugend immerhin eine ganze Anzahl Spiele bekannt, mit denen sich besonders die Knaben oft stundenlang beschäftigen. Am beliebtesten is mbangbi. Dieses Spiel hat in manchem Ähnlichkeit mit unseren Brettspielen. Anstatt der Felder werden 12 kleine Mulden im Erdboden ausgehoben. In jedes Feld — eins bleibt frei —werden 8 Steinchen oder Fruchtkerne gelegt. Es können sich 2 oder 4 am Spiel beteiligen. Das Spiel erfordert eine gewisse Berechnung. Wer das Besetzen er einzelnen Felder so überlegt, dass am meisten 2 oder 4 Steine nebeneinander in den Mulden sind, hat gewonnen." Sieber and Sieber 1938: 218.
Confidence 100
Source Sieber, J. And D. Sieber. 1938. Das Leben des Kindes im Nsungli-Stamm. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 11(2): 208–220.

Id DLP.Evidence.718
Type Ethnography
Game Wouri
Location 14°29'14.77"N, 4°11'50.86"W
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Rules 2x6 board. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction, beginning from any hole in the player's row. When the final counter lands in a hole in the opponent's row containing three (four counting the last counter dropped into it), these are taken. In addition, the contents of any hole in the opponent's row which a player causes to contain four counters are captured. When the final counter lands in an empty hole, the turn ends. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole containing a number of counters other than three, the counters are picked up and sowing continues. If sowing reaches the original hole from which the sowing began, this hole is skipped over. A player must play so that the opponent has counters with which to play, if possible.
Content "D'après Koné Moussa, Doc. IFAN, f. William Ponty, III, SO 3. 2.— Le <> malinké à 12 cases de Mopti. La planche est la même, semblables le nombre et la disposition des billes et leur sens de rotation. Départ, comme dans l'awélé, d'une case quelconque, du camp du joueur. Mais quand le joueur, premier à jouer, a vidé son pot, il prend le pot dans lequel il a placé sa dernière bille, et continue jusqu'à ce que la dernière bille tombe dans un trou qui en contient 3, en quel cas il ramasse — il mange — les 4 billes et passe le main; soit sur un trou vide, en quel cas il passe simplement la main. Le partenaire agit de même. De plus, toutes les fois où un joueur forme dans le camp de son adversaire une case pleine de 4 billes, il vide cette case. Il existe des variantes où l'on prend au contraire les 4 de son camp, d'autres où le joueur qui joue prend dans les deux camps, d'autres enfin où chaque joueur prend les pots de 4 qui se forment dans son camp." Béart 1955: 490-504.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.719
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Khrour
Location Moudjeria
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Rules 2x2-6 board. Each hole contains a number of counters equal to the total number of holes in the board. Sowing begins from any hole in the player's row, and proceeds anti-clockwise. Counters are captured when the final counter lands in an occupied hole, making it contain 2, 4, 6, or 8 counters. When all of the counters have been captured, a second game begins. Each player fills their holes with the same number of counters as the beginning of the previous game. The player who has extra counters holds these in reserve. The other player will have either empty holes or one without the requisite number to fill the hole. Sowing cannot begin and captures cannot be made from these holes until the contents of these holes reaches the required number of counters to fill them. The second player in the first game now becomes the first player. Play continues with subsequent games until one player captures all the counters.
Content "On le retrouvera dans le khrour, hrur maure de Moudjéria, qui mérite cependant une description plus complète, car nous allons y rencontrer quelque chose qui ressemble aux cases brûlées du jeu malais. Il est joué aux heures les plus chaudes de midi, à la première prière vespérale, zohor, par les femmes et les jeunes filles; quelquefoid les adolescents, pour approcher les jeunes filles, joueront avec elles, mais jamais entre eux. Les trous sont creusés dans le sable, et l'on emploie pour jouer, non pas la crotte de chameau, pourtant si communément admise comme jeton, mais de gros haricots de la taille d'une dragée, Canavalia ensiformis, appelés tamret 'grab, dattes du Corbeau, qui ne poussent que bien plus au Sud, ou, à défaut, le fruit appelé tougué, tugé, d'un arbuste du pays: etkišot. Le mot krur désigne le jeu lui-même et l'ensemble des pions du jeu. Deux joueuses face à face creusent deux rangées de trous parallèles—eddiar*, sing.: eddar*, lieu habité (cf. la <> des jeux étudiés), dans lesquelles elles placent des pions kyétan (sing. : kyit = impair?). Le nombre des pions par case west d'autant p;lus grand qu'il y a plus de trous: 2 trous par rangée 4 pions par trou 3 trous par rangée 6 pions par trou 4 trous par rangée 8 pions par trou Admettons que les deux joueuses aient 6 trous chacune, il y aura 12 graines dans chaque tour (fig 394). La joueuse première à jouer, S par exemple, prendra les 12 graines de la case II, en laissera une dans la case. En tournant en sens inverse de celui des aiguilles d'une montre, elle égrènera les onze graines restant, la dernière viendra en I, le nombre des graines, y compris celle qui arrivem étant impair, la graine y <>, ibat, et la main passe. Il y a 13 graines partout, sauf en II, où il y en a une seule. N joue 12 pions de XI, et le dernier viendra coucher en XI, où se trouve le pion laissé au départ. (On égrène dans la cas de départ, ce qui est une particularité assez rare.) Il y a deux graines —nombre pair—dans le pot, N les mange, yokel 'um, et la main passe. S joue un de ses pots, où il laisse une graine. S'il se couche en formant un pot de 2, 4, 6, ou 8 graines, pas au-delà, il le mange et passe la main; s'il forme en se couchant un pot impair, il passe la main sans rien manger: i but tlekhlé, il couche en brousse, ce qui est tout à fait évocateur. Quand un joueur joue, on dit qu'il nomadise, yerahal; s'il est accusé de tricher ou de s'être trompé, il doit faire à l'envers se nomadisation et revenir au point de départ. Le deuxième rob. Quand toutes les graines ont été mangées, elles sont redistribuées dans les pots. Supposons que S ait mangé 86 des 144 graines, N en aura mangé 144-86=58. S pourra remplir ses six cases et il lui restera 86-72=14 graines, qui constitueront sa réserve. N ne pourra remplir que 4 cases, et il lui restera 10 graines, qu'il placera dans sa cinquième case, qui sera borgne, dar aora, la sixième est morte, dar miyeta (fig. 394). S ayant commencé la première partie, c'est N qui commence la seconde. Elle posera une graine dans la case aveugle et dans la case borgne, mais si l'on s'y couche on ne peut les manger aussi longtemps qu'elles n'auront pas été complétées, malet, de mal = la mise. La partie n'est terminée, sauf convention particulière, que quand toutes les cases d'une joueuse sont aveugles." Béart 1955: 512-514.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.720
Type Ethnography
Game Tchela
Location Chokwe
Date 1995-01-01 - 1995-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. May have one or two stores per player. Stores are located to the right hand side of the player's two rows, centered with respect to the player's two rows. If each player has two stores, the second store is located between the fourth and fifth holes of the player's rows; i.e., in the center of the board Variant: can also be played on 4 x 6 board. One counter in each hole except the stores Opening play: Player sows from any one of their holes, thus making a pair. They then take the counter in the next hole and sow it, making another pair. This continues until the last pair is made. When the last pair is made, the player sows this pair normally. Main phase: Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. When the final counter falls into an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues. The turn ends when the final counter falls into an empty hole. When this empty hole is in the inner row, the counters in the opponent's hole opposite are captured. If the opponent's inner row hole are occupied, then any contents in the outer row opposite are also captured. When a single counter exists in the penultimate hole in the inner row and the opponent is able to capture it on their next turn it can "skip" to either the first or second hole in the outer row, provided one of them is empty. This can only be done if the final hole in the inner row is empty. Several rules apply to the stores: They are not used during the opening play, except on the final sowing after all pairs have been made; They may only hold one counter at a time; The counter in the store cannot be captured; It is the player's choice whether to include the store in sowing; they are considered to be in the player's inner row of holes for the purposes of sowing.
Content "O Tchela é um jogo profundamente arreigado na tradição do povo lunda-quioco. A forma praticada na Lunda parece-nos a mais pura e primitiva porque é nesta região que o jogo se apresenta aureolado pelo prestígio das antigas tradições e vinculado a manifestações que são, indubitavelmente, apanágio da élite de um povo que, pelo seu carácter e vitaldade, se distingue do conjunto dos outros povos de Angola. Referimo-nos ao facto de o tchela estar não só ligado a ritos funerários e aos cestos dos adivinhos, mas também representado nos célebres desenhos na areia e nas paredes pintadas, expressões artísticas profundamente ligadas às tradições quiocas, exemplos típicos de arte por arte da maior importância para o cnhecimento e compreensão da opulenta mentalidade deste povo de artistas. Compreende-se que assim seja se atendermos a que a Lunda é o centro de irradiacões de todos os núcleos de quiocos estabelecidos para sul e às condicões especiais da região que são favoráveis, sob todos os aspectos, ao culto e conservação das tradições e ao predomínio da cultur quioca sobre a dos demais grupos étnicos daquela área. A zona ao longo do cominho de ferro é muito pouco característica, pela facilidade de contactos permitida por aquela via de comunicação que atravessa Angola. Os jogos nela praticados pelos Quiocos são, salvo raras excepções, da quadrícula igual ou superior a 4 x 12. Estes jogos do tchela quioco só têm o nome, porque seguem integralmente as regras do owela, já descrito em 2.1.1, trazido do Oeste através da via férrea. Quadrícula— 4x6 a 4x8, mas geralmente 4x8. Tabuleiro— Tradicionalmente de madeira, mais ou menos trabalhado, conforme a categoria do seu dono, com dois depósitos em braços situados no seu eixo. Parece que tembím se serviriam de pedra dura (liwe lya mukandji) para fazer tabuleiros (tchela ca kuta), mas não temos conhecimento de casos concretos. Como recurso podem materializar uma quadrícula no chão, sistema que também é utilizado pelos mais novos que não podem dispor dum tabuleiro. No Dundo vimos, à hora do descanso do almoço, dois empregados da Diamang jogarem nom tabuleiro materializado por uma quadrícula pintada, com tinta de óleo vermelha, sobre uma chapa de ferro industrial, possivelmente dum tambor. Trata-se, necessariamente, duma solução de recurso, mas que mostra a importância tradicional do tabuleiro. Casas— São designadas por mena (sing. uina). Cabeças— Aparece, geralmente, este tipo de casas de designam por mitue (sing. mutue = cabeça (No Lumeje ouvi designar as cabeças por meso (sing. rhiso = olho)). O seu número é variavel, podendo existir uma ou duas por jogador. Quando só há duas por tabuleiro, elas são sempre exteriores à quadrícula (foto 8), situando-se à direita de cada um dos jogadores. Havendo quatro <>, duas são exteriores, como no primeiro caso, e as outras, interiores. Estas situam-se entre as duas linhas que pertencem a cada parceiro, no eixo do tabuleiro (fotos 6 e 7). Um dos tabuleiros representados (foto 6) tem as cabeças interiores assimétricas —A'4, A'8, B'O e B'3. As cabeças gozam de regalias particulares, que são as seguintes: Não são consideradas no distribuição inicial das pedras; Só podem conter uma única pedra; As pedras nelas colocadas não podem ser comidas; Podem ou não ser incluídas numa jogada, conforme a vontade do jogador; Só podem ser occpadas no sentido do jogo, considerando-se, para o efeito, as cabeças interiores como pertencentes à fila interior. Não conseguimos obter qualque informação do razão de ser das cabeças. Parece-nos, no entanto, que elas fazem parte do jogo já há muito tempo e que foram introduzidas com o fim de dar maid maleabilidade aos jogos de reduzido número de colunas, tornando-os mais difíceis. Depósitos— Existem dois depósitos em todos os tabuleiros que conhecemos. Pedras —São designadas por sache (sing. lucache (no Lumeje ouvi designar as pedras por dumbue (sing. lundumbue))) e normalmente constituídas por pequenos seixos ou sementes. Destas, as mais usadas são as de mumanga (Brackystegia manda De Wild), coconote, vulgarmente conhecido por dendém (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) e mpáfu, ou mupáfu (Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. (Em Sandando utilizam sementes designadas por kapango, do nome da árvore)). O número de pedras usado é de uma por casa da quadrícula, não incuindo as cabeças. Sentido–Directo. Casas de mão — Têm de pertencer ao campo do jogador e não podem ter uma só pedra, excepto se for uma cabeça, enquanto houver outras com mais do que uma. Distribuição— A primeira jogada não segue a regra general. Nesta, que tem por fim agrupar as pedras aos pares, toma-se a pedra duma casa qualquer e junta-se à da casa seguinte, o que forma o primeiro par; toma-se a pedra d casa imediata e procede-se de igual forma, e assim successivamente; a jogada termina com a distribuição normal do último par formado. Na primeira jogada pode-se já ocupar qualquer cabeça...a dispisição das pedras depois desta jogada será indicDistribuição— A primeira jogada não segue a regra general. Nesta, que tem por fim agrupar as pedras aos pares, toma-se a pedra duma casa qualquer e junta-se à da casa seguinte, o que forma o primeiro par; toma-se a pedra d casa imediata e procede-se de igual forma, e assim successivamente; a jogada termina com a distribuição normal do último par formado. Na primeira jogada pode-se já ocupar qualquer cabeça...a dispisição das pedras depois desta jogada será indicada na figura 18. A jogada seguinte de A obedecerá já à regra geral. No decorrer do jogo aparece outra excepção: a jogada designada por kutchina (fugir); Supunhamos a distribuição indicada na figura 19 e que é o parceiro A a jogar: O jogador A pode mover a pedra de A2 para a1, saltando a casa A1, e evitar assim que seja comida pela pedra de B'0 ou b1. No caso de a1 estar ocupanda poderia passar para a2, o que corresponde à posição do jogador B. Neste caso, a pedra de B7 saltava para b7, fugindo a ser comida pela de A'8. Jogadas—Podem ser movimentos compostos. Comer— Só pode comer a última pedra da distribuição de uma mão desde que esta termine numa casa vazua da linha interior. Esta pedra come todas as pedras adversárias existentes nessa coluna se a casa da linha interior estiver ocupada." Silva 1995: 88-91.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.721
Type Ethnography
Game Yovodji
Location Benin
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Variantes dahoméennes (fig. 390). Souvent jeux de femmes, pendant les funérailles, souvent aussi jeux d'argent, on y engage des sommes importantes, une bicyclette, la récolte d'un champ. Yovodji, mina: yovoji = jeu des blancs, jeu classique, 12 trous, 4 billes par trou, mais le joueur prend les billes du pot où il a déposé sa dernière bille et continue avec les billes de ce trou jusqu'à ce qu'il rencontre un trou vide; si c'est un trou de son adversaire, il passe la main, si c'est un trou se sa rangée, il prend les billes qui se trouvent dans le pot opposé chez son adversaire et passe la main." Béart 1955: 510.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.722
Type Ethnography
Game Foji
Location Benin
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Variantes dahoméennes (fig. 390). Souvent jeux de femmes, pendant les funérailles, souvent aussi jeux d'argent, on y engage des sommes importantes, une bicyclette, la récolte d'un champ. Yovodji, mina: yovoji = jeu des blancs, jeu classique, 12 trous, 4 billes par trou, mais le joueur prend les billes du pot où il a déposé sa dernière bille et continue avec les billes de ce trou jusqu'à ce qu'il rencontre un trou vide; si c'est un trou de son adversaire, il passe la main, si c'est un trou se sa rangée, il prend les billes qui se trouvent dans le pot opposé chez son adversaire et passe la main. Une variante fôji serait identique, mais se jouerait dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre." Béart 1955: 510.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.723
Type Ethnography
Game Enindji
Location Benin
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Enindji, mina: eninji = jeu des 4, 12 trous, 4 billes par trou, même jeu, jusqu'à ce que le joueur place sa dernière bille dans un trou vide, la main passse, ou dans un pot contenant 3 billes; si ce pot est dans son camp, il sort les 4 billes, s'il est chez l'adversaire, c'est l'adversaire qui les sort, dans les deux cas la main passe."Béart 1955: 510.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.724
Type Ethnography
Game Fondji
Location Benin
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Fondji, mina: fôji. Awélé classique, le joueur ne ramasse les pots de 3 et de 2 que s'ils se trouvent dans son camp. S'ils sont chez l'adversaire, personne n'y touche et la main passe." Béart 1955: 510.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.725
Type Ethnography
Game Kapana Bona
Location 11° 5'59.69"N, 2° 6'0.54"W
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Rules Counters are arranged in piles: two rows of three heaps. Eight counters in each pile. A player takes the counters from any of the piles and sows them anti-clockwise, beginning with the pile from which the counters were taken. Any piles that now contain 2, 4, or 6 counters are captured. The player who captures the most counters wins.
Content "Une variante gourounsi: kapana bona. Chez les Gourounsi de Léo, kapana bona est joué par les filles avec six tas de 8 cailloux (fig 392). La première à jouer prend les cailloux d'un de ses pots moins un, et les répartit en tournant de gauche à droite. Sont acquis tous les pots contenant 2, 4, ou 6 cailloux. La tradition veut que ce jeu soit toucouleur et ait été rapporté par les Gourounsis de la prise de Toumbouctou par les Mossis, dont les Gourounsis étaient les alliés..." Béart 1955: 511.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.726
Type Ethnography
Game Ouré Ngat
Location 14°45'36.47"N, 17°22'17.61"W; 16° 1'57.36"N, 16°28'54.60"W
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "...au Sénégal, en face de l'ouré ngon, w. : uré ngon, awélé classique, existe l'ouré ngat, w. uré ngat, jeu de filles, à deux rangées à 4 trous, 6 billes par trou, où l'on ramasse également le contenu de tous les trous contenant 2, 4, ou 6 billes; on ramasse même dans son camp, comme dans kapana bona. (Gueye Iba, Dakar, et plusieurs informateuers de Saint-Louis.)." Béart 1955: 511.
Confidence 100
Ages Child
Genders Female
Source Driberg, J. 1927b. "The Game of Choro or Pereaüni." Man 26-27:186-189.

