background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System


Home Games Forum Downloads References Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map Ludemes About

Chess (Mad Queen's Chess, Queen's Chess, Échecs, Schach, Ajedrez, Xadrez, Scacchi)DLP Game   

Period Medieval, Modern

Region Northern America, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe

Category Board, War, Replacement, Checkmate, Chess


Ultimately originates from Indian Chaturanga, arrived in Western Europe during the Middle Ages as Shatranj. Over several centuries, after seeming experimentation with movement, the adoption of the modern movement of the queen and bishop made chess what it is today. Modern Chess appeared sometimes during the fourteenth or fifteenth Century, when the vizier piece was replaced by the queen. It since has become perhaps the most popular game in the world, with massive international competitions.


Played on an 8x8 board with pieces with specialized moves: Pawns (8): can move one space forward; Rooks (2): can move any number of spaces orthogonally; Bishops (2): can move any number of spaces diagonally; Knight (2): moves in any direction, one space orthogonally with one space forward diagonally; Queens (1): can move any number of spaces orthogonally or diagonally; Kings (1): can move one space orthogonally or diagonally. Players capture pieces by moving onto a space occupied by an opponent's piece. Player wins when they checkmate the other player's king.




Ludeme Description



Browse all concepts for Chess here.


Murray 1913: 776-890; Murray 1951:83–84.

Evidence Map

24 pieces of evidence in total. Browse all evidence for Chess here.

Click on any marker or highlighted region to view the evidence relating to it.
To view all regions, please select it from the category options below.

Evidence category:

Evidence coloured based on:

Map style:


Allgaier, J. Neue theoretisch-praktische Anweisung zum Schachspiele. Vienna: Franz Joseph Rötzl.

Anonymous. Le jeu des Esches de la Dame moralisé. British Library Ms. Add. 15820.

Asperling de Raroyne, B. 1676-1678. Traité du jeu royal des échets. Lausanne: David Gentil.

Bertin, J. 1735. The Noble Game of Chess. London: H. Woodfall.

Carrera, P. 1617. Il Gioco degli Scacci. Militello: Giovanni Rossi da Trento.

Damiano. 1512. Questo libro e da imparare giochare a scachi e de li partiti.

Del Rio, E. 1750. Sopra it giuoco degli Scacchi. Modena: Francesco Torri.

Fiske, W. 1902. "The 'Craftsman' on Chess: L. Rou. Notes and Queries 9(10): 41-43.

Greco, G. 1623. The Booke of the ordinary games at Chestes. Bodleian Library MS. Add. A. 277.

Königstedt, C. 1784. Kort Afhandling. Stockholm: Anders Joc. Nordström.

Lewis, W. 1822. A Treatise on the Game of Chess. London: J. M. Richardson.

Lolli, G. 1763. Osservationi teorico-pratiche sopra il giuoco degli scacchi. Bologna: Stamperia di S. Tommaso d'Aquino.

López, R. 1561. Libro de la Invencion liberal y Arte del juego del Axedrez. Alcala: Casa de Andres de Angulo.

Lucena, L. Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez. Salamanca.

Murray, H. J. R. 1913. A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press.

Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Philidor, A. 1777. Analyse du jeu des échcs. London: P. Elmsley.

Piacenza, F. 1683. I Campeggiamenii degli Scacchi. Torino: Antonio Beltrandi.

Salvio, A. 1604. Trattato dell Inventione et arte liberale del gioco di scacchi. Napoli: Gio. Battista Sottile.

Salvio, A. 1634. Il Putlino , altramente deito , il cavaliero errante del Salvio. Napoli: Domenico Montenaro.

Verdoni, Léger, Carlier and Bernard. 1775. Traité théorique et pratique du jeu des éches, par une société des amateurs. Paris: Stoupe.

Walker, G. 1835. A Selection of Games at Chess Actually Played by Philidor and his Contemporaries. London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper.

Similar Games

Amazon Chess

Official Football Chess


Symmetric Chess

Social Distance Chess

Phase Chess

Los Alamos Chess

Double Chess

Horde Chess

Viking Chess




     Contact Us

lkjh Maastricht University Department of Advanced Computing Sciences (DACS), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council