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Evidence in Sri Lanka

20 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.690
Type Ethnography
Game Walak-Pussa
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction; the first player chooses the direction and all subsequent moves are made in that direction. Players sow beginning from holes in their row. If the last counter falls into a hole with counters, the counters in the next hole are picked up and sowing continues, and if this hole is empty, the counters in the hole following the empty hole are captured. If there is an unbroken sequence of alternating empty and occupied holes, the counters in the occupied holes are captured until there are two empty or two occupied holes. If the final counter falls into an empty hole the turn ends. The round ends when one player's holes are empty. Second round begins with the winner of the first round placing four counters in each of their holes, leaving any surplus in the store. The loser, starting from one end of the row, places four counters into as many holes as possible, leaving any extra in the store. The holes which cannot be filled are excluded from play for the round. A twig or piece of straw are often placed over it to indicate this. The losing player begins the round, moving in the direction of the excluded holes, and played in the same way as the first round. Rounds three and above: The winner of round two places four counters in as many of their holes as possible, and the remaining counters in the next hole. If it contains one, it is called puta, if two, naga, if three, wala. Holes with no counters are excluded from play for this round. If the loser has a puta hole, the opponent removes one counter from their hole opposite; if a naga, the opponent removes two from the opposite hole, if a wala, the opponent removes three. The removed counters go into their store. puta and naga holes are marked with a piece of paper or straw in them. Empty holes are excluded as before. The player with excluded holes begins play in the direction of the excluded hole. Counters cannot be captured or sowed from puta or naga holes. Play continues as before. When the final counter of a sowing ends in the hole preceding a puta or naga hole, these are treated as though they are non-existent and capturing holes hold for the next following hole. When one player has fewer than twelve counters, they may arrange them differently at the beginning of a round. They may put one or two counters in one end hole and not more than four in the other end hole, and one or two counters in the intermediate holes, leaving some empty and, thus, excluded. The opponent then puts four counters in each of their holes. There are no puta, naga, or wala holes in this round. The player with more counters plays as before, but the one with less has captures that are determined by the number of counters placed in the first end hole. If there were two in the end hole, the player captures when dropping the final counter into a hole to make it three; or when it makes two if there was one counter in the first end hole. Otherwise, the player does not sow in holes with one or two counters. Throughout the game, singletons cannot be moved is a player has a hole with multiple counters, and a singleton in the front hole cannot be moved if there are other singletons in the player's row. Play continues until one player has no counters.
Content "Walak-pussa, 'A Hole Empty.' This game is begun like the last (puhulmuti), but when the last seed of the set which is being sown has been placed in a hole he does not remove and re-sow the seeds out of that hole, but always takes those in the next one for the purpose. If this next hole be empty, the seeds in the following one, that is, the second one after that in which he placed his last seed, are captured or 'eaten,' the verb which expresses it being pussa kanawa, 'eating because of the empty (hole).' If the following or third hole be empty, the seeds in the one after it are also captured, and so on as long as there is a sequence of alternate empty and full holes. This is termed wael mutu ekilenawa, picking out the pearls of the necklaces.' He then stops playing and the opponent begins. At the commencement of the next or succeeding rounds the same arrangements as in Puhulmutu are necessary in case there be a puta, naga, wala, or 'blind' holes. in this and all the games, the player with the fewest seeds always begins the play after the first round, and it must go in the direction of the empty or deficient holes. When the last seed of the set which is being sown falls into an empty hole immediately preceding one containing a puta or naga (which is considered to be pussa, 'empty,' and the seeds in which cannot be captured these are passed over as though non-existent, and the seeds in the next hole to them are 'eaten.' Like the last, this game is almost interminable, and there is no 'Cutting Ash-pumpkins' to curtail it." Parker 1909: 597-598.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.691
Type Ethnography
Game Kotu Baendum
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Content "Kotu-baendum, 'Tying up the Enclosures.' This game is begun and played like Puhulmutu, excepting that it must be commenced from either of the two end hole in each player's row. During the rest of the game the players may begin each turn at any hole on their own side of the board. For re-sowing, the seeds are taken as in Puhulmutu out of the hole in which the last seed was placed; but if this previously held three seeds the four now in it are 'eaten,' and the next player then begins. When the last seed falls into an end hole in which there were three seeds, thus making four, that hole is said to be 'tied' (baenda); it becomes like a puta or naga hole, and the seeds in it cannot be captured, although others continue to be sown in it by both players, as usual. Such holes belong to the person who puts the fourth seed in them, whether they be on his own or his opponent's side of the board; and they receive a distinctive mark like the naga or puta. All four end holes may thus become 'tied.' When the last seed is sown in a 'tied' hole the player stops or 'sits down,' and the opponent begins, since the seeds in it cannot be taken out and played. The game is also a very long one, like the others." Parker 1909: 598-599.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.692
Type Ethnography
Game Daramuti
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction; the first player chooses the direction and all subsequent moves are made in that direction. Players sow beginning from holes their row. In the course of sowing, a player cannot sow into a hole containing three counters; if one is encountered, it is skipped and the counter is sowed into the next hole without three. If the final counter falls into a hole containing three counters, the contents of the hole are captured and the contents of the next hole are picked up and sowing continues. Otherwise, if the last counter falls into a hole with counters, these are picked up and sowing continues, or if it falls into an empty hole the turn ends. The round ends when one player's holes are empty. Second round begins with the winner of the first round placing four counters in each of their holes, leaving any surplus in the store. The loser, starting from one end of the row, places four counters into as many holes as possible, leaving any extra in the store. The holes which cannot be filled are excluded from play for the round. A twig or piece of straw are often placed over it to indicate this. The losing player begins the round, moving in the direction of the excluded holes, and played in the same way as the first round. Rounds three and above: The winner of round two places four counters in as many of their holes as possible, and the remaining counters in the next hole. If it contains one, it is called puta, if two, naga, if three, wala. Holes with no counters are excluded from play for this round. If the loser has a puta hole, the opponent removes one counter from their hole opposite; if a naga, the opponent removes two from the opposite hole, if a wala, the opponent removes three. The removed counters go into their store. puta and naga holes are marked with a piece of paper or straw in them. Empty holes are excluded as before. The player with excluded holes begins play in the direction of the excluded hole. Counters cannot be captured or sowed from puta or naga holes. Play continues as before. When one player has fewer than twelve counters, they may arrange them differently at the beginning of a round. They may put one or two counters in one end hole and not more than four in the other end hole, and one or two counters in the intermediate holes, leaving some empty and, thus, excluded. The opponent then puts four counters in each of their holes. There are no puta, naga, or wala holes in this round. The player with more counters plays as before, but the one with less has captures that are determined by the number of counters placed in the first end hole. If there were two in the end hole, the player captures when dropping the final counter into a hole to make it three; or when it makes two if there was one counter in the first end hole. Otherwise, the player does not sow in holes with one or two counters. Throughout the game, singletons cannot be moved is a player has a hole with multiple counters, and a singleton in the front hole cannot be moved if there are other singletons in the player's row. Play continues until one player has no counters.