Id DLP.Evidence.727
Type Ethnography
Game Wöré
Location 16° 1'57.36"N, 16°28'54.60"W
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Un weuré, w. : wöré, de Saint-Louis est semblable (to ouré ngat), mais on ne ramasse que dans son camp. C'était autrefois strictement un jeu de femmes, qui, dans certaines familles comme les DAHRO, demeure absolument interdit aux garçons non circoncis et aux jeunes filles." Béart 1955: 512.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.728
Type Ethnography
Game Woli
Location Senegal Valley
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Un woli toucouleur est joué sur la table classique, mais avec 6 billes par case, et les deux joueuses jouant en sens inverse, cas très rare en Afrique, où les joueurs jouent généralement de gauche à droite." Béart 1955: 512.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.729
Type Ethnography
Game Li'b al-Ghashim
Location Modern Egypt
Date 1860-01-01 - 1860-12-31
Content "One of the games most common among the Egyptians is that of the "mankalah." Two persons play at this, with a board (or two boards joined by hinges) in which are twelve hemispherical holes, called "buyoot" (plural of "beyt"}, in two equal rows ; and with seventy-two small shells, of the kind called cowries ; or as many pebbles : these, whether shells or pebbles, are termed the (in the singular, "hasweh"). To explain the game of the mankalah, I must distinguish the beyts of the board by letters, thus : - The beyts marked A, B, C, D, E, F, belong to one party; and the opposite six beyts to the other. One of the parties, when they are about to play the game in the most simple manner (for there are two modes of playing it), distributes all the unequally into the beyts ; generally putting at least four into each beyt. If they were distributed equally, there would be six in each beyt ; but this is seldom done ; for, in this case, he who plays first is sure to lose. The act of distributing the is called "tebweez." When one party is dissatisfied with the other's distribution of the he may turn the board round ; and then his adversary begins the game ; which is not the case otherwise. Supposing the party to whom belong the beyts A, B, C, D, E, F, commences the game, he takes the from beyt F, and distributes them to the beyts a, b, c, &c., one to each beyt ; and if there be enough to put in each of his adversary's six beyts, and more remain in his hand, he proceeds in the same manner to distribute them to his own beyts, in the order A, B, C, &c. ; and then,if he have still one or more remaining, to his adversary's beyts, as before, and so on. If the last beyt into which he has put a contain but one (having been empty before he put that in; for it may have been left empty at the first,) he ceases ; and his adversary plays : but if it contain two or four, he takes its contents, with those of the beyt opposite ; and if the last beyt contain two or four, and one or more of the preceding beyts also contain either of these numbers, no beyt with any other number intervening, he takes the contents of these preceding beyts also, with the contents of those opposite. If the last beyt into which he has put a contain (with this three, or five, or more, he takes these out, and goes on distributing them in the same manner as before ; for instance, if, in this case, the last beyt into which he has put a be D, he puts one from its contents into E, another into F, a third into a, and so on ; and thus he continues, until making the last beyt to contain but one stops him, or making it to contain two or four brings him gain, and makes it his adversary's tum to play. He always plays from beyt F, or, if that be empty, from the nearest beyt to it in his own row con- taining one or more When one party has more than a single in one or more of his beyts, and the other has none, the former is obliged to put one of his into the first of his adversary's beyts. I f only one remain on one side, and none on the other, that one is the property of the person on whose side it is. When the board is completely Cleared, each party counts the number of the he has taken ; and the one who has most reckons the excess of his above his .adversary's number as his gain. The gainer in one board begins to play the next board; his adversary having first distributed the When either party has made his suc- cessive gains amount to sixty, he has won the game.-In this manner, the game of the manl5-alah is played by young persons ; and hence this mode of playing it is called "the game of the ignorant" (" el-ghasheem ")..." Lane 1860: 344-346.
Confidence 100
Source Lane, E. W. 1836. An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. London: John Murray.

