
Evidence in Japan
25 pieces of evidence found.
Id DLP.Evidence.798 Type Contemporary rule description Game Hasami Shogi Date 19510101  19511231 Rules Play begins with the pieces arranged in the last row of squares on opposite sides of the board. Pieces move as rooks in Chess. An opponent's piece is captured by surrounding it on two opposite sides by a player's piece. Play continues until all of one player's pieces are captured. Content "4.1.6. Japan: Hasamishogi. 'intercepting chess' (Prof. Tsuboi). Two persons play, each with nine men arranged on his first row of the Japanese chess board of 9x9 cells. The chess pawns (fu) are used as men; they have the move of the rook in chess, and capture by the interception method. Professor Tsuboi thought that it was a modern game, a simplification of the Japanese chess." Murray 1951: 54.
Confidence 100 Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of BoardGames Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.820 Type Contemporary rule description Game Gomoku Date 19050101  19051231 Rules Played on go board, win by making five in a row. Content "By the way, there is another and simpler, yet fascinating, game names Gomoknarabee (Jap.), a lining of five pieces, a sort of checkers, played, with the Igopieces, on the Igoboard, through not necessarily in a chessological sense are all required for the play, as it has nothing whatever to do with Igo. This game is played as a pastime by women and children, and also men to a certain extent. It is the easiest and peculiarly fascinating and instructive game." ChoYo 1905: 212. Murray 1951: 50 elaborates on this description using rules from gobang evidence. Confidence 100 Ages Child, Adult Genders Female, Male Source ChoYo. 1905. Japanese Chess (shongi): The Science and Art of War or Struggle Philosophically Treated. New York: Eurasiamerica., Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of BoardGames Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.835 Type Contemporary rule description Game Taikyoku Shogi Date 16030101  18680503 Rules 36x36 board. Content "There is in Shogi Zushiki also mention of a 36x36 hugeboard (taikyoku) shogi which, if it really existed, presumably belonged to this group too. Not surprisingly it is assumer that priests invented these games." Fairbairn 1981: 11. Confidence 50 Source Fairbairn, J. 1981. Shogi history...and the variants. Shogi 27: 9–13.
Id DLP.Evidence.1232 Type Ethnography Game Juroku Musashi Date 18980101  18981231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with the diagonals of every 2x2 square formed. On one side, a triangle, with the apex intesecting with the midpoint of that side. There is a line from the apex to the midpoint of the triangle's base, and another interior triangle, connecting the base of the larger triangle with the midpoints of the sides of the larger triangle. One player plays as the Taisho ("general"), the other as sixteen musashi ("soliders"). The Taisho begins in the central point, the musashi on each point of the perimeter of the square board. Players take turns moving from one point to an adjacent point along the lines on the board. The Taisho may capture a musashi by hopping over it. The musashi win if they are able to immobilize the Taisho, or if they confine the Taisho to the triangle. Content "57. MJuroku Musashi. "Sixteen Soldiers." The Japanese Game of fox and Gees. Japan. (a) Board and men. (b) Japanese picture of players. The board has 8 by 8 squares, each of which is divided into two parts by a diagonal line (fig. 177). In the games now current in Japan there is a triangle at the top of the board two squares wide, with its apex resting upon the middle of the upper side. Sixteen men (musashi, "soldiers") are arranged at the sixteen points of intersection at the sides of the square with the Taisho, or General, in the center. Two play, the "General" striving to capture the "Soldiers," and the latter to block him." Culin 1898: 874. Confidence 100 Source Culin, S. 1898. Chess and PlayingCards. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Id DLP.Evidence.1233 Type Contemporary rule description Game Juroku Musashi Date 19510101  19511231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with the diagonals of every 2x2 square formed. On one side, a triangle, with the apex intesecting with the midpoint of that side. There is a line from the apex to the midpoint of the triangle's base, and another connecting the midpoints of the sides of the triangle. One player plays as the Taisho ("general"), the other as sixteen musashi ("soliders"). The Taisho begins in the central point, the musashi on each point of the perimeter of the square board. Players take turns moving from one point to an adjacent point along the lines on the board. Only the Taisho may enter the triangle. The Taisho may capture a musashi by hopping over it. The Taisho wins if it captures all the musashi. The musashi win if they are able to immobilize the Taisho, or if they confine the Taisho to the triangle. Content "5.2.3. Japan: Juroku Musashi 'sixteen soldiers' (...Prof. Tsuboi). Played on board B, Fig. 45, which is copied from a board (no.7090) in the Museum of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania. When Prof. Tsuboi drew the board for me, he omitted the two shorter lines in the triangle. One player has a general (taisho) and the other sixteen soldiers (musashi) which are arranged as in the diagram. All the pieces have the same move, one step along a marked line through the point on which the piece stands, but the general alone can enter the triangle, and if he is confined to it, he loses. The general alone can capture, and he does so by the short leap of the draughtsman. The general wins if he takes all the soldiers, and the soldiers win if they reduce the general to immobility or confine him to the triangle." Murray 1951: 101. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Genders Male Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of BoardGames Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.1234 Type Artistic depiction Game Juroku Musashi Date 17000101  18941231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with the diagonals of every 2x2 square formed. On one side, a triangle, with the apex intersecting with the midpoint of that side. There is a line from the apex to the midpoint of the triangle's base, and another connecting the midpoints of the sides of the triangle. Three players possible? Content Print from Japan showing women playing Juroku Musashi in a house. It appears that three women are playing, with three colors of pieces on the board. University of Pennsylvania Museum 17832. Culin 1898: 874. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Social status Elite Spaces Inside Genders Female Source Culin, S. 1898. Chess and PlayingCards. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Id DLP.Evidence.1422 Type Contemporary text Game Sugoroku Date 07540101  07541231 Rules Name of the game. Content "Viele Beamte und Bürger gaben sich dem SugorokuSpiel hin. Das waren unge setzliche Taten, denn sie achteten die Eltern nicht oder machten Bankrott. Spieler sol len schwere Strafen bekommen" Masukawa 2000: 52. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Social status NonElite, Elite Source Masukawa, K. 2000. "Kurze Geschichte des Tricktrack in Japan." Board Game Studies 3: 5158.