Content "Daramutu, or Ellaewala-kanda. Play begins at any hole of the player's row. When the last seed of the set which is being sown falls in an empty hole the seeds in the opposite hole on the other side of the board are 'eaten.' The player then stops, and the opponent begins. If the last seed fall in a hole containing a puta or naga it is treated as an empty one, and those in the opposite hole are eaten. In other respects the game resembles Puhulmutu. The village women play all these games with astonishing rapidity. Without counting the seeds they are about to 'sow' they seem to know instinctively, perhaps as the result of long practice, at which hole it is best to begin in order to effect captures. An inexperienced person has no chance of beating them." Parker 1909: 599.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.780
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Diviyan Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules One player has two leopards, the other has 24 cows. Play begins by each player taking turns to place their pieces, and then can move to one adjacent intersection. Leopards capture cows by hopping over them. Leopards win by capturing all the cows, cows win by blocking the leopards from moving.
Content "Diviyan Keliya,. 'The Leopards' Game'; or Diviyalliya, 'the Leopards' Square'; or Kotiyo saha Harak, 'The Leopards and Cattle.'... The board is a square with five lines passing across from each face, including the two outer ones; the diagonals which run into the angles . of the square and through the middle of each of its sides are also drawn. A triangle of six places for the pieces, enclosed by two extended diagonals, projects at the middle of each face, in addition. This game is played by two persons, one of whom has two pieces called 'Leopards,' while the other has twenty-four pieces called 'Cattle,' with which he endeavours to shut up the Leopards, which are then said to be 'imprisoned.' It is played in the same manner as the last games, the Leopards 'eating' the Cattle one at a time, by jumping over them into a vacant place. The stations for the pieces are at all meeting places of lines, and the pieces move along the lines, both at right angles and along the diagonals, going one step each time, excepting when the Leopard is making a capture. Small stones and fragments of earthenware are used as pieces. The owner of the Leopards begins the game by placing one of them at the centre of the board, but any other place may be selected for it. One of the Cattle is next put down by the other player at any meeting-point of two or more lines where it will be safe from immediate attack, and his opponent then deposits the second Leopard at any other place which he prefers. Another of the Cattle is then placed on the board, and the rest follow after each move of a Leopard until all are in play, up to which time they cannot be moved on the board. In the meantime some of them will have been 'eaten'; and notwithstanding the large number of them they are almost certain to lose the game is the Leopards can capture eight. With careful play the Cattle will always win." Parker 1909: 581-583.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.784
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Peralikatuma
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules Each player has 24 pieces, which are placed on the intersections of the lines and move along the lines to an adjacent intersection. Players may capture opponents' pieces by jumping them. Captures are not obligatory. Multiple captures can be made. A player wins by capturing all of the opponent's pieces.
Content "Perali Kotuwa 'The War Enclosure' This is merely a variety of the last game (Hewakam Keliya), in which the two side rooms are retained, the board being thus the same as for Diviyan Keliya. Each player has seven more soldiers than in the last game, and in each case these fill up the outer room on his left hand, and three empty places are then left along the central transverse line." Parker 1909: 583.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.823
Type Ethnography
Game Kotu Ellima
Date 1873-01-01 - 1873-12-31
Rules Alquerque board with four triangular appendages, which are bisected vertically and horizontally, captures by jumping, 24 pieces per player, played like draughts (English draughts?).
Content "Games, however, much on the same principle as draughts are not uncommon...the Kotu Ellime or "Taking of the Castles" may be considered the most elaborate...The "Taking of the Castles" is played exactly the same as draughts, each player taking on diagonal half of the board, which is a square with a reversed triangle in the middle of each side, and forty-nine intersections (see diagram B) in all. The counters are of different colors, generally coffee beans and Indian corn seeds. Each player lays down his twenty-four pieces, covering all the points and intersections with the exception of the middle one. The first move made into this point is a sacrifice, for the piece is immediately taken by his opponent, and so the game proceeds until one party is entirely checked or has all his pieces taken." Ludovisi 1873: 33–34). Parker 1909: 583 mentions its relationship to Perali Kotuwa. Murray 19-51: 68 describes an opening position which is not mentioned by Ludovisi.