Id DLP.Evidence.730
Type Ethnography
Game Papan Dakon
Location 3°19'6.98"S, 114°35'39.75"E
Date 1955-01-01 - 1955-12-31
Content "Le dakon malais. Se première particularité est que le mot dakon — dakon ou dakun— n'est pas malais. Le jeu est connu en Malaisie sous le nom de papan-dakon papân, malais, signifiant planche, dakon paraissant n'être pas une racine malaise, mais plutôt javanaise. Cependant, à l'interior de Java, il se nomme tjonglak, jôngklak. Il est dakoun, dakun, sur les côtes de Java et à Borneo. Ici comme en Afrique, le nom vernaculaire ne peut guère apporter de renseignements, seule une étude approfondie de tous les vernaculaires pourrait indiquer des filiations vraies. Le seconde, plus importante, est qu'il se joue de droite à gauche, dans le sense du mouvement des aiguilles d'une montre, ce que nous ne rencontrons nulle part ailleurs. La troisième, plus importante encore, est que les cases des extrémités, qui partout ailleurs servent à placer les gains — que dans le feu de l'action on laisse le plus souvent trainer par terre— sont ici fonctionelles. Dans une variante élémentaire jouée par les fillettes, et quelquefois même par les adultes, qui en font un jeu de hasard, elles sont même l'élément essentiel du jeu. On place un certain nombre de noyaux, de cailloux ou de coquillages égal dans chaque trou, puis la joueuse prend la noyaux, de cailloux ou coquillages, d'un trou qui, dans certaines règles, est la premier à droite, en quel cas tout le jeu est déterminé, et n'est plus ni un jeu d'intelligence, ni un jeu de hasard, mais requiert seulement un peu d'attention pour ne pas tricher involontairement, ou pour tricher volontairement; ou bien c'est un des trous au choix de joueur, en quel cas des qualités stratégiques et tactiques peuvent intervenir. Elle égrène ses billes une par une dans chaque trou, en plaçant une au passage dans le trou d'éxtremité qui est à sa gauche, sa <> ou son <>. Quand la dernière bille tombe dans un trou occupé, elle prend les billes de ce trou et continue jusqu'à ce qu'elle trouve une <> vide ou qu'elle s'arrête chez sa mère. En quels cas la main passe. Les seuls prises sont dont les billes placées en tournant chez les mères. C'est un jeu de hasard pour les fillettes— à l'âge où elles ne se sont pas encore aperçu qu'une comptine bien menée désigne qui on veut. Pour un adulte qui sait jouer, les quelques coups nécessaires pour s'assurer le gain sont assez aisés à retenir. Le jeu d'adultes est beaucoup plus compliqué (La règle que je vais donner a été recueillie à Bandjermasin (Bornéo) par Mme Imbert-Prosé, mais le jeu est le même à l'intérieur de Java.); c'est un jeu d'hommes et surtour de viellards (Il est aussi joué à Java et à Borneo par les Chinois que passionnent tous les jeux d'argent, est celui -ci en est un.). Il se joue sur un plateau de bois de fer, très lourd, très résistant, souvent ouvragé, qui se transmet dans la famille durant des nombreuses générations. Le plateau comporte deux rangées de 7 cases et, à chaque extrémité, une case, la <> ou le <>, chaque joueur disposant des 7 cases <> ou <> qui sont devant lui, et de la >, qui est à sa gauche (fig. 386). On joue à Java, sur le côte, avec des cauris, à Bornéo, avec des coquillages ronds, bruns, provenant des rizières, on joue aussi avec des noyaux ou des cailloux; on place en général 7 coquillages par trou, quelquefoid plus, mais jamais moins. Les joueurs— et ceci constitue une nouvelle particularité—commencent ensemble (Je n'ai pas le détail des règles pour le cas où ils se présentent ensemble dans la même case, cas certainement prévu dans un jeu dont la règle est si précise et si compliquée, et joué par des gens, Malais, Chinois, très minutieux dans tous leurs comportements sociaux. Le fait de commencer ensemble n'existe en Europe, à ma connaissance, que dans certains jeux de billard, peut-être d'origine orientale). Chacun prend les 7 billes d'une des cases à son choix et les égrène une par une dans le sens du mouvement des aiguilles d'une montre, plaçant au passage une bille dans son tas et n'en plaçant pas, évidemment, dans celui de l'adversaire. Quand la dernière bille tombe dans une case occupée, le joueur prend les billes de ce cette case et les égrène à leur tour, jusqu'à ce que la dernière bille en main tombe dans une case vide ou dans le tas du joueur, en quels cas la main passe. Les deux joueurs ont commencé ensemble mais l'un des deux poursuivra son jeu plus longtemps, après quoi il repassera la main au premier et le jeu continuera, chaque joueur jouant à son tour comme dans les jeux que nous avons déjà rencontrées... Les Prises. Quand la dernière bille égrenée tombe dans une <> occupée du joueur, il peut prendre le contenu de cette maison et continuer comme nous l'avons vu; mais il peut également poser cette dernière bille dans la maison opposée de son partenaire, et mettre le contenu de cette maison, plus cette dernière bille dans son tas, après quoi il égrènera le contenu de sa maison...Il n'est jamais obligé de prendre ainsi, et l'avantage tactique d'une prise immédiate compromet souvent les résultats meilleurs d'une stratégie habile. 5. Les maisons brûlées. Quand commence la deuxième partie, des joueurs de bridge diraient le deuxième rob, le perdant place sept billes dans chacun de ses trous, en commençant par la gauche, les cases VII, Vi, V, etc., dans cet ordre, resteront vides, s'il n'a plus assez de fois 7 billes pour le remplir. Si le nombre de billes dont il dispose n'est pas multiple de 7, les billes en excès seront remises dans son tas. Le gagnant mettra dans chacune de ses maison le plus grand nombre des billes possible, chacune en contenant un nombre égal; quand il n'a plus assez de billes pour en mettre une das chaque maison, il place le reste dans son tas. Les cases vides du perdant sont dites maison brûlées... Les maison brûlées ne comptent plus. Si par erreur un joueur y verse une bille, son partenaire lui imposera comme amende au prochain tour de commencer par tel pot qu'il lui deisgnera. Quand un joueur a des maison brûlées, celui qui a toutes ses maisons doit commencer par une des cases opposées aux maison brûlées. Le jeu s'achève en principe, et sauf conventions particulières, quand toutes les maisons d'un joueur sont brûlées." Béart 1955: 505-508.
Confidence 100
Source Béart, C. 1955. Jeux et jouets de l'ouest africain. Tome II. Dakar: IFAN.

Id DLP.Evidence.732
Type Ethnography
Game Quela
Location 10°44'6.79"S, 14°58'52.52"E; 12°11'45.57"S, 15°51'17.32"E
Date 1969-01-01 - 1969-12-31
Content "2.2.3—Quela, dos Quibalas (Informadores: soba grande Sebastião Dumbo, da banza Catúmbi, soba António Quinjango e os velhos Trinta, Chico e Chiombo, da sanzala Catamba; os velhos Deniel Costa e José Brandão, da sanzala da Missão.), Bailundos e Dembos. Este jogo é idêntico ao Tchela, dos Quiocos (notar a semelhança da pronúncia dos nomes). Difere em não ter cabeças, no número de pedras por jogador e nas primeiras jogadas.... A confusão do nome é compreensível e aceitável porque os Quibalas designam também o jogo pelo nome das sementes, mas o seu nome verdadeiro é o dado ao tabuleiro—Quela. O Quela foi tembém praticado pelos Bailundos (veja p. 55), mas já foi esquecido. Contactámos com o soba grande Candimba e com vários velhos da zona. Todos se lembram do jogo, que era igual ao dos Quibalas, e de ele ter sido muito praticado no tempo do pai e do avô do actual soba, e por eles próprios, mas há muito tempo que não está em uso. Um dos informadores disse que talvez ainda se encontrasse alguém que o soubesse jogar na área da Epila, junto do rio Cunhangama, afluente do Queve. Este essquecimento do jogo explica-se por os Bailundos se encontrarem profundamente desarreigados das tradições tribais, em consequência da sua intensa emigração, como contratados, para outras regiões, em especial para as fazendas de café do Norte. O mesmo sucede com os Huambos e os Quiacas, que tembém praticaram um jogo igual ou idêntico, mas que presentamente o desconhecem. Quadrícula—4 x 6 e 4 x 7. Tabuleiro— De madeira. São designados por <>, nome do jogo. Existe um por sanzala, propriedade tradicional do soba, que passa de geração em geração, e que é utilizado por todos os homens, que geralmente jogam com o soba ou na sue presença. É interdita a existência doutros tabuleiros. Tivemos a confirmação prática deste uso, ao depararem-se-nos sérias dificuldades na aquisição do tabuleiro do soba grande Sebastião Dumbo (foto 14) , quando nos informaram, em grande segredo, que talvez fosse possível conseguir o do velho Francisco Candamba, que o tiunha escondido (foto 26a). O tabuleiro encontra-se sempre colocado sobre um aflormento granítico (muito abundantes mesmo dentro da área das sanzalas) , suficientemente espaçoso para a prática do jogo e seus assistentes, situado em frente da casa do soba, de fundo para o ar, exposto ao sol e à chuva. Por esta razão, os tabuleiros antigos encontram-se smepre muito deteriorados. Os três tabuleiros observados têm todos a mesma forma básica: o rectângulo da quadrícula é sobreelevado em relação aos bordos e contornado por uma aba, que alarga nas extremidades, e que serve se dépositos (foto 27). Como recurso, não havendo tabuleiro, podem abrir uma quadrícula no chão. Casas-Podem ser circulares ou quadrangulares. Depósitos— Não existem depósitos, propriamente ditos. Pedras— São utilizadas sementes ósseas, quase pretas, a que chamam lasseta, dum arbusto espinhoso a que dão o mesmo nome. O número de pedras por jogador é igual ao dobro de casas por linha. No início do jogo, as pedras são dispostas, aos pares, nas casas da linha exterior, esta distribuição tem exclusivamente por fim a verificação do número de pedras em jogo. De notar ume particularidade curiosa: as pedras do jogo da banza do Catúmbi estavam guardadas no crânio duma hiena, colocado sobre o tabuleiro (foto 14). Segundo informação do soba grande, é hábito guardar as lassetas em crânios de hiena, onça ou leão, mas não conseguimos obter qualquer explicação para este costume. Sentido—Directo. Casas de mão— Têm de pertencer ao campo do jogador e não podem ter uma só pedra enquanto houver outras com mais do que uma. Distribuição da mão— A forma de distribuir a mão segue a regra geral desde que se considere na fase inicial do jogo uma quadrícula limitada pela supressão dumas casas, com uma só excepção. Vejamos como se procede: Fase inicial: após a distribuição das pedras, aos pares, pela linha exterior, os dois jogadores procedem ao arranjo arbitrário das suas pedras, geralmente só nesta linha; quando se ocupam casas da linha interior é com uma só pedra. Por regra, o maior número de pedras é sempre colocado na casa da extrema esquerda da linha exterior de cada jogados, casa a que chamam uté (cabeça). Após este arranjo, inicia-se o jogo, sem se considerarem as pedras e as casas da ou das colunas em que cada jogador tem mais do que duas pedras (no caso da figura 26, as casas A1,a1, A7,a7, B7, e b7; no da figura 27, as casas A1, a1, A7,a7, B1,b1, B7 e b7). Após ser comido o par inicial a um jogador, este começa o seu lanço pela casa com maior número de pedras (sempre a1 ou b7), distribuindo-as de forma usual, sem considerar as casas da coluna da outra extremidade, se nela houver um grupo de mais de duas pedras, deixando ficar uma pedra na casa de mão (excepção). Se houver ainda outro grupo inicial com mais de duas pedras, só será desfeito quando desparecem os pares desse parceiro. Depois de desfeitos os grupos inciais com mais de duas pedras designados por uté o jogo segue as regras gerais. Jogadas— Podem ser movimentos compostos. Comer— Segue a regra do Tchela. Variantes— É permoitifo fugir como no Tchela. As diversas disposições das pedras no início do jogo, propriamente dito, não se podem considerar como variantes. Tradições— Não se conhecem. Interdições— Não se conhecem. Prática— Jogo de homens, praticamente só velhos o sabem jogar, não havendo, no entanto, qualquer proibição para os homens e para os rapazes. O mesmo não sucede com as mulheres, pois dizem <>" Silva 1995: 97-101.
Confidence 100
Source Silva, E. R. S. 1995. Jogos do quadrícula do tipo mancala com especial incidência nos praticados em Angola. Lisbon: Instituto de investigação cientifica tropical.

Id DLP.Evidence.733
Type Ethnography
Game Chisolo
Location Ba-ila
Date 1920-01-01 - 1920-12-31
Content "(a) Chisolo— Foremost among these games is one that in different forms is found over a large part of Africa. It is what the Bathonga call tshuba; the Banyanja mchombwa, or msuo; and the Ba-ila chisolo. This is not a children's game, though we have seen lads engaged in it with adults as their opponents, evidently a case of teaching the young idea how to shoot. This popular game is played by two men sitting on opposite sides of a "board," consisting of a series of shallow holes in the ground. The number of these varies; we have watched games with as many as twenty holes on each side, but a more common number is fourteen. In any case they are arranged in four parallel lines, two to each player. Small stones, called lubwe, are used as "men": and of them each player has an equal number. The motive of the game is, by moving these stones in certain directions fixed by rule. to get them into positions relative to your opponent's and so sweep them off the board. The skill lies in selecting your move so as to bring your men into the required position. There are several varieties of the game: the following is a typical example of the kind named "natatu" ("the one of three"), so called because most holes contain three stones to start with. Each player has 33 stones, which he proceeds to place in the holes nearest to him—this is called "planting" (kushanga)— three in each hole, except the last four on his right hand in the second row which have 2, 1, 0, 0. They are now ready to start. They may move only in one direction: in the line nearest the player from right to left, in the farther row from left to right (This applies to the first move: in the second move the player may, if he chooses, reverse the direction, but if he does he must keep to it through the rest of the game.)...The opening move is called kubingula, subsequent moves kuteka ("to draw water"). The player selects the hole to move from; takes out the stones and drops them one by one in the following holes. The secret is to plan a move so as to leave the last of these stones in an otherwise empty hole, immediately opposite the opponent's occupied hole. If he succeeds in this, he takes all directly opposite that hole: this is to "eat" (kudya); and he has also the right to remove all the stones in any other hole of his opponent: this is kusuwa ("to snacth")... Another form of move is called kusuntula ("to lift up"). You drop the men in the holes as before, but having come to the end of those you hold you take out all the stones from the last hole you come to and drop them one by one in succeeding holes: you can continue this till your last stone drops into an empty hole. At times one sees a player going round the board, twice or even three times, dropping men in successive holes and taking them out. The do it so rapidly that it is difficult to see what they are doing... The game is frequently lengthened by one or both players "passing in foreigners," as they say, kuisha Balumbu. When one is getting beaten he has this privilege of adding six or seven fresh stones to his depleted holes and continuing the game. His opponent may elect to do the same. But unless he does, the other may not enjoy the privilege in two successive games." Smith and Dale 1920: 232-237.
Confidence 100
Source Smith, E and A. Dale. 1920. The Ila-speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. London: Macmillan.

