background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System


Home Games Forum Downloads Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map Ludemes About

Hawalis DLP Game   


Period Modern, 2000s

Region Western Asia

Category Board, Sow, Four rows


Hawalis is a mancala-style game played in Oman that closely mirrors Bao Ki Arabu in Zanzibar. It has been observed being played outside in Muscat, and the players were Arab-speaking Omani men. The board has 4 rows of 7 holes, and is often played as holes dug out in the sand.


Play begins with two seeds in each hole. Each player owns the two rows closest to them. Play proceeds by taking the seeds from one hole and sowing them one by one in consecutive holes in an anti-clockwise direction. If the last seed falls in a hole in the inner row, and the opponent's hole opposite it is not empty, then the opponent's seeds in that hole are captured. Players can only play from holes with single counters when there is no other option, and they may not sow into another hole that already contains a counter. Play continues until one player no longer has any seeds.

de Voogt 2003: 95-97.


Oman? Zanzibar?

Ludeme Description



Browse all concepts for Hawalis here.

Evidence Map

1 pieces of evidence in total. Browse all evidence for Hawalis here.

Click on any marker or highlighted region to view the evidence relating to it.
To view all regions, please select it from the category options below.

Evidence category:

Evidence coloured based on:

Map style:


de Voogt, A. 2003. Hawalis in Oman: a first account of expertise and dispersal of four-row mancala in the Middle East. Board Game Studies 6: 5–98.




     Contact Us

lkjh Maastricht University Data Science and Knowledge Engineering (DKE), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council