Confidence 100
Source Ludovisi, L. 1873. 'The sports and games of the Singhalese.' The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 17–41., Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. , Ludovisi, L. 1873. 'The sports and games of the Singhalese.' The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 17–41.

Id DLP.Evidence.828
Type Ethnography
Game Sokkattan
Ruleset Sokkattan (Sri Lanka)
Date 1906-01-01 - 1906-12-31
Rules Standard Pachisi Board. Squares marked with "X" (counting from top): fifth in each outer row, fourth in central row. Three per player. Play begins in the central row of each player's arm of the board. Values of the cowries are: 0=6, 1=10, 2=2, 3=3, 4=4, 5=25, 6=12. A roll of 10 or 25 adds an extra move of 1. This extra move must be used to enter a new piece on the board if possible, if not possible then it can be assigned to any piece. Pieces on a space marked "x" are safe from being captured. Players throw dice until they receive a 2, 3, or 4, and then move. The value of an individual roll can only move one piece, but multiple pieces can be moved in turns with multiple rolls. If a player rolls the same number three times in a row, it does not count. Reference
Content "Pachis, 'Twenty-five,' is the Indian form of the same game. Its Tamil name is Sokkattan (commonly pronounced in COlombo Shok'otan); or according to Winslow's Dictionary Sorkettan or Sorkattan. This popular Indian game may be played by two, three, or four persons, and twelve counters are used, called Kay in Tamil and Sar in Hindustani; and also coloured red, yellow, black, and green, in sets of three. Blue being an unlucky colour is never used for counters in any game. If there be only two players each takes six counters. They are more or less dagaba-shaped, like those previously described. The board, called Silei, 'the cloth' in Tamil, is like that used for Pahada Keliya, and is always worked on cloth or velvet (Fig. 264). Crosses are marked on the fifth outer squares from the central enclosure, and on the fourth squares if the middle rows. In these squares the counters cannot be 'struck' by the opponents; they are termed Chira. The ordinary squares are called 'House' (ghara, Hind. or vidu, Tamil), and the central enclosure is the char-koni (hind.), 'the Square.' Six cowry shells are thrown as dice, after being shaken in the closed hands. The score is as follows:—When all the mouths are upward it counts 12, barah; if five mouths be upward it is 25, pachis; if two, three, or four mouths be upward the score is 2, do; 3, tin; and 4, char, respectively. If only one mouth be upward the score is 10, das; and when no mouth is upward it counts 6, choka. Whenever 10 or 25 is thrown the player has another throw, abd if at the second throw one of the same numbers fall it counts accordingly, that is, another 10 or 25. But if either of these numbers be thrown a third time consecutively nothing is counted, and this throw cancels the two previous throws of 10 or 25, the score of the whole three throws being now 0. The right to have an additional throw would still remain, and the score would then begin afresh. There are also additional throws after 6 or 12 has fallen. To begin the game, each player throws the shells in his turn in the right-hand order; until he obtains a 10 or 25 his counters cannot enter the board. Whenever either of these two numbers is thrown it is called a 'win' and an addition of 1 is made to the score. If the player have counters awaiting entry or re-entry at the time, this extra allowance must always be expended in paying for one of them, 1 being charged for the entry or re-entry of each counter. If all be in the game the extra 1 is added to the rest of the score; thus a throw of 10 is counted as 11, and 25 is reckoned as 26. Excepting that this extra may be used separately, the amount of each throw cannot be subdivided among different counters. In the case of the additional throw of the shells after a throw of 6, 10, 12, or 25, the amounts of the two throws may be used separately, without subdivision—either to bring a counter into an opponent's square so as to 'strike' his counters, and then move onward to the extent of the other part of the score; or the tow parts may be employed in moving forward two counters. The counters are not blocked as in Pahada Keliya. As they pass down the middle row on their way into the central enclosure they are aid on their sides to distinguish them from counters that may be moving outwards. To enter the central enclosure the exact number required must be thrown. If the counter be in the last square this can only be obtained by throwing 10 or 25, the extra score of 1 which either of these receives being utilised for the purpose." (Parker 1909: 619–621)
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.837
Type Ethnography
Game Hat Diviyan Keliya
Date 1873-01-01 - 1873-12-31
Rules Board size and layout, number of pieces, tiger starts on the apex, leopards are entered one by one, tigers capture leopards, leopards win when checking the tiger, tiger wins when capturing so many leopards they cannot check the tiger.
Content " Games, however, much on the same principle as draughts are not uncommon, and while the Hatdiviyan or "Seven Leopards" may be taken as the simplest...The former is played with seven pieces representing the leopards, and one representing the tiger. The moves are made in a triangular diagram with one perpendicular line in the middle and two cross lines at right angles to it (See Diagram A). The player or the tiger lays down his piece first, and as the apex of the triangle is the most advantageous, chooses that. The other player then lays down a piece when the tiger makes a move. Until all the seven pieces are laid, there is very little chance, if skillfully played, of taking apiece or checking a tiger. When all the pieces are laid, the moves go on with greater deliberation until either the tiger is checked, or the great number of leopards being taken, all hopes of checking the former is lost; when the game ends." (Ludovisi 1873: 33–34). Parker 1909: 581 mentioned that he does not know it from the interior of the island. Murray 1951: 106–107 repeats Ludovisi's description.
Confidence 100
Source Ludovisi, L. 1873. 'The sports and games of the Singhalese.' The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 17–41., Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. , Ludovisi, L. 1873. 'The sports and games of the Singhalese.' The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 17–41.