Id DLP.Evidence.734
Type Ethnography
Game Namudilakunze
Location Ba-ila
Date 1920-01-01 - 1920-12-31
Content "Another variety is names namudilakunze ("eating on the outside"); and is also played with one stone in each hole, but with the hole on the player's extreme left, on the outer row, empty. As the name implies, instead of eating stone on the inner row only those on the outer row can be eaten. This is the "eating" position." Smith and Dale 1920: 237.
Confidence 100
Source Smith, E and A. Dale. 1920. The Ila-speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. London: Macmillan.

Id DLP.Evidence.735
Type Ethnography
Game Quiela
Location Jinga
Date 1969-03-27 - 1995-12-31
Rules 4x7 board. Three counters in each hole in the outer row; before beginning each player rearranges these as they wish, with the following rules: The leftmost hole in the outer row must have the most counters; Each hole must have equal to or less than the number of the counters as the hole on its left; there can be a maximum of two holes with one counter in the inner row. Initial phase: Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction, and when a counter lands in an occupied hole the sowing continues. When the final counter lands in an empty hole, the turn ends. If the empty hole is in the player's inner row, counters in the opponent's inner row opposite are captured, and if there are also counters in the opponent's outer row hole opposite, these are also taken. When the player sows from the leftmost hole in the outer row for the first time, they have the option of sowing first in that hole or in the next hole (the one in which sowing would normally occur). When a single counter exists in the penultimate hole in the inner row and the opponent is able to capture it on their next turn it can "skip" to either the first or second hole in the outer row, provided one of them is empty. This can only be done if the final hole in the inner row is empty. The initial phase ends for a player when they have one counter in each hole. After this, players can only move single counters into empty holes. The player who captures all of the opponent's counters wins.
Content "2.2.4— Quiela, dos Jingas (Informadores: Francisco João Kilanda, da sanzala Giambata, António Ramos, empregado da Pousada, e Cristóvão Francisco Maria, empregado da Administração do Concelho, todos do Duque de Bragança) Este jogo é idêntico ao Quela, praticado na Quibala: Quadrícula — 4x7 Tabuleiros— De madeira, planos e sem acabamento esmerado nos quatro exemplares observados, todos idênticos (foto 27a). Casas— Circulares (sing. makungo ia quiela). Depósitos— Dois em três tabuleiros dos quatro observados e o outro com um só depósito lateral. Pedras— São utiizadas sementes ósseas e escuras, a que chamam sache, ou solo, dum arbusto espinhoso. Parece serem as mesmas sementes que são utilizadas na Quibala, aí designadas por lasseta. O número de pedras por jogador é igual ao triplo do de casas por linha (3 x 7 = 21). No início do jogo as pedras são dispostas em grupos de 3 pelas casas da fila exterior, para verificação mútua do seu número. Sentido— Directo. Casas de mão— Têm de pertencer ao campo do jogador e, enquanto houver casas com mais de uma pedra, tem de ser sempre aquela que estiver mais afastada, no sentido de distribuição da mão, da casa a1 ou b7. Há uma excepção: no caso de o adversário já só ter casas ocupadas por uma pedra, pode iniciar-se uma jogada duma casa com uma só pedra, desde seja para comer. Distribuição da mão— Segue a regra geral, com as seguintes excepções: a) Na fase inicial do jogo: Após a distribuição inicial das vinte e uma pedras de cada parceiro pela fila exterior, para verificação mútua do seu número, cada jogador procede ao arranjo arbitrário das suas pedras. Geralmente só pela fila exterior, colocando o maior número de pedras na casa da extrema esquerda (a1 e b7); a partir desta, o número de peddras por casa é sempre igual ou menor do que o da casa contígua que lhe fica à esquerda. Quando se ocupam casas da fila interior, são, no máximo, duas com uma única pedra. Quando se jogam pela primeira vez as pedras das casas a1 ou b7, pode-se, se assim convier, no distribuição da mão, deixar uma pedra na própria casa, o que constitui uma excepção à regra geral. A fase inicial do jogo termina quando se fica com ume só pedra por casa. b) Fase final: Nesta fase só se pode jogar para uma casa vazia, o que constitui outra excepção à regra geral. Jogadas— Podem ser movimentos compostos. Comer— Segue a regra do Tchela. Variantes— É permitido fugir como no Tchela. As diversas disposições das pedras no início do jogo não se podem considerar como variantes. Tradições— Segundo a tradição, a célebre rainha Jinga jogou no tabuleiro aberto em rocha que existiu no cimo do monte Quiela-Quiaxi (Tabuleiro do Mundo), como referido anteriormente. Interdições— Não se conhecem. Prática— Jogo de homens. Em Pungo Andongo ganhava-se e perdia-se muito dinheiro com este jogo. Ai viveu um comerciante de nome Duque, já falecido, que jogava a cabeças de gado (Informação do Sr. Norberto Antas, comerciante muito antigo de Cacuso (27 de Março de 1969).) Quando se come uma casa com muitas pedras dizem: <>." Silva 1995: 103-106.
Confidence 100
Source Silva, E. R. S. 1995. Jogos do quadrícula do tipo mancala com especial incidência nos praticados em Angola. Lisbon: Instituto de investigação cientifica tropical.

Id DLP.Evidence.736
Type Ethnography
Game Kay
Location Haiti
Date 1952-01-01 - 1952-12-31
Content "Dans le nord d'Haïti, le mancala s'appelle warri, comme au Sierra Leone, du nom de la plante dont les graines servent d'habitude de pions. Il s'appelle kay dans le sud. Il paraît qu'il existe des plateaux en bois avec cases creusées, mais je n'en ai jamais vu. Les hommes se servent le plus souvent d'un morceau de bois grossièrement équarri dans lequel sont fouillés 12 trou circulaires de 4 à 5 centimètres de diamètre, disposés en deux rangées parallèles. À l'extremité opposée de chaque rangée se trouve un trou un peu plus large où chaque joueur assemble son gain. Les enfants des deux sexes creusent des trous dans la terre et emploient de petits cailloux arrondis comme pions quand ils n'ont pas de graines de warri. Les joueurs s'installen l'un vis-à-vis de l'autre. Les cases de 1 à 6 appartiennent au joueur B et les cases 7 à 12 au joueur A. Chacun dépose ses pions de son côté, quatre par case. Règle 1. — Tous les déplacements s'effectuent dans le sens contraire à celui des aiguilles d'une montre et débutent du côté du joueur. J'ai essayee de faire jouer dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre des enfants de la région de Fond-Melon (Marbial); ils se trompaient régulièrement et ont fini par cesser de jouer, prétendant que c'était trop difficile. Règle 2. — Au premier tour, on peut partir de n'importe quelle case du côté du joueur. Règle 3. — A chacun des tours suivants on peut partir de n'importe quelle case du côté du joueur, à condition qu'elle contienne plus d'un pion. Cependant, lorsqu'un pion solitaire est suivi d'une seule case vide on peut le placer dans cette case et s'y arrêter. Règle 4. — Chaque tour consiste à ramasser tour les pions d'une case du côté du joueur et à les placer un à un dans les cases suivantes, qu'elles soient ou non du côté du joueur. Quand le dernier pion tombe sur une case occupée (<>) non suivie d'une case vide, le joueur la vide de son contenu (<>). Il continue la distribution en sautant les cases qu'il a vidés. Il peut ainsi faire plusieurs fois le tour des cases sans avoir à s'arêter. Lorsque le dernier pion tombe sur l'une des cases de l'asdversaire contenant 3 pions, le joueur crie Kay!, d´´pose les 4 pions dans la case destinée à recevoir ses gains (<>) et s'arrête. Quand le dernier pion tombe sur un couvert suivi d'une case vide, le joueur s'arrête au couvert. Quand le dernier pion tombe sur une case vide, le joueur dépose dans la première case occupée suivante et s'y arrête. Règle 5. — on peut <> plusieurs couverts à la fois: lorsque plusieurs cases consécutives de l'adversaire contiennent chacune 3 pions et qu'on s'arrête devant la première avec autant de pions en mains qu'il y a de cases de ce genre, on crie kay! et on dépose les pions gagnés dans la case destinée à cet effet. La partie est finie quand l'un des joueurs ne peut pas jouer: aucune de ses cases n'a plus d'un pion solitaire n'est suivi d'une seule case vide. Les joueurs comptent leur kay et celui qui en a le plus a gagné." Comhaire-Sylvain 1952: 361-362.
Confidence 100
Source Comhaire-Sylvain, S. 1952. "Jeux congolais." Zaïre 2: 351-362.