Id DLP.Evidence.1431 Type Ethnography Game Tobi Shogi Date 19130101  19131231 Rules 9x9 board. Played with the full complement of Shogi pieces, placed in the first and second rows. All pieces move only one space orthogonally forward or laterally. Pieces capture by hopping over an opponent's piece. The player to capture all of the opponent's pieces wins. Content "The ordinary chessboard of 81 squares is used for two other games, each of which is named a variety of chess. In Tobishogi (jumping chess), each player arranges his eighteen men, now considered to be all of equal value, upon the first and second rows. Each man can move straight forward or laterally, and captures as in the English game of draughts." Murray 1913: 147. Confidence 100 Source Murray, H. J. R. 1913. A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.1545 Type Contemporary text Game ChuShogi Date 14440101  14441231 Rules Name of Game Content Diary entry of Nakahara Yasutomi, stating he played ChuShogi on the 24th day of the sixth month of 1444. Tasutomiki p. 69, discussed in Koichi 2005a: 182. Confidence 100 Source Yasutomi, N. 14001457. Yasutomiki., Koichi, M. 2004. "Shogi: Japan's Game of Generals." In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel (eds.), Asian Games: the Art of Contest. New York, Asia Society, 181185.
Id DLP.Evidence.1546 Type Contemporary text Game OShogi Date 12100101  12121231 Rules Name of game, 13x13 board. 68 pieces. 13 types of pieces. Content Entry for OShogi in the medieval encyclopedia Nichureki (p.240), referenced in Koichi 2005a: 182. 13x13 board. 68 pieces. 13 types of pieces. Confidence 100 Source Koichi, M. 2004. "Shogi: Japan's Game of Generals." In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel (eds.), Asian Games: the Art of Contest. New York, Asia Society, 181185., Lecreuil, X. 1908. "Quelques jeux musulmans." Révue du monde musulman 6(9): 136142.
Id DLP.Evidence.1660 Type Rules text Game SanNokuNarabe Date 19510101  19511231 Rules 3x3 intersecting lines. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty spot on the board. Once all of the pieces are placed, players move a piece to any empty spot on the board. The first player to make an orthogonal row of three along the lines of the board wins.
Content "3.1.8. Japan: Sannokunarabe (Prof. Tsuboi). Board B. PLayed by children and adults in remote villages. The only game played by the Ainus, who name is chikkiri." Played with rules of Nine Holes. Murray 1951: 39. Confidence 100 Ages Child, Adult Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of BoardGames Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.1676 Type Contemporary text Game Yasasukari Musashi Date 17120101  17121231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with diagonals drawn in the quadrants. One player plays as a single piece, which begins in the central spot of the board. The Other player plays as sixteen pieces, placed on the spots along the perimeter of the board.
Content Drawing of Yasasukari Musashi in the Sam sai dzu e, a translation of the Chinese encyclopedia Sant'saiy'uhwei. Murray 1951: 99100; Culin 1895: 77; Himly 1887: 481. Confidence 100 Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
, Himly, K. 1887. "Anmerkungen in Beziehung auf das Schach und andere Brettspiele." Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländlischen Gesellschaft 41: 461484., Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of BoardGames Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Id DLP.Evidence.2025 Type Contemporary rule description Game Heian Dai Shogi Date 12300101  12301231 Rules 13x13 board. Pieces are as follows, and in the following positions: Osho (king), x1: located on the central space of the row closest to each player; Kinsho (gold general), x2: on both sides of the Osho; Ginsho (silver general), x2: next to the gold generals; Dosho (copper general), x2: next to the silver generals; Tessho (iron general), x2: next to the copper generals; Kosha (lance), x2: next to the iron generals; Ogyo (side walker), x1: in front of the king; Moko (wild tiger), x2: in front of the silver generals; Hiryu (flying dragon), stands in front of the Keima, Keima (knight), x2: next to the Kosha; Honsha (free chariot), x2: starts in front of the Kosha; Chunin, x1: in front of the central Fuhyo;; Fuhyo (soldier), x13: on the third row of squares. Known moves are as follows: Dosho does not move diagonally; Tessho does not move backward, whether orthogonally or diagonally; Ogyo moves either orthogonally forward one space or orthogonally to the left or right any number of spaces; Moko moves diagonally one space; Hiryu moves any distance diagonally; Honsha moves forward or backward any distance; Chunin moves one step forward or backward.