Id DLP.Evidence.1194
Type Ethnography
Game Dam
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 12x12 checkered board. Thirty pieces per player, placed on the white spaces in the first three ranks on each player's side. Pieces move diagonally forward or backward. The opponent's pieces are captured by hopping over them. Multiple hops by one piece are allowed in one turn if they are possible. When they reach the opposite edge of the board from where they started, the become Kings. Kings may move diagonally any number of spaces. It may capture a piece any distance from it along a diagonal, as long as the next space beyond the piece to be captured is empty. It may not hop over any pieces which belong to the same player. Multiple captures for the King can only be made along the same diagonal, except when it makes a capture that brings it to the edge of the board, it can make another capture along the next available diagonal, if possible. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content " Dam, Draughts: or literally "The Net." This game, which is known in India also, is closely allied to Polish Draughts. The pieces move in the squares instead of going along the lines. It requires two players, who have a rectangular board of 144 squares, twelve beign on each side, alternately coloured red (or black) and white. Each player has thirty pieces called Itta (pl.Itto), which are placed on the white squares at each end of the board, as in Draughts, that is, in six out of each row of twelve squares, thus leaving only the two central rows vacant. The Itto move only diagonally, and capture or "chop" the opposing pieces by jumping over them, and taking several consecutively if possible. They can move backwards as well as forwards from the beginning, thus having the powers of Kings in the ordinary English game. Excepting when capturing the opposing Itto, the ordinary pieces move to the distance of only one square at a time. Every Itta which succeeds in reaching the last square on the opponent's side of the board is doubled, and is termed a "King." With this increase in rank it acquires additional powers, and it may proceed to the end of each diagonal at one move, if the end square be empty and the way be open, or to any intermediate square, as in Polish Draughts, jumping over and capturing any opponent's pieces on the way if there be any in suitable positions on that diagonal. If cannot pass over Itto or Kings of its own side, and only over opposing ones if the next square to them be empty. If any of the opponent's pieces be captured on this diagonal and the king can enter the end square, it may continue its course in the same manner, as part of the same move, to the end or to an intermediate square of the second diagonal, at a right angle from the last one, and so on over a third or more. To be permitted to do this, however, it must capture one or more pieces on each diagonal passed over, and there must always be an empty square for it to enter in the diagonal. If the King take no pieces whether Itto or Kings, on the first diagonal, he cannot proceed further than its end at one move. He has the option of remaining at any empty intermediate square before reaching the end of a diagonal. All pieces must jump over every opposing piece which they capture; they cannot stop in its square, or jump over it unless the next square be empty. In other respects the play is the same as in English Draughts, the game being won by the player who captures all the pieces of his opponent." Parker 1909: 584-585.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1316
Type Ethnography
Game Pancha Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules The board is a single track: nine squares along the bottom row. From the central space, a track of 25 spaces, which makes turns every five spaces. It begins vertically, then to the right, then vertical, then diagonallyup and to the left, then diagonallydown and to the left. The squares just before the track turns are marked with an "X." Three pieces per player. Moves are determined with six cowrie shells, the number of mouths which are face up determine the length of the move. 6, 5, and 1 give the player an additional throw. A player must throw a 6, 5, or 1 to enter a piece on the board. The players begin on opposite sides of the bottom row of squares. The score of each throw must be used in its entirety by one piece; it cannot be subdivided. When a player's piece lands on the same square as an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to the start. A piece resting on a marked square cannot be sent to start. To move off the board, a player must throw exactly one more than the number of spaces remaining in the track. The first player to remove all of their pieces from the board wins.
Content "Pancha Keliya, 'The Five Game.' This game is player on a peculiar bent diagram, only one compartment in width, which is cut on a board. The illustration shows its shape. The name may be derived from one of the numbers thrown by the shells, or from the five houses of safety on it in which the counters cannot be attacked...the main part of the diagram rises vertically from a horizontal base. At the point of junction there is a square marked by diagonals and termed a House (Ge); four others occur at bends in the diagram. In any of these squares the counters are safe from attack. Each of the other plain squares is a Room (Kamara) or Kattiya. The terminal square is known as Kenda-ge. The stations for counters not in play are marked by circles. The game may be played by two, four, six, or eight players, but there are only two opposing sides, half the players being on each side. Six counters termed Itta, pl. itto, are used, three for each side, whatever the number of players may be...Six yellow cowries, usually filled with lead, are used as dice...The counting is as follows:—When all the mouths are upward it counts 6; if five be upwar it counts 5, and is called Pancha; two, three, or four mouths count 2, 3, or 4, respectively; one mouth upward counts 1, called Onduwa; and when no mouths are upward it counts 0, and is called Bokka. For the other numbers the ordinary Sinhalese words are used. To admit each Itta into the board a player must throw 6, 5, or 1. After each of these numbers has been thrown the player has an additional throw, which is repeated as long as he continues to throw any one of them. The counter or Itta then moves up the line of squares to the full extent of the total throws; or the score of each throw may be used for each Itta of that player; it cannot be subdivided. To go out of the last square, termed to 'land' (goda-yanawa), exactly one more than the number of squares up to and including the Kenda-ge, must be thrown. An Itta is 'cut' out only when the opponent's Itta enters the same Kamara or blank square." Parker 1909:609-610.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1386
Type Ethnography
Game Puhulmutu