Id DLP.Evidence.737
Type Ethnography
Game Mangola
Location 4°26'30.95"S, 15°15'58.66"E
Date 1943-01-01 - 1945-12-31
Rules 4x8 board. Two counters in each hole. Play begins with each player taking the two counters in the leftmost hole of either the inner or outer row and placing them both in the following hole in an anti-clockwise direction, and continuing with the two counters in the next hole, until there is an alternating pattern of holes with four counters followed by empty holes in all of the player's holes. On the next turn, the player sows from one of the holes on the end of one of their rows. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. After this turn, sowing can be from any hole on the player's side of the board. When the final counter falls into an occupied hole, the player picks up these counters and continues to sow. When the final counter is supposed to fall into an empty hole, it is not placed there but placed in the next hole. When the final counter falls into an occupied hole in the inner row, any counters in the opponent's two holes opposite are captured. These are then sown on the player's side of the board, beginning with the first occupied hole immediately after an empty hole before the hole from which the capture was made. Play continues until one player can no longer play, and the opponent wins.
Content "Mangola est une des variétés de ce jeu à pions et à cases, d'origin arabe (mancalla), connu un peu partout en Afrique et souvent observé chez les Noirs de plusieurs régions d'Amérique. À Léopoldville, les adultes se servent de plateaux en bois joliment décorés aves 32 cases rondes peintes ou creusées dans le bois (on m'a dit qu'il existait aussi des plateaux à cases en relief, mais je n'en ai jamais vu), mais les petites filles qui m'ont servi de professeur n'avaient rien d'aussi compliqué: elles dessinaient leur tableau avec les doigt sur le sable, ou bien avec un morceau de craie sur le ciment. De même qu'on pouvait voir beaucoup plus de femmes que d'hommes jouer au mangola à la Cité Indigène, il semblerait qu'il y eût aussi beaucoup plus de petites filles que de petits garçons à y trouver plaisir. Leurs mouvements étaient si rapides et leurs explications si confuses que j'ai dû suivre un grand nombre de parties et poser bien des questions avant d'arriver à pouvoir en formuler les règles. Comme le mangola congolais diffère des variétés d'Afrique du Sud, et d'Afrique Occidentale, he vais d'abord vous donner ses règles et décrire ensuite une partie afin de les illustrer. Appelons les deux joueur A et B. Chacun a en mains trente-deux grains. Ils s'asseyent l'un en face de l'autre devant un tableau comprenant quatre rangées de huit cases (je les au numérotées afin de rendre plus intelligible ma démonstration. Les cases 17 à 24 et 35 à 21 appartiennent au joueur A, elles constituent le côté A; les cases 1 à 8 et 9 à 16 appartiennent au joueur B, elles constituent le côté B. Chacun d´´pose ses graines ou pions de son côté, deux par case. Règle 1. — Tous les déplacements s'effectuent dans le sense contraire à celui des aiguilles d'une montre et débutent du côté du joueur... Règle 2. — Au premier tour, on part de l'une des deux cases situées à l'extrême gauche de chacun des joueurs (17 or 25 pour A, 16 ou 8 pour B), comme disent les enfants (na nsuka loboko ya mwasi (littéralement: de la fin du bras femelle). Règle 3. — Le premier tour consiste à vider une case de ses deux pions pour les déposer dans la suivante qui en aura ainsi quatre, puis à faire de même pour la case après la suivante, à condition qu'elle n'ait pas déjà été vidée. Règle 4. — Au 2e tour on peut commencer à ramasser d n'importe quelle case des extrémités, et à chacun des tours suivants de n'import quelle case du côté du joueur, à condition qu'elle contienne plus d'un pion. Règle 5. — Le 2e tour et les suivants consistent à ramasser tous les pions d'une case du côté du joueur et à les placer un à un dans les cases suivantes. Quand le dernier pion tombe sur une case occupée, le joueur vide la case de son contenu et poursuit la distribution. Quand le dernier pion tombe sur une case vide, il ne l'y laisse pas, il le dépose dans la case suivante où, comme disent les enfants, ndika ekoya kolala (la graine va dormir). C'est à l'autre joueur de tenter sa chance. Règle 6. — Quand le dernier pion d'un joueur doit être placé dans une case occupée de l'une des rangées du milieu (cases 17 à 24 pour A, 9 à 16 pour B) et que cette case occupée se trouve en face de deux cases occupées apparetenant à son adversaire, il <> les pions de ces deux cases, c'est-à-dire qu'il les ajoute à celles qu'il a déjà en mains et commence se distribution depuis la première case occupée suivante une case vide qu'il peut trouver en faisant marche arrière. Règle 7. — On peut effectuer diverses <> avant de débuter. La plus commune consiste à permettre aux joueurs de rebrousser chemin quand ils s'aperçoivent que leur combinaison les mènerait à un échec; généralement ils n'ont pas le droit de repartir à nouveau: ils ont perdu leur tour et doivent céder la place à l'adversaire." Comhaire-Sylvain 1952: 356-361.
Confidence 100
Source Comhaire-Sylvain, S. 1952. "Jeux congolais." Zaïre 2: 351-362.

Id DLP.Evidence.738
Type Ethnography
Game Mwambulula
Location Bemba
Date 1956-01-01 - 1956-12-31
Content "Bemba Tribe. Mwambulula. 4x8 holes. Two beans in each hole; the front rows are at once cleared to make a store. Plat is anti-clockwise. If a player lands in a full hole he may 'eat' his opponent's opposite file provided that the fron hole has beans. If he is unable to 'eat,' the contents of the hole are resown. The captured beans are re-entered, the sowing beginning at the hole from which the 'eating' move commenced. At any time during the game when your own beans are running short you may empty your store and add one bean to each of your holes."Chaplin 1956: 169.
Confidence 100
Source Chaplin, J. 1956. "A Note on Mancala Games in Northern Rhodesia." Man 56: 168-170.

Id DLP.Evidence.739
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Alıtev
Location Anatolia
Date 1979-01-01 - 1979-12-31
Content "In some parts of Anatolia it is called Alıtev meaning "Six Houses" and there are twelve holes, six for each player. Each player has eighteen stones and places there stones in each hole." (rules from mangala described earlier). And 1979: 52.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.740
Type Ethnography
Game Mandoli
Location Hydra
Date 1810-04-01 - 1810-04-02
Content "I saw there to-day a game, which, not having seen elsewhere, I will give you a description of. The Idriots call is Mandoli, or Almonds, and it is played at a board by two persons. Twelve hollows are scooped in the board, in two rows of six each: in each hollow six balls are placed, and the opponents take each a row. The game is commenced by the first player taking out the balls from any one of the hollows, and distributing them, one by one, successively, round the board. In the first round no balls can be captured, but in the second the contest becomes serious. The skill of the player consists in so managing his distribution, that his last ball shall either fall into a hollow where there is only one, or three, or seven, or nine, &c. which, by the addition of his ball, are made even numbers, and in consequence become prizes. If in the distribution he makes even numbers in the two last hollows, he takes the contents of both. This is considered a great stroke. The victor is, of course, he who reckons the greatest number of prisoners." Galt 1813: 241-242.
Confidence 100
Source Galt, J. 1913. Letters from the Levant; Containing Views of the State of Society, Manners, Opinions, and Commerce, in Greece and Several of the Principal Islands of the Archipelago. London: T. Cadell and W. Davies.

Id DLP.Evidence.741
Type Ethnography
Game Mawkar Katiya
Location Khasi
Date 1923-06-01 - 1923-12-31
Rules Two rows of seven holes Five counters in each hole Players sow in a clockwise direction. When the final counter lands in a hole, the contents of the next hole are picked up and sowing continues. When the final counter is sown and the next hole is empty, the contents of the hole in the opposite row of the empty hole are captured. Play continues until all of the counters are captured. A new game begins. The players fill their holes with five counters in each, starting from the left. The player who has remaining counters after this puts the extra counters aside to their credit. The player who has fewer places the remainder in the next empty hole. Play begins with the same rules, with the following modifications: Each player, during their opponent's turn, captures counters in any hole that are made to equal the number of extra counters they had at the beginning of this round. The winner of the previous round will capture one counter each time that player sows into the leftmost hole of their row. The opponent cannot sow in this hole. In addition, the winner of the previous round will always capture pieces that accumulate in the hole which contained the extra counters of the opponent at the start of the round. Subsequent rounds are played like this until one playre captures all of the counters, and thus wins.
Content "The type of sedentary game which is the subject matter of this note is usually played on a plank on which a number of shallow depressions have been scooped out; the depressions are filled with small pieces of stone, cowries, or seeds, etc. My attention was first drawn to this game in June, 1923 at Cherrapunji. Among the Khasis the game is known as Máwkár kátiyá (=going round the slab or plank). It may be mentioned that though a wooden board in which rough circular and shallow depressions have been scooped out in two rows, the number of rows in each hole (sic) being seven, is generally used, sometimes specially on fair days, the game is played outside the house on stone slabs. Two persons are necessary for the play and, to start with, five small stones are kept within each depression. One of the players picks up the stones from a depression lying in the row just next to him and goes on putting one piece of stone into each depression. As soon as he has done with the five pieces he started with, he picks up all the stones lying immediately in front of the depression where the last piece was deposited. He must repeat this action till, after having deposited all the pieces that he may carry in his hand, he comes to an empty depression lying immediately in front of the one where the last piece was dropped. In this case all the pieces of stone lying within the depression immediately next to the vacant one will come into his possession and the other player will begin the game, following exactly the same method, each playing from right to left along his line of depressions and from left to right along the line of depressions belonging to his adversary. The players will thus keep on the game alternately till all the pieces have been removed from the plank, with the general result that one of the players is in possession of more than 35 pieces of stone and the other less. The game will now be started for the second time but not by the player who started it on the previous occasion and one peculiarity will be observed while arranging the pieces. Suppose, for example, that after the end of the first game, one player finds that he has 37 pieces in his possession, then he will arrange 35 pieces in the usual way, while two (I.e. the pieces he has obtained in excess of 35) will not be placed in any of the depressions, but will remain to his credit while the game is being played for the second time. The other player will now arrange the 33 pieces, placing 3 within the depression lying to the extreme left along his line, while the other six will contain 5 pieces each. On this occasion the following additional rules will also be observed:— (a) The person that has got two pieces extra will have all the single groups of two pieces that may accumulate within one depression while his adversary is playing to his credit. While the latter will have all the single groups of 3 pieces that may accumulate within one depression to his credit while the former may be playing. (b) The winner will have the depression to his extreme left covered by his palm and gain one piece every time he passes round this depression, while his adversary will not be allowed to drop any piece in it. (c) The pieces that will be gathered in the depression where the three pieces were placed will always come to the possession of the winner. These rules will, certainly, vary according to the difference in the number of pieces possessed by each player after the end of any game. If we, for example, suppose that the winner has got 47 pieces after one game, then two depressions beginning from the right of his adversary along the row belonging to his adversary along the row belonging to his adversary will be kept covered over and none will be allowed to place any piece inside these. The games will be continued in this way and the person who succeeds in capturing all the pieces of his opponent will be victorious. It is clear that the rules of the game are a little complicated and as I had to obtain my information from an old Khasia woman with the help of an interpreter I would not be surprised if it was found that the rules enumerated above require correction. I sincerely hope that, as a result of the publication of this note, some better informed person may come forward and give us (possibly) a more correct and complete account of the game." Das Gupta 1923: 71-72.
Confidence 100
Source Das-Gupta. H. 1923. "Notes on a Type of Sedentary Game Prevalent in Many Parts of India." Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 19: 71-74.

Id DLP.Evidence.742
Type Ethnography
Game Kanji Guti
Location Orissa
Date 1923-01-01 - 1923-12-31
Rules 2x7 board. Twelve counters in each hole, except in the central hole of each row, one of which has one counter and the other is empty. Players do not own a row of holes, rather each player owns the six holes on one side of the central holes. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction. Neither player may begin sowing from the central holes. When sowing ends, if the next hole after the hole in which the final counter was placed is occupied, these counters are picked up and sown. If this hole is empty, the counters in the hole opposite it are captured. The player who captures the most pieces wins.
Content "A similar game played in parts of Orissa is known as Kánji-guti. One hundred and forty-five pieces are required to play this game. One piece is kept within one depression of the central pair, while the other depression of this pair is kept empty and 12 pieces are placed within each of the remaining 12 depressions. As I gather from my Oorya servant, the rules of the game are mainly the same as are followed by the Khasis with some differences. In the case of the Orissa game one row of depressions does not belong to one player. During the first run of play no piece is to be dropped in that depression in which one piece was played at the beginning of the game. Then the rules observed by the Khasis are generally followed with the important exception that none will be able to play with the pieces lying with the central pair of depressions, I.e. they cannot be taken out of these depressions and dropped in the succeeding ones but the pieces lying within the central pair can be captured like the pieces lying in the others. In the Orissa type the pieces are moved from left to right and the player who captures more pieces at the end of each game is the winner, and the result of one game is not carried over to the next to finish what may be called a set." Gupta 1923: 73.
Confidence 100
Source Das-Gupta. H. 1923. "Notes on a Type of Sedentary Game Prevalent in Many Parts of India." Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 19: 71-74.