Content Text from the Nichureki, a Japanese text from around 1230 that describes Dai Shogi from the Heian period, as translated by Banaschak: "Der älteste Text, in dem eine trotz aller Lücken brauchbare Beschreibung eines kleinen Shogi und einer großen DaiShogio zu finden sind, ist das Nichureki (Aus dem zwei Chureki) das etwa 1230 verfaßt wurde...Neben der Beschriebung des kleinin Shogi enthält das "Nichureki" eine Beschreibung eines größeren DaiShogi. Da man auch hierbei davon ausgeht, daß der Text den Stand in der späten HeianZeit widespiegelt, ist es unter dem Namen HeianDauShogi bekannt. Die diesbezügliche Textpassage lautet:
Und es gibt auch ein DaiShogi mit dreiziehn Reihen, wie folgt: der König (Osho) steht auf jeder Seite in der Mittte, ein Goldgeneral (Kinsho) steht auf jeder [seiner] Seite[n], ein Silbergeneral [Ginsho] steht dem Goldgeneral [Kin] als nächster, als nächster beim Silbergeneral [Ginsho] steht als nächster der Kupfergeneral [Dosho], als nächster steht ein Eisengeneral [Tessho], als nächster steht die Lanze [Kosha]; der Kupfergeneral [Dosho] zieht nicht in die vier Ecken, der Eisengeneral [Tessho] zieht nicht in die hinteren drei Richtungen; und der Seitenläufer [Ogyo] steht vor dem König [Osho] und zieht nach vorn einen Schrit, nach links und rechts ist nicht festgelegt, ob viel oder wenig; und, es gibt den Wilden Tiger [Moko], der vor dem Silbergeneral [Gin] steht, er zieht in die vier Ecken einen Schritt; der Fliegende Drache [Hiryu] steht vor dem Springer [Keima], er zieht in die vier Ecken und zieht darüber hinaus, der Freie Wagen [Honsha] steht vor der Lanze [Kosha], er zieht nach vorn und hinten, es ist nicht festgelegt, ob wenig oder viel; der Chunin steht vor dem mittleren Soldaten [Fuhyo], er zieht nach vorn und hinten jeweils einen Schritt; seine Zugweise ist gleichsam wie dessen." Banaschak 2001: 134137.
Confidence 100 Source Banaschak, P. 2001. Schachspiele in Ostasien (Xiangqi, Changgi, Shogi). Quellen zu ihrer Geschichte und Entwicklung bis 1640. Munich: Iudicum.
Id DLP.Evidence.2026 Type Contemporary rule description Game Heian Sho Shogi Date 12300101  12301231 Rules 8x8 or 8x9 board. Pieces are as follows: Osho (king): Moves in every direction; Ginsho (gold general): does not move left, right, or backward; Keima (knight): moves orthogonally one square and then diagonally another square; Kosha (lance)moves forward any distance; Fuhyo (soldier) moves one square. If the Fuhyo enters the third rank on the opponent's side of the board, they are promoted to Ginsho. A player wins when the opponent is reduced to the Osho and one Ginsho.
Content Text from the Nichureki, a Japanese text from around 1230 that describes Sho Shogi from the Heian period, as translated by Banaschak: "Brettspiele. Shogi...Der König [Osho] kann in die acht Richtungen ziehen, der Goldgeneral [Ginsho] zieht nicht nach links, rechts, und nach hinten, der Springer [Keima] zieht nach vorn und dann ein Feld über die Ecke, die Lanze [Kosha] zieht nach vorn nach ihrem Willen, der Soldat [Fuhyo] zieht ein Feld und niemals anders; wenn sie die drei Reihen des Gegners breteten, werden alle zum Goldgeneral [Kin], wenn der Gegner [nur noch] den König und einem General hat, dann hat er verloren." Banaschak 2001: 134135. Confidence 100 Source Banaschak, P. 2001. Schachspiele in Ostasien (Xiangqi, Changgi, Shogi). Quellen zu ihrer Geschichte und Entwicklung bis 1640. Munich: Iudicum.
Id DLP.Evidence.2035 Type Contemporary rule description Game Tenjiku Shogi Date 16750101  16991231 Rules 16x16 board. 156 pieces. Includes the same pieces as Sho Shogi, Chu Shogi, and Dai Shogi, with the addition of the following pieces: Great General: moves any distance orthogonally or diagonally, jumping over any intervening pieces; Vice General: moves one space orthogonally or any distance diagonally; Fire Demon: moves