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 2x7 board with two stores. Four counters in each hole. Sowing occurs in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction; the first player chooses the direction and all subsequent moves are made in that direction. Players sow beginning from holes in their row. In the course of sowing, a player cannot sow into a hole containing three counters; if one is encountered, it is skipped and the counter is sowed into the next hole without three. If the final counter falls into a hole containing three counters, the contents of the hole are captured and the contents of the next hole are picked up and sowing continues. Otherwise, if the last counter falls into a hole with counters, these are picked up and sowing continues, or if it falls into an empty hole the turn ends. The round ends when one player's holes are empty. Second round begins with the winner of the first round placing four counters in each of their holes, leaving any surplus in the store. The loser, starting from one end of the row, places four counters into as many holes as possible, leaving any extra in the store. The holes which cannot be filled are excluded from play for the round. A twig or piece of straw are often placed over it to indicate this. The losing player begins the round, moving in the direction of the excluded holes, and played in the same way as the first round. Rounds three and above: The winner of round two places four counters in as many of their holes as possible, and the remaining counters in the next hole. If it contains one, it is called puta, if two, naga, if three, wala. Holes with no counters are excluded from play for this round. If the loser has a puta hole, the opponent removes one counter from their hole opposite; if a naga, the opponent removes two from the opposite hole, if a wala, the opponent removes three. The removed counters go into their store. puta and naga holes are marked with a piece of paper or straw in them. Empty holes are excluded as before. The player with excluded holes begins play in the direction of the excluded hole. Counters cannot be captured or sowed from puta or naga holes. Play continues as before. When one player has fewer than twelve counters, they may arrange them differently at the beginning of a round. They may put one or two counters in one end hole and not more than four in the other end hole, and one or two counters in the intermediate holes, leaving some empty and, thus, excluded. The opponent then puts four counters in each of their holes. There are no puta, naga, or wala holes in this round. The player with more counters plays as before, but the one with less has captures that are determined by the number of counters placed in the first end hole. If there were two in the end hole, the player captures when dropping the final counter into a hole to make it three; or when it makes two if there was one counter in the first end hole. Otherwise, the player does not sow in holes with one or two counters. Throughout the game, singletons cannot be moved is a player has a hole with multiple counters, and a singleton in the front hole cannot be moved if there are other singletons in the player's row. Play continues until one player has no counters.
Content "Puhulmutu, ‘Ash-pumpkin Pearls.’ In this game the player takes the five seeds out of the hole into which the last one fell, and in the same way as before sows them one by one in the next and the following holes, going on round the board in this manner until the final seed falls into an empty hole, called puhuwala, or pussa, on which the player stops, or ‘sits down.’ His opponent then begins at any hole on his own side, and plays in exactly the same manner until the last seed of those which he is sowing also falls into an empty hole, after which the first player begins afresh at any hole on his own side of the board, and repeats the sowing. When a hole has three seeds in it, it must be passed over without receiving any seeds, excepting, in its proper order, the last seed of the set which a player is sowing. When this falls into such a hole he captures the four which are now in that hole (tun-indin kanawa, "eats (them) because of the three dates ’), and puts them aside in his separate enclosure provided for them at one end or side of the board. He then takes the seeds of the next hole, if there be any, and sows them as before, and continues his play round the board ; but if the next hole to that at which he effected the capture be empty his turn is ended, and he ‘ sits down.' The opponent now resumes his play, beginning at any hole on his own side, and plays in the same way. Towards the latter part of the round a single seed in the last hole on a player’s side cannot be taken as the starting-point if any other hole on his side of the board contain one, or more than one. When all the seeds on one player's side of the board have been captured, or more correctly when a player is left without seeds in his row of holes on his turn’s coming to play, the round is ended. Each player then again arranges his seeds in fours in the cup-holes, taking for the purpose any that were left in the holes on his side of the board, together with those captured by him. Any surplus ones are left in the rectangular hole belonging to him. It will almost always be found that one player possesses fewer seeds than the other. If they have equal numbers (termed hari mutu, "equal pearls"), it is optional to consider the game ended in a 1 draw.’ But if one player have fewer than the other the game must be continued. After they are replaced in the holes, in case a player be without seeds at only one hole he is said to be a ‘ person blind of one eye' ( ekas hand) ; if at two holes, a ‘ person blind of two eyes 1 (daes hand) ; if at three holes, he has no special name, but his side of the board is described as ' four-eye,' referring to the four cups which alone contain seeds ; if there are only seeds for three holes it is * three-eye ’ ; if for two holes, ' two-eye 1 ; if for one hole, ' one-eye/ The player whose seeds are deficient is said to have 'become blind’ ( kana weld). This nomenclature is applied in all the four games. The ' blind ’ person must now commence the play, sowing the seeds in the direction of his empty holes, which are left at one end of his row, and are marked by bits of twig or straw being placed across them to indicate that they are * blind. During the whole of the round no seeds can be placed in the ' blind ’ holes by either player. In other respects the procedure in this and subsequent rounds is exactly the same as in the first one, with the exceptions to be now noted. In all the four Kandian forms of the Olinda game, when the player whose seeds are deficient finds on placing the usual four seeds in the holes at a fresh 4 round ’ that he ends with only one seed for the last hole, this seed is termed his ' son ’ (puta) ; if he have two seeds for it they are called ' younger sister’ (naga) ; if three seeds they are his 'slave’ (mala). Although seeds are sown as usual, by both players, into these three holes those in the first two, containing a puta or naga. cannot be taken out and sown, and are also free from capture throughout all that round, and continue to accumulate for the benefit of their owner ; but those in the wala hole have not this privilege, and are sown and captured as usual. In its case the name is only a descriptive expression, and does not affect the play. To balance these privileged holes the opponent removes one, two, or three seeds respectively from his last hole before the play begins afresh, so as to make up the sum of four when those left in the hole are added to the seeds in the ‘ blind ’ person’s last hole. Thus, if the latter player have a puta, his opponent must end with a wala, or vice versa ; and if he have a naga the other must also have a naga. The same names and privileges apply to these holes on both sides of the board. The puta and naga holes are distinguished from the rest by having some mark, such as a bit of paper or straw, placed in them. As the seeds in these cups cannot be taken out and sown, the turn of the player whose last one falls into either of them comes to an end. When a player finds himself left with less than twelve