Id DLP.Evidence.743
Type Ethnography
Game Motiq
Location Lembata
Date 1975-01-01 - 1975-12-31
Rules 2x7 board. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in an anti-clockwise direction and begins from one of the holes in the player's row. When the final counter lands in an occupied hole, these are picked up and sowing continues. If the occupied hole has three counters (four including the final counter from the sowing), these are captured. Then, the player picks up the counters in the next hole after the one from which the capture was made and continues sowing from there. When the final counter lands into an empty hole the turn ends. The game ends when one player no longer has any counters on their side of the board. The opponent then captures the remaining counters on the board. A new game begins, with each player filling holes with the counters they captured, four to each hole. The player now controls as many holes as they can fill with counters. Play begins with the player who played second in the previous game. Subsequent games are played until one player captures all of the holes, becoming the winner.
Content "These comparative questions will be taken up later, after the following description. I was taught to play the game by Molan Baia, a man in his fifties and a leading elder of his clan, Laong Hodiq, who was one of my most constant companions and closest friends. This happened early in my second year, at a time when the larger connections in the culture, which had until then remained hidden to me, began to make their appearance; and indeed the discovery of motiq, as the game is called, was an early impulse toward the coalescing of my understanding of K?dang culture. For several weeks then the village was slightly amused watching Molan and myself, as well as whoever else joined in, squatting in the dust and deeply engaged in a game that was a little less than suited to our customary dignity. The general name for the game is motiq. I do not know if this word has any other meaning. The general phrase for play of any kind, huang, is not connected directly with the game. To play this game is pan motiq, and pan means "to travel" or "move", a phrase not far removed in meaning from the Arabic manqala. Motiq is played in two versions, each with a name of its own. The first and more common version is ka ia or "eat fish". Here there are two parallel lines of seven holes each, and the game starts with four stones (or seeds) in each hole. These holes are either dug in the ground, or (as one occasionally, but very rarely, sees) the game may be played on a board in which holes are cut. There are two players, and each player owns the holes in the row closest to him. Each row represents a human body and each hole is associated with a part of the body, as in figure 1. The object of play is to capture stones. They are moved from hole to hole circularly through the rows, always in a counter-clockwise direction according to the native injunction to travel to the right, wana pan. It is never allowed to reverse this direction. A player may begin with any hole on his own side, but never with a hole in the opponent's row. He picks up the stones in one hole and distributes them, one each, in the next four. He then takes the five stones in the last of these holes and distributes them one by one in the next five, and so on. Eventually, it begins to be possible to end with one's last stone in a group of three. When this occurs, the player takes all four and sets them aside as his winnings before continuing play. It works out mathematically that the first to move always ends his play in the hole from which he started. He picks up four stones and puts them one each in the next consecutive holes. He then picks the five in the last hole and lays them down. Again he picks up five and lays them down. Four plus five plus five equal fourteen, and the last stone lands in the hole from which he began. Since this hole is empty before this last stone is placed there, he cannot pick up the stones in it; his hand is empty and he is mat?, "dead". It is then the opponent's turn. This first play leaves two empty holes. Already at this point an experienced player may exercise strategy in his play. If the opponent picks up the stones just behind one of these empty holes, he will eventually (after several rounds) gain four stones on two occasions, and his play will then end. However, he will leave one hole for the first player containing nine stones, and if these are picked up, the first player will, after a much longer series, himself capture the stones in two holes. These are mathematical certainties, which all experienced players know about. The whole exchange can be prevented if on the very first play of the game, the first player takes the stones from the "head" hole because the relevant empty hole will land on his side. It will, in fact, be the "shin" hole. The hole right behind it, (his "foot") will also be on his side, so his opponent will not be allowed to start there. When a player's last stone lands in a group of three and he captures all four, the player is said to ka ia, "eat fish". He gets, figuratively, a meal of fish. Consequently, when a group of three appears during the play they attract attention as ia, "fish", which potentially may be "eaten" before they are covered up by the play; i.e., before the player with more than the requisite number of stones in his hand fills it up by adding a stone in passing beyond it. Although in this case it has four, it is not won by the player because he must play beyond it, and it becomes closed like other holes with any number of stones other than three: it is for the time being no longer a potential fish. The player who is fortunate enough to land with a final stone in a hole with a group of three, and thus "eats fish", then, after setting aside his winnings, takes the stones in the next consecutive hole and plays on until he too lands with a final stone in an empty hole and is dead. The turn changes, and the game proceeds by alternating turns in this way. Eventually the stones will begin to be scarce and the point will be reached where the players are in danger of moving their few stones on to the opponent's side without having any left on their own. This marks the beginning of the end game. The strategy at this point becomes to move the stones which by chance are on one's side as slowly as possible, hoping to force the opponent to move all of his stones on to one's own side before moving any more on to his. One hopes simultaneously to avoid the same fate. This stage is usually of short duration and one or the other soon fails. All stones remaining on the board are the winnings of the player who can hold out longest. This round of the game is then over. The players count the stones they have won to see who has the most. Unless they are both even (i.e., twenty-eight to a side), there is always an advantage which is a multiple of four. Four stones represent a hole. The player on the disadvantage loses, for the next round, the number of holes correspond ing to the quotient of the number of stones he is behind divided by four. In short, one loses and gains holes, not stones. At each new play, the opening player is the one who was second in the previous set. The play begins again with (except in the event of a tie) one player with fewer, one with more, holes. The holes gained or lost are removed from the foot end. The last consecutive hole gained becomes the new head for the more fortunate player. All fourteen holes are always in play, with one player gaining more, another losing, holes. The two figures then shrink and expand according to the fortunes of the play; i.e., they become shorter or taller. It gives one a tactical advantage in the play to have more holes; for one can only begin with a hole in one's own territory and in the play one chooses to start from that hole which promises to be most productive. Although it is possible to recover ground, the more one falls behind the more difficult it becomes to maintain one's position. If after several rounds, one player is able to consume the opponent's territory to the point of capturing his head, the game is finished. As can be seen the game can be absorbingly interesting, and an experienced player will learn to recognize certainties in the probable course of the play according to the way the stones lie, in the same way that an experienced cribbage player no longer needs to count the cards in his hand but knows what it is worth and what can be done with it at a glance." Barnes 1975: 73-76.
Confidence 100
Source Barnes, R. 1975. "Mancala in Kédang: A Structural Test." Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 131(1): 67-58.

Id DLP.Evidence.744
Type Artistic depiction
Game O An Quan
Location Vietnam
Date 1931-01-01 - 1931-12-31
Rules 2x5 board with two stores.
Content Chơi Ô ăn quan ("Playing the Ô Ăn Quan Game), silk painting by Nguyễn Phan Chánh, 1931. Painting shows a group of two children with two others watching, playing Ô Ăn Quan on a board of holes scooped into the ground. The board is rendered in holes, including the end-holes.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.745
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Katra
Location Sakalava
Date 1952-01-01 - 1952-12-31
Content "8.3.1. Madagascar: Katra(...A.C. Haddon in CP, for the Sakalava tribe...). Played by women and older children only (cf. the Malay games). 4z6 to 4z10 holes, but usually 4x8. The Tamala boards have one store 'for spare pieces'; the Sakalava boards have two stores, both at the same end of the board. There are no reverse holes. Two beans in each hole. Several laps to the move; one round. The first move determines the direction of play; if it is made clockwise, all moves are clockwise, if anticlockwise, anticlockwise (cf. again the Malay games). A move may begin from any hole on the player's side of the board, but usually from a back-row hole. If the last bean in hand is sown in an empty hole, the move ends; if in . back-row hole containing one or more beans, these are lifted for a new lap; if in a front-row hole containing beans and the opponent's opposite front-row hole is empty or a singleton, the move ends, but if this hole contains more than one bean, these are lifted and added to the beans in the player's hole in which he sowed his last bean, and all the beans now in this hole are lifted for a new lap which is played in the usual way. If the opponent has no beans in any of his front-row holes, captures are made from his back-row in the same way." Murray 1952: 214-215.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.746
Type Ethnography
Game Vai Lung Thlān
Location Mizo
Date 1912-01-01 - 1912-12-31
Content "Vai lung thlan."1 The players sit on the ground on opposite sides of two paral- lel rows of shallow holes. In each row there are six holes and in each hole five small stones are placed. Each player in turn picks up all the stones in any hole in the row nearest him and, commencing from the hole next on the left, drops one in each hole along his row and then back along that of his opponent. If at the end of a turn one or more of the holes last dropped into is found to contain only one stone, the player removes these single stones and places them aside. The game continues till all the stones have been thus removed, and the winner is he who has taken most. Counting the stones in the hole before removing them is not allowed, and considerable skill is required to judge accurately the number of stones, so as to select a hole containing the number of stones which when distributed will leave the maximum number of holes with single stones in them." Shakespear 1912: 39.
Confidence 100
Source Shakespear, J. The Lushei Kuki Clans. London: Macmillan and Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.747
Type Ethnography
Game Achi
Location Ghana
Location 5°25'22.24"N, 2°30'11.25"W
Date 1928-01-01 - 1929-12-31
Rules Two concentric squares with a line connecting their midpoints. Six pieces per player. Players alternate placing one of their pieces on the intersections of the lines. Whenever a player places three of their pieces in a row, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Once all of the pieces are placed, players may take turns moving a piece to an adjacent point along the lines, attempting to place three of their pieces in a row. When one player is reduced to two pieces, that player loses.
Content "3.4.4. Gold Coast: Achi or Ati; Nigeria (Yoruba tribe): Akidada (K.C. Murray, who saw it played at Nopa in 1928 and 1929). Two players, on the first occasion Yorubas, and on the second from the Gold Coast, were playing on a board traced on the sand, each having six 'sticks' made from the fibres of palm leaves, one side green, the other brown. On the second occasion he learnt the rules of the game as given above." Murray 1951: 43.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.748
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Adugo
Location Mato Grosso
Date 2004-01-01 - 2004-12-31
Rules There are 14 "dog" pieces and one "jaguar" piece. The jaguar attempts to capture all of the dogs by hopping over them. The dogs attempt to surround the jaguar and block it from moving. Pieces move from the points where lines intersect to adjacent points along the lines on the board.
Content Lima 2004 (Quoted in Ferreira et al 2008: 51 and other sources, website now defunct but the repeated citations are consistent). "No Brasil, entre od indígenas Bororo, no Mato Grosso, há um jogo chamado 'jogo da onça', cujo tabuleiro é traçado na terra e pedras são usadas como peças. Uma pedra representa a 'onça', sendo diferente das demais. Outraas 15 peças representam os 'cachorros'. Um jogador atua com apenas uma peça, a 'onça', com o objetivo de capturar as peças 'cachorro'. A captura da 'onça' é realizada quando as peças 'cachorro' a encurralam, deixando-a sem possibilidades de movimentação. Outro jogo semelhante a esse foi encontrado entre os indígenas Manchakeri, no Acre, e entre os Guarani, da região de São Pãolo."
Confidence 100
Source Ferreira, M. B. R., M. Vinha, de Souza, Fernandes. 2008. Jogos du tabuleiro, um percurso em etnias indígenas. Revista Brasileira Ciencia e Movimento 16(1): 47–55. , Lima, M. 2004. Jogos indígenas do Brasil [projecto on line], July 12, 2007. http:// www.jogosindigenasdobrasil.art.br/port/projeto.html (defunct)

Id DLP.Evidence.749
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Alquerque
Location Alfonso X
Date 1221-01-01 - 1284-12-31
Rules The board consists of 5x5 intersecting lines with diagonals. Pieces are placed on the intersections and can move along the lines. Each player has 12 pieces. Pieces can move to one adjacent point. Captures can be made by hopping over an opponent's piece. The goal is to capture all of the opponent's pieces.
Content Alfonso X, Libro de los Juegos fols. 91r, 91v, 92r. Translation by Sonja Musser Golladay. "This is twelve man’s morris (alquerque de doze) which is played with all its pieces. Since we have spoken in the previous books of all the ways of playing chess, dice, and tables that those three wise men showed as examples to the king and then that intelligent men spread through play, we want now to tell about other games that men later found that are not among those discussed above. However, they have similarities like mill takes some from chess, dice, and tables. There are others that take from chess and tables but not from dice. And we will begin first with twelve man’s morris because it is larger and it is played with more pieces. And we will tell in how many ways it is played, with how many pieces, and why it has in it part of chess, tables, and dice. Chess has a part in it because it is played by intelligence and so is mill. The pieces48 with which it is played resemble the pawns of chess. And it has some of tables because of the tie which ties the game in the same way and because of the lines on which the pieces are played. And it has part of dice in it due to luck, because as with the rolls of the dice that are luck so in mill players roll to decide who plays first. And it is played in this manner: on the millboard there are to be twenty-five places where the pieces can be placed and there are to be twenty-four pieces. And they put twelve of one colour on one side and the other twelve on the other in a troop formation. And one place remains in the centre to allow play. And the one who plays first has a disadvantage because he is forced to play in that empty space. And the other player moves his piece to the space the first left empty and captures the one that was first to move. That player captures the second player’s piece by jumping over it from one space to another according to the straight lines on the board, and over as many pieces as he should jump in this manner he will capture them all. And the other player does likewise. And the one that plays first always moves first trying to capture some piece from the other side. And the other player guards himself well from attack because of and by understanding the move that he wants to make so that he guards that piece of his best. And the other does the same thing that his opponent plans to do to him and therefore he is at a disadvantage, the one who plays first. And the one who guards his pieces worse and loses them more quickly, loses. And if both players known how to play it, they can both tie the game. And this is the mill, the pieces, and how they are placed in their spaces."
Confidence 100
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.750
Type Historical rule description
Game Ashtapada
Location Gujarat
Date 1200-01-01 - 1299-12-31
Rules Two dice, red and black pieces.
Content Discussion from the Balabharata by Amaracandra (II verses 10-14), as discussed in Lüders 1907:66-67. "Teils bestatigt, teils ergänst werden die bisherigen Ergebnisse durch die Beschreibung des Würfelspiels zwischen Sakuni und Yudhisthira in Amaracandras Balabharata, II, 5, 10ff. Auch hier handelt es sich sichlerlich um das mit dem Brettspiel kombinierte Würfelspiel. In Vers 11 ist wie dei Bhartrhari und Mayura von zwei Würfeln (aksau) die Rede, und diese werden astapadastapadamurdhni plamanau genannt. Darauch würde also jeder Spieler je einem Wuurfel und je ein ashtapada benützen, und das letztere, wie das phalaka der Jatakas, als Würfelbrett dienem. Diese Angaben über das astapada sind sehr auffällig. An und für sich würde es jedenfalls näher liegen, das astapada als das Brett zu betrachten, auf dem die Steine gezogen werden, doch scheinen mir die Worte des Textes völlig klar zu sein und eine andere Interpretation nicht zuzulassen.Die Steine selbst werden mehrfach erwähnt, und sie galten offenbar als so wesentlich für das Spiel, dass as in Vers 10 geradezu heisst, Duryodhna habe sich angeschickt, mit dem Sohne des Dharma mit Steinen zu spielen (sarai rantum). Aus Vers 13 und 14 geht weiter hervor, dass sie zur Hälfte schwarz, zur Hälfte rot waren; sie stimmt also in der Farbe mit den dazugehörigen Würfeln überein. In Vers 12 wird von dem Geklapper gesprochen, das die Steine beim Ziehen in ein andered Feld (grhantaropana) verursachen, und in Vers 14 werden sie mit Königen verglichen, da sie diese aufgestellt, gezogen (oder orhört), festgestzt und wieder befreit werden: Utthapitaropitabaddhamuktaih syamais ca raktais ca nrpair ivaitou | sarair vicikridatur ekacittau gamam care 'py adadhatav alaksam|| Die Erwähnungen der Steine, die nach dem Ergebnisse des Wurfes von einem Felda auf das andere gezogen wurden, zeigt deutlich, dass wir es mit einer Abart und vermutlich sogar dem Urbilde unseres Puff oder Trictrac und des modernen indischen Pacisi und Caupur zu tun haben."
Confidence 80
Source Lüders, H. 1907. Das Würfelspiel im alten Indien. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.

Id DLP.Evidence.751
Type Ethnography
Game Awithlaknan Mosona
Location Zuni
Date 1903-01-01 - 1903-12-31
Rules Stones are placed on intersections, on all except the center. The first player moves to the center, pieces are captured by jumping. Moves must be along the lines.
Content "AWE THLACNAWE. (" STONES KILL.") Implements. - A number of small stones (a different color for each side), and geometrical markings on a stone slab or on the ground. There is no specified size for the "board," it being larger or smaller according to the number of angles. The stones are placed on all the intersections of the geometrical drawing except the central one. The first player moves to the center, where his "man" is jumped by his opponent. The stones may be moved in any direction so long as the lines are followed." Stevenson 1903: 496-497.
Confidence 100
Source Stevenson, M. C. 1903. Zuñi Games. American Anthropologist 5(3): 468-497.

Id DLP.Evidence.752
Type Ethnography
Game Awithlaknan Mosona
Location Zuni
Date 1902-01-01 - 1903-12-31
Rules A series of three parallel lines are drawn, with diagonals connecting the outer lines at intervals, crossing each other at the central line, black and white pieces; center space left empty.
Content "Zuni. Zuni, New Mexico. (Cat. no. 5049, Brooklyn Institute Museum.) Long stone slab, inscribed with the diagram shown in figure 111. This was found by the writer on a house top in Zuñi, and was explained by the natives as used in a game with white and black pieces, played like the preceding. The positions of the pieces at the beginning of the game are indicated by black and white circles. The name of the game was given as kolowis awithlaknannai, the kolowisi being a mythic serpent. Another form of the same game (figure 1112) was made for the writer by Zuñi Nick (Nick Graham), who described it under the name of awithlaknan moson, the original awithlaknannai." Culin 1907: 801.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1907. Games of the North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.753
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Chaturanga
Location Western Chalukya
Date 1126-01-01 - 1138-12-31
Rules Placement of pieces from outer squares to inner squares: Chariot, Horse, Elephant; king and minister in the interior (unknown which order). Eight foot soldiers in the row in front of the others. Chariot moves two places diagonally. Horse moves like a knight in chess (no mention of jumping). Elephant moves like a chess rook, but can jump pieces. Minister moves one space diagonally. King moves one space in any direction. Checkmate rules like in chess
Content Rule description from the Manasollasa 5.560-604, in the chapter called Caturangavinoda. Discusses the rules of chaturanga and various problems and scenarios. German translation by Bock-Raming (1996) "Die beiden Schlachtordnungen sind einander 'fest' (d.h. in geschlossener Linie?) zugewandt aufzustellen. Auf der Anfangs- (d.h. Grund-)reihe soll der kluge [Spieler] die beiden Wagen [so| plazieren, [daß] sie sich an den zwei Ecken [derselben] befinden. (560) Und zwischen diesen möge er auf dem [anstoßenden] Felderpaar die beiden Pferde niedersetzen, dann innerhalb [davon) das Paar der Elefanten [und) dazwischen König und Minister. (561) Die beiden (d.h. Minister und König) sind im Unterschied [zu den anderen bisher genannten Figuren] von dem verständigen [SpielerJ auf [jeweils| einem Feld aufzustellen. In den acht Feldern vor diesen [eben genannten Figuren] möge er die acht Fußsoldaten niedersetzen. (562) So möge [auch] der Gegner sein Heer in zwei Reihen aufstellen". Der Wagen geht über Eck, indem er den Zwischenraum von einem Feld zurückläßt. (563) Das Pferd kann auf die den vier Eckfeldern benachbarten Felder gehen. Der Elefant kann auf den vier Reihen gehen; er springt überall hin, (564) [um] ein Feld oder auch zwei [oder] auch alle [Felder] vorangetrieben. Der Minister geht in alle vier Ecken an seiner Seite. (565) Der König gheht in alle Richtungen in die benachbarten Felder. Der Fußsoldat bewegt sich um ein [Feld], [und] er schlägt über die beiden Ecken. (566) Er geht stets nur nach vorn, niemals kehrt er, [bis er die 8. Reihe erreicht hat], um. Nachdem er aber vier Felderreihen [weit] gegangen ist, soll er zum Minister werden; (567) kehrt er [danach] nach hinten zurück, dann [ist] er Minister auf den vier Feldern. Der König, der Minister, der Wagen, der Elefant und das Pferd, [jeder von diesen] geht, auf seinem eigenen Feld befindlich, (568) mit dem [für ihn vorgeschriebenen) Zug zu einem anderen Feld [und] schlägt das darauf befindliche feindliche Heer (bzw. einen zu diesem gehörigen Stein). Der Fußsoldat jedoch [geht] nach vom zu dem an seinen beiden Ecken befindlichen [Feld und] schlägt einen darauf vorhandenen [Stein des Gegners]. (569) Weil die Soldaten84 'zweifüßig' (?) sind, möge man sich (bzw. seine Steine) geschickt vor ihnen schützen. Für den in der Ecke [der Grundreihe) stehenden Wagen wird von den Experten ein einziges Feld angegeben, [auf das er ziehen kann]. (570) Auf der dritten und fünften Reihe [werden ihm] vier Felder [zugesprochen]. Während [der Wagen], der die siebente Reihe erreicht hat, [nur] umkehren kann, (571) bietet die siebente [Reihe] für den auf anderem Wege [dorthin] gelangten [Wagen] zwei Felder, [auf die er ziehen kann]. Für den auf der Grundreihe befindlichen Wagen [gibt es] zwei Felder. (572) So ist die Anordnung der Felder des Wagens bestimmt worden. Für das nächst der Ecke [der Grundreihe] stehende Pferd [werden] drei Felder [angegeben] , (573) für das in der Ecke stehende zwei, für das auf [den übrigen Feldern] der Grundreihe [stehende] vier Felder. Dem auf der zweiten Reihe in der Ecke stehenden Pferd [stehen] drei Felder [zur Verfügung]. (574) [Steht es] anderswo auf der zweiten Reihe, werden ihm sechs Felder zugesprochen; und für das Pferd, das sich in der Mitte auf den sechzehn [Feldern] befindet, (575) werden von den des caturanga Kundigen acht Felder angegeben. Für den Elefanten, wo auch immer er sich befindet, auch wenn er an seinem eigenen Platz (d.h. in der Grundstellung zu Beginn des Spiels) steht, (576) werden hier vierzehn Felder genannt. Für den in der äußeren Ecke [der Grundreihe] stehenden Minister [werden] ein Feld, für den am Rande (d.h. auf allen anderen Feldern der Grundreihe) der Grundreihe) stehenden zwei, (577) für den anderswo stehenden vier Felder genannt. Und für den 'außen' (d.h. auf den Feldern der Grundreihe mit Ausnahme der beiden Eckfelder) stehenden König [werden] fün Felder [angegeben], (578) [steht er] in deren (d.h. der in 578c mit bahih bezeichneten Grundreihe) Ecke, soll man wissen, [daß er auf] drei Felder [ziehen kann]; [steht er] anderswo (d.h. auf irgendeinem anderen Feld außerhalb der Grundreihe), werden [für ihn] acht Felder angegeben. Für den Fußsoldaten Fußsoldaten werden von den Kennern des caturanga drei Felder bestimmt. (579) [So] ist die Anzahl der Felder, die für die vier Teile [des Heeres] bestimmt sind, von mir genannt. Die simä (wörtl.: "Grenze") genannte [ist] die erste Schlachtordnung; zweitens [gibt es) die sumeru [genannte Schlachtordnung], (580) Die gomütra (wörtl.: "Urin der Kuh") genannte soll die dritte [Schlachtordnung] sein; diese Schlachtordnungen [kann man) nach Belieben [aufstellen]. Wenn alle Fußsoldaten, in einer Reihe stehend, wie eine Woge (581) in der Schlachtordnung vorrücken,105 [dann] wird diese [Schlachtordnung] mit dem Namen 'Grenze' bezeichnet.106 Wenn von den Spielern das vierteilige Heer in der Form des Gipfels des [Berges] Sumeru aufgestellt wird, (582) [dann] wird diese Schlachtordnung sumeru genannt. Wenn die Fußsoldaten beim Spiel wie der Urin der Kuh vorschreiten, (583) [dann] wird [dies] von den des caturanga Kundigen als die wie der Kuhurin [verlaufende] Schlachtordnung bezeichnet. Im feindlichen Heer möge der kluge [Spieler] mit Ausnahme von Minister und König [alle anderen eigenen Figuren, nämlich] Wagen, Elefant, Springer und Fußsoldaten mit Bedacht zu zwei Zwecken einsetzen. Sowohl den eigenen König als auch den Minister als auch den Elefanten möge er [besonders] schützen. (585) Indem er so verfährt, möge er den feindlichen König an einem anzuvisierenden Ort gefangensetzen (ni-bandh-). Setzt man einen Fußsoldaten auf die fünfte Reihe, den Minister auf die sechste Reihe, (586) den Wagen auf die siebente, [so wird dies] von den Weisen als vajrabandha (wörtl.: "Donnerkeilfesselung") gelehrt. Wo Minister und ein Fußsoldat vorhanden sind [und] sich gegenseitig decken, (587) der Minister auf der sechsten und der Fußsoldat auf der fünften [Reihe], [das ist] das drdhabandhana (wörtl.: "feste/harte/dauerhafte Fesselung"). Wo Soldaten [aufgestellt sind], die 'hinsichtlich des Schützens nach ihrem gegenseitigen Wohle streben' (588) wie Leibwächter im Kampf, dies nennt man die mit bandha (wörtl.: "das Binden; die Fesse lung, Gefangensetzung) bezeichnete [Fesselung]. "In den eigenen vier Reihen aber möge der kluge [Spieler] das feindliche Heer aufhalten. (589) Nachdem er in das feindliche Heer eingebrochen ist, möge er alsdann [weiter] in den vom Gegner [beherrschten] Bereich (paraksetra) eindringen. Nachdem er die Reihe des Königs verlassen hat,möge er den König dort (im Bereich des Gegners?) niedersetzen.(5 90) Vor [ihn] aber möge er, um ihn zu decken, den Minister setzen. Mittels des Wagens [oder] des Pferdes möge er verhindern, daß er (= der eigene König) in Bedrängnis gerät. So wird 'der des vierteiligen Heeres Kundige' (caturangabaläbhijna) schnell siegen. Der kluge [Spieler] möge den Wagen etc., den zu ziehen er im Begriff ist, [erst] nach [reiflicher] Überle gung ziehen.(592) Er möge ihn nach [eingehender] Prüfung [dort] niedersetzen, wo er nicht bedrängt (d.h. angegriffen und wieder verdrängt) werden kann. Wenn [ein Stein] zieht, um [einen feindlichen Stein] zu schlagen, [dann] soll man [zugleich auch] dafür Sorge tragen, daß er gedeckt ist. (593) Über dieses (d.h. das Decken eines einzelnen Steines) hinausschauend, soll man [auch die anderen Steine] decken. Niemals darf ein König, der an einem Ort steht, an dem er geschlagen werden kann (vadhyasthänasthitä), [tatsächlich auch] geschlagen werden. (594) 'Dein König wird [mit meinem nächsten Zug] geschlagen werden, er möge ziehen', so soll der kluge [Spieler] sprechen. '[Dein] König kann geschlagen werden', so ist zu sprechen. [Daraufhin] ist er (d.h. der im Schach stehende König) von dem, der [die Regeln des] Spiels kennt, auf ein solches Feld zu stellen, daß ihn der andere nicht schlagen kann. Mit Sorgfalt soll er (d.h. der umsichtige Spieler) den König und den Elefanten zugleich decken. (595-596) Vor welchem [Stein) der König flieht, (durch den] wird der Elefant in jedem Fall geschlagen. Der Elefant soll auf der Reihe, [auf der er gerade steht], durch irgendeinen anderen [Stein] angemessen gedeckt werden. (597) So [soll man in erster Linie darauf] achten, [seine eigenen Steine] zu decken, nicht darauf, den Feind zu schlagen. [Wenn] der Elefant, [dem die Aufgabe zufällt, den eigenen König] vor dem Geschlagenwerden zu decken, einen [Stein] des feindlichen [Heeres] schlagen soll und deshalb den König im Kampf verläßt, (598) dann soll sich der König zu dem Ort begeben, wo der Elefant [nun seinerseits der Gefahr] des Geschlagenwerdens ausgesetzt ist, [um ihn so zu decken?) "Der kluge [Spieler] möge mit Sorgfalt dem [feindlichen] König den Weg versperren. (599) Nachdem er die [Steine], die den König schlagen [können], rings um dessen Feld aufgestellt hat,140 soll er [seinen Gegner] darauf hinweisen: 'Wieder141 kann [dein] König von irgendei nem anderen [Stein] (d.h. einem Stein der Gegenpartei) geschlagen werden'.142 (600) "Der kluge [Spieler] möge mit Sorgfalt dem [feindlichen] König den Weg versperren. (599) Nachdem er die [Steine], die den König schlagen [können], rings um dessen Feld aufgestellt hat, soll er [seinen Gegner] darauf hinweisen: 'Wieder kann [dein] König von irgendei nem anderen [Stein] (d.h. einem Stein der Gegenpartei) geschlagen werden'. (600) Weil [der König] weder [im Schach] stehen bleiben darf noch [von dort] wegziehen kann, ist seine Seite [somit] besiegt. Oder der kluge [Spieler) möge [einen seiner] gut gedeckten Soldaten oder sein Pferd [oder] seinen Wagen [oder] seinen Elefanten (601). "Der kluge [Spieler] möge mit Sorgfalt dem [feindlichen] König den Weg versperren. (599) Nachdem er die [Steine], die den König schlagen [können], rings um dessen Feld aufgestellt hat, soll er [seinen Gegner] darauf hinweisen: 'Wieder kann [dein] König von irgendei nem anderen [Stein] (d.h. einem Stein der Gegenpartei) geschlagen werden'. (600) Weil [der König] weder [im Schach] stehen bleiben darf noch [von dort] wegziehen kann, ist seine Seite [somit] besiegt. Oder der kluge [Spieler) möge [einen seiner] gut gedeckten Soldaten oder sein Pferd [oder] seinen Wagen [oder] seinen Elefanten (601) oder seinen Minister in der Absicht aufstellen, den [feindlichen] König am Ziehen zu hindern. Auch dann ist anzukündigen, daß der [feindliche] König [beim nächsten Zug] durch irgendeinen anderen [Stein] geschlagen wird.(602) Wenn [so der König] aber durch einen Stein [der] anderen [Partei] mattgesetzt worden ist, auch [dann] ist seine Seite bezwungen. Oder wenn das eigene Heer dem König im Wege steht [und] ihn einsperrt (d.h. am Ziehen hindert), (603) auch so [fällt der Gegenpartei) der Sieg [zu], nachdem er durch irgendeinen anderen (Stein des Gegners] mattgesetzt worden ist. [So ist im Vorgehenden] dargelegt worden, daß der Sieg, (604) den es in dem caturanga genannten Spiel über das vierteilige (Heer des Gegners) geben kann, von dreifacher Art ist. So (lautet) der Zeitvertreib des caturanga."
Confidence 100
Source Bock-Raming, A. 1996. Manasollasa, 5,560–623: Ein Bisher unbeachtet gebliebener Text zum indischen Schachspiel, übersetzt, kommentiert und interpretiert. Indo-Iranian Journal. 39(1):1–40.