seeds at the beginning of a round, he has the option of arranging them among the holes in his row in a different manner. He may place two seeds, or only one seed, in each hole, beginning from one end of the row of holes, the last hole on his side in that case receiving any surplus seeds, not exceeding four. For instance, if he have nine seeds, and if, as is usually the case, they be playing to the right, he will place two in each of the four holes on the left ; the next two holes will be left empty, and are 1 blind ' and cannot be played into ; and the ninth seed will be placed in the last hole on the right. The opponent’s distribution is unaffected by this, and he places the usual four seeds in the holes in his row. The game now becomes rather complicated, as the two persons play in different ways. The opponent plays and effects captures in the usual manner ; but the ' blind ’ player only makes a capture when his last seed falls into a hole containing two seeds, whether on his own or the opposite side of the board, in which case he takes the three. If he placed one seed in each hole at the commencement of the round he would make captures when his last seed fell into a hole which contained only one. Otherwise, excepting when playing his last seed, all such holes on both sides of the board with two seeds or one seed, respectively, are passed over by him and do not receive seeds from him when sowing, although his opponent sows into them. On the other hand, the * blind * player no longer passes over the holes with three seeds, but sows his seeds into each of them. As a general result of this mode of playing, the person who was 4 blind ’ often regains his lost seeds, even when he has been reduced to one seed at the beginning of a round, and the game becomes nearly interminable, and may last for hours. In order to bring it to an end quickly, a method termed 'Cutting Ash-pumpkins' ( puhul kapanawa) is sometimes adopted. According to it the player who is deficient borrows a seed out of each of the last two holes on his opponent's side, and places these in the adjoining two holes on his own side. He must then begin his play at the next or third hole ; and the borrowed seeds are returned when his opponent is about to commence sowing. There is another method of cutting short the game by a player's moving a seed, or two, on the opponent's side, and then commencing to sow from other holes than the first three on his own side." Parker 1909: 594.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1399
Type Ethnography
Game Saturankam
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 9x9 board, with the central square of each side marked, as well as the central space of the board. Two to four players, each player with two pieces. Played with two four-sided dice, marked 1, 3, 4, 6. Throws may be divided as the players see fit between their pieces. Doubles allow another throw. Players start with their pieces on the marked square on their side of the board. Pieces move along a spiraling track, starting in an anti-clockwise direction around the outer edges of the board, then changing to a clockwise direction when reaching the 32nd space in the track, and continuing in this direction in a spiral pattern until reaching the central square. If a player lands on a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is removed from the board, and the player must throw a double 1 to enter it again on their starting square,. Pieces resting on a marked space are safe from being sent to the start. The goal is to reach the central square, which must be reached by an exact throw. If a piece is 1, 3, or 4 spaces from the center, the player must throw doubles of that number to reach the goal.
Content "Saturankam or Chaturanga. This game as played in Ceylon and Southern India is called Siga by the Indian Arabs and Muhammadans; but it is a totally different game from the Siga of Arabia. It is played by Sinhalese and Tamils on a board of 81 squares, 9 being ion each side. The middle square (katti) of each side, and the central square (tachi) are marked by two diagonal lines. The plain squares are called kodu in Tamil or gaeta in Sinhalese. Two enormous hollow brass dice termed Kemadi are used for it; they have rounded edges and are of a peculiar shape, being 2 1/4 inches long, 1 1/14 inches wide in the middle, and narrow at each end, where they are less than half an inch wide. They are rolled between the palms and then along the table or floor. Each is marked thus, by holes through the shell, on the four sides. Each player has two barrel-shaped counters, called Topparei, with round tops on which is a little knob, one pair being coloured red and the other black. The game ay be played by two, three, or four persons, each one playing for himself, and beginning at one of the Katti; if there be two they sit on opposite sides of the board. The aim of each player is to get his counters to the central square. At the commencement, each player's counters are placed in the Katti on his side of the board. the players then roll the dice in turn. The numbers uppermost are added together, and the sum may be used as the distance for moving one counter, or it may be divided in any way for securing suitable moves for both. When both dice show the same number uppermost the player has an additional roll. No one can refuse to move his counters; one or both must be moved to the extent regulated by the dice if there be room for them. The counting goes round to the right, excluding the Katti from which the counters start. The arrows on the diagram show the direction taken by the counters of one side; those on the other sides move in the same manner. While in the crossed squared they are safe from attack, but in the plain ones it is the aim of the opponent to 'chop' them, as it is termed. This is done by passing over of his counters into or over their square, upon which they must begin afresh from the first Katti. To permit them to do this their owner must obtain two ones on the dice, even when only one counter is required to enter. This puts them into the first Katti, ready for moving onward at his next throw. For getting into the central Tachi, the exact number of pips required must be obtained; therefore it is advisable to bring the two counters up to it together, and not to pass one out before the other is close to it. When both are near it any score on the dice can be divided, so as possibly to enable both counters to pass out together, or one can be passed out alone, if necessary. A further difficulty arises owing to a rule that if the number required be 1 this figure must be obtained on both the dice at one roll, even when there is only one counter left. In the same manner both dice must show threes or fours for passing out either a single counter or both if they be only three or four squares off the centre. Up to this distance both counters pass out as easily as one." Parker 1909: 605-607.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1478
Type Ethnography
Game Nerenchi Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules Three concentric squares with lines connecting the midpoints of the squares. Nine pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty space. If a player places three of their pieces along one of the straight lines, they take another turn. Once all of the pieces are on the board, players take turns moving a piece to an empty space on the board. When a player creates a line of three in this phase, the player removes one of the opponent's pieces, and receives another turn. The player who reduces the opponent to two pieces wins.