Id DLP.Evidence.754
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Four-Handed Chaturanga
Location Western Chalukya
Date 1126-01-01 - 1138-12-31
Rules Placement of pieces: Chariots on corners, horses to their right, elephants to the right of horses, kings to right of elephants. One row of four pawns in from of these. Winning consists of scoring the most points. Points are assigned to pieces: pawns= 1, chariots = 2, horses = 3, elephants = 4, king = 6.
Content Rule description from the Manasollasa 5.615-622, in the chapter called Caturangavinoda. Discusses the rules of chaturanga and variantss. German translation by Bock-Raming (1996) "Die Figurenaufstellung ( vyüha, wörtl.: "Schlachtordnung), bei der vier Spieler [teilnehmen], die wird [im folgenden) gelehrt. (615) [Dabei] ist ein weißes [und] ein rotes Heer herzurichten, das nur durch ein Zwischenglied getrennt ist. Die Wagen sind in den Ecken aufzustellen, rechts davon die Pferde, (616) auf der rechten Seite der Pferde die Elefanten, die aus Elfenbein gemacht sind. Neben ihnen [befinden sich) vier Könige, [aber] ohne Minister. (617) Hierbei gibt es nicht die Regel: 'Der König darf nicht geschlagen werden'. [Bei deiser Form des caturanga] wird ein Schlagen der vier [Könige] gelehrt; es kann immer wieder praktiziert. (618) Die Soldaten usw. welches [Heeres] auch immer können von den [anderen] Spielern geschlagen werden. Wenn aber irgendein einzelner [Stein in der Mitte des [gegnerischen?] Heeres übrigbleibt, (619) dann wird er vom Spiel ferngehalten. Der Sieg soll sich aufgrund der Zählung [d.h. der Werte der Steine] ergeben. Der Fußsoldat soll eins zählen, der Wagen wird als zwei zählend gelehrt. (620) Das Pferd wird als drei zählend bezeichnet, der Elefant die zählt vier, der König sechs; [dies ist] die Unterscheidung der Werte [der Steine] im Hinblick auf den Spieleinsatz. Wer mehr als das eigene Heer hat, dem soll man den Sieg zuweisen; wenn [das eigene Heer] Verluste erlitten hat, [dann] soll man wissen, daß man verloren hat; wenn [das heer in seiner Stärke] gleich geblieben ist, wird von Ausgeglichenheit gesprochen. (622) Diese Regel wird im Spiel zu vieren von den Kennern gelehrt."
Confidence 100
Source Bock-Raming, A. 1996. Manasollasa, 5,560–623: Ein Bisher unbeachtet gebliebener Text zum indischen Schachspiel, übersetzt, kommentiert und interpretiert. Indo-Iranian Journal. 39(1):1–40.

Id DLP.Evidence.755
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Baghchal
Location Nepal
Date 1976-01-01 - 1976-12-31
Rules Played on 5x5 grid including diagonals and pieces are played on the intersections of the lines. One player has four tigers, placed on the corners, and the other has up to 20 goats, placed on the board on a free space. Tigers and goats can move to an adjacent intersection along the lines on the board. Tigers may capture goats by hopping over them. The game ends when tigers have captured all of the goats or the goats block the tigers from being able to move.
Content "The nearest approach to an 'intellectual' native game that I came across was Bagh Chal, which may most be likened to Draughts. I found it particularly popular with Buddhist monks, who used pebbles as pieces and moved them over a pattern scratched in the ground... BAGH CHAL A Nepalese game for two players The tiger-player places a tiger in each corner of the grid (see fig. 1). His object is to avoid being blocked by a goat, of which his opponent starts with 20 off the board. The goat-player moves first and turns alternate. At each turn the goat-player places a goat on any unoccupied point of the grid, and his opponent moves a tiger. A tiger may move to an adjacent point, but only following a line of the grid. If an adjacent point is occupied by a goat, the tiger may jump over the goat in a straight line to the point immediately behind it, but only if that point is unoccupied. The goat is thereby killed and removed from the board. Only one such jump may be made in one turn. Goats may not jump, but when all 20 goats have been placed (even if some have meanwhile been captured) the goat-player's turn consists of moving a goat to an adjacent unoccupied point. If and when the tiger-player is unable to make a legal move he has lost. He may win by capturing all the goats."Parlett 1976: 4.
Confidence 100
Source Parlett, D. 1976. 'Himalayan Games.' Games and Puzzles: The New Magazine about Games of Every Kind. 52:4-6.

Id DLP.Evidence.756
Type Contemporary text
Game Alea Evangelii
Location 54°39'22.49"N, 5°40'26.92"W
Date 1100-01-01 - 1199-12-31
Rules 18x18 board. Markings in the corner squares. 69 or 72 pieces. One king piece. King piece begins in the center.
Content Discussed in Corpus Christi College Manuscript 122. Transcription from Robinson 1923: 171-181: "Incipit Alea Evangelii, quam Dubinsi episcopus Bennshorensis detulit a rege Anglorum, id est a domu Adalstani regis Anglorum, depicta a quodam Francone et a Romano sapiente, id est Israel. Si quis voluerit scire hanc aleam plene, illi ante omnia hujus discipline documenta hec. vii. scire animo necesse est: duces scilicet et comites, propugnatores et impugnatores, civitatem et civitatulam, et .IX. gradus bis. Iudeus Romanus et Franconus peritissimi .IIII. evangeliorum ut per ordinem canonum .X. multiplicationem .IIII. evangelistarum intellexeurnt quadrangulam paribus figuram quatuor lateribus .X. et .VIII. tramites in longitudine et in latitudine habentem consignaverunt. Si cui autem in scropulum occurrerit quare quatuor est laterum et angulorum inter .IIII. evangelistas divisio. Primum quid