Content "Nerenchi Keliya...The game requires two players who alternately lay dow a small counter-usually a stone or fragment of earthenware-at one of the angles, or the points where the arms of the cross meet the sides of the squares. While doing so, on each occasion when a player forms a row of three of his own pieces, which is termed 'Nerenchi,' he lays down an additional piece. When only two places remain unfilled the next player moves one of his pieces into one of the vacant points, and the play is continued by the two players, who move their pieces alternately, each one endeavouring to form a row of three of his own pieces, which the other tries to prevent. Whenever a row is so formed the player who has obtained the Nerenchi removes an opposition piece from the board and has an additional move. The play ends when one player has lost all his pieces." Parker 1909: 577, 580.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1479
Type Ethnography
Game Niranchy
Date 1873-01-01 - 1873-12-31
Rules Three concentric squares, with lines connecting the midpoints and diagonals of the squares. Twelve pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, the pieces may be moved to an empty adjacent spot on the board. One player wins by placing three of their pieces in a row. The other player wins by blocking their opponent from being able to move.
Content "Niranchy which is the same as "Nine men's morrice", is a very common game, played by both young and old, in the intervals of business. The game is won when a player succeeds in laying down three pieces in a line, while the object of the opponent is to prevent this by giving check. Should the game not have been decided by the time one of the players has laid down his twelve men, the game proceeds by moves." Ludovisi 1873: 34, diagram C.
Confidence 100
Ages All
Source Ludovisi, L. 1873. 'The sports and games of the Singhalese.' The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 17–41.

Id DLP.Evidence.1480
Type Ethnography
Game Koti Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules 12x12 checkered board. One player plays with six "cattle" or "dogs," the other plays as the "leopard." The cattle start on the white spaces along one side of the board, the leopard may be placed on any white square. Cattle move one space forward diagonally. The leopard may move one or two spaces diagonally in any one direction. If the leopard moves past the line of cattle, the leopard wins. If the cattle block the leopard from being able to move, the cattle win.
Content "Koti Keliya, 'the Leopard Game.' This is played on the same board of 144 squares, and is a form of 'Fox and Geese.' It requires one piece called a 'Leopard,' and six others termed 'Cattle,' or 'Dogs,' which all move diagonally along the squares. The Cattle only move in a forward oblique direction and to the extent of one square at a time, and cannot be captured; but the Leopard has the option of going double the distance in any oblique direction if the course be unobstructed. He cannot pass over the Cattle. The Cattle are set on the white squares along one side of the board; while the Leopard may be placed anywhere on a square with the same colour. As in the English game, the Leopard wins if it can pass through or round the Cattle, whose aim is to enclose or 'imprison' him." Parker 1909: 585.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1485
Type Ethnography
Game Pahada Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules Four 3x8 rectangles, arranged in a cross shape with a large square space in the center. The outer corners of each square are marked with a cross, as are the third and sixth space from the same corner. Four players, playing on two teams. Four pieces per player. The pieces are red, green, yellow, and black. Players start with one piece on the sixth and seventh space of the central row in their arm, and two pieces on the third space in the outer row of their arm, to the right. Two rectangular four-sided dice, with the following throws: 1, 3, 4, 6. Players use the throw of a die to move a piece; they may therefore may move two pieces each the value of one of the dice, or one piece twice, using the value of each dice. Play moves down the central track of the player's arm, around the outer perimeter of the board in an anti-clockwise direction, and back up the central row of the player's arm, proceeding into the large central square. When a player's piece moves into a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent to the central square, from which it must begin again. A player cannot move into their central row, approaching the end of the track, unless two of their team member's pieces have moved past the player's own pieces. If two or more of the team member's pieces remain behind the player's own pieces, the player's pieces may not advance past the final three spaces in which they can be sent back to the beginning. Neither they, nor any of the team's pieces, can proceed until two of the team member's pieces are placed, by exact throws, on the left inner corner or the arm of the player wishing to advance. These two pieces must then proceed together; i.e., only on double throws of the dice, with the exception that a double 6 cannot be used if one of the pieces waiting to move occupies the relevant space. Once a double throw is successfully made and both pieces moved, the waiting pieces may proceed up the central row. When players cannot move the throws, they pass their turn. Players must move into the central square with an exact throw. The first team to place all of their pieces in the central square wins.
Content Detailed rules and explanation of Pahada Keliya from Sri Lanka in Parker 1909: 611-614.
Confidence 100
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1486
Type Artifact
Game Asi Keliya
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules Four 3x4 rectangles, arranged in a cross shape, with a large central square which has diagonals, and spaces in the four corners between each arm of the cross. Four players, played on two teams, with team members sitting on opposite sides of the board. Four pieces per player, with the colors red, black, yellow, and green. Six cowrie shells used as dice: five are white and one is yellow. The number of the mouths which are face-up determine the value of the throw, except for a throw of 3 when one of the cowries with the mouth down is the yellow one, in which case the throw is known as So-hatara, and counts as 4, but allows special moves because it is actually considered four individual throws of 1. When the player throws 1, 5, or So-hatara, the player receives an extra throw. The throws are added up at the end of each sequence of throws. and the total is played. A 1, 5, or So-hatara must be thrown to enter a piece on the board. The entirety of a throw must be used to move one piece, but separate throws in a turn can each be used individually to move a different piece. This does not apply when So-hatara is one of the throws; in this case, the total of the throw can be subdivided however the player sees fit. Pieces enter the board from the center, moving down the central track of their arm, then in an anti-clockwise direction around the board, and then back up the central row of their arm of the board to the central square. players may not move beyond a piece of the opposing team, unless they have thrown So-hatara. In this case, a piece moving beyond an opponent's piece sends the opponent's piece back to start. If a player lands on a space occupied by a piece of the opposing team, the opponent's piece is sent back to start. If two of the opponent's pieces are on this space, they both are sent back to start, but may both reenter with a throw ordinarily applied to reenter one piece. Pieces resting on the corner spaces between the arms of the cross cannot be sent to start in any circumstance. When pieces reach the central row of their arm, they may only proceed along it one space at a time, with a throw of 1 or So-hatara. They are placed on their side when moving up this row. The first team who places all of their pieces in the central square wins.
Content Detailed description of the rules of Asi Keliya as played in Sri Lanka by Parker 1909: 614-617.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1487
Type Ethnography
Game Tayam Sonalu
Date 1909-01-01 - 1909-12-31
Rules Four 3x8 rectangles, arranged in a cross shape around large central square. Four players. Four pieces per player, which begin in the central square. Two rectangular four-sided die, each marked as follows: 0, 1, 2, 4. When the throw is 0 and 1, the throw is called Tayam, when it is 0 and 4 it is called Sonal. Pieces enter the board in the from the central square onto the central row of their arm of the board, proceed down the central row, and then in an anti-clockwise direction around the circumference of the board, and back up the central row of their arm of the board, having to enter the central square with an exact throw. The first counter of each player must be entered with a throw of Tayam. After this, pieces may be entered with a throw of 1, 5, or Sonal, each of which enter the piece on the first square of the central row of their arm. These three throws also grant the player another throw. The throws made after entering a piece are made at once, and then the pieces moved afterward, the undivided value of each throw being used to move a piece. When a piece lands on a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to start. If the opponent has two pieces on such a space, they both are sent back to start, but both may reenter the board with a single throw of 1, 5, or Sonal. Pieces cannot move past the pieces of the opposing team, but can move past pieces of their own team. The first team to place all of their pieces in the central square wins.
Content Detailed description of the rules of Tayam Sonalu in Parker 1909: 617-618.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside
Source Parker, H. 1909. Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Id DLP.Evidence.1684
Type Ethnography
Game Kawade Kelia
Date 1898-01-01 - 1898-12-31
Rules One horizontal row of eleven squares, the central square marked with an X. From this central square, extending vertically, eleven more squares, making a row of twelve in total. The fifth square and the final square in this row are marked with an X. An arc of five squares extend left and down from the final square of the vertical row. From the fifth row of the vertical row, a square with twelve squares per side. The corner squares are marked with an X, the central two squares of the left, right, and top side are marked with one X across both squares. Two or four players; when there are four players they play on two teams of two. Three cowrie shells per player, used as pieces. Six cowrie shells used as dice; the throws = the number of mouths that land face up. Players move their pieces onto the board and around the circuit according to the throws of the cowries. Teams start on opposite ends of the bottom row of squares, up the vertical line to the square, in opposite directions around the square, then up the remaining part of the vertical row and down the arc, and off the board. When a piece lands on a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back and must enter the board again. Pieces are safe from being sent back if they rest on a marked square. The first team to remove all of their pieces from the board wins.
Content "37. Kawade Kelia. Cowrie game. Ceylon. ...From the exhibit of the Government of Ceylon at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago. Two or four persons play. In the latter case, two play as partners. Cowries o fdifferen kinds are used as men, each player having three. These are called bala,"dogs" (singular, balo). The moves are made, according to the throws, with six cowrie shells. The counts are as follows: 6 mouths up =6 5 mouths up =5 4 mouths up =4 3 mouths up =3 2 mouths up=2 1 mouth up=1The players stand at opposite sides of the bottom of the board and finish at the end of the interior diagram, making the circuit in opposite directions. A player may take and set back an opponent's piece, unless it be upon one of the squares crossed by diagonals, called cattya." Culin 1898: 851.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1898. Chess and Playing-Cards. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Id DLP.Evidence.1760
Type Ethnography
Game Pancha Keliya (Complex)
Date 1942-01-01 - 1942-12-31
Rules Eleven squares are in the bottom line. From the central square, a line of an additional ten extend up. From the central hole of this vertical line (counting the central hole of the bottom line), a square with eleven holes per side. Extending to the left and right of this, five more squares on each side. Five squares extend upwards diagonally from the end of each of these lines, joining at an apex. Intersecting with the fifth square in the initial vertical line, a square with eleven spaces per side. Every fifth square is marked with an X. Players enter from opposite ends of the bottom horizontal track. Marked squares are safe spaces. Each player has multiple pieces. Pieces landing on an opponent's piece send them back to start. Knucklebones, cowries, or dice used to determine moves.
Content "e games referred to in this note owe their origin to the practice of keeping a record of the successive throws of knucklebones, cowries, or other natural prototypes of the dice, by means of counters shifted along a row of stones, or a scale of lines, the length of which corresponds to the winning score. In the course of time the record-keeping part became the more important one, and some of the following characteristics were developed: (1) The use, for each player, of more than one counter which he can use alternately, at his own discretion: this feature introduces the element of discrimination in a game, otherwise, of pure chance. (2) The rule that when one player's counter lands in a place already occupied by an opponent's piece, the latter is sent back. (3) The marking out of places of safety where such 'sending back ' cannot take place. (4) Other advantages and handicaps attached to special landing places...It was not until I reached Ceylon that I found it still known to the present generation. Here it was called panca (keliya), i.e. ' (game of) fives." Accompanied with a drawing of the board. Marin 1942: 114, 116.
Confidence 100
Source Marin, G. 1942. "An Ancestor of the Game of 'Ludo.'" Man 42: 114-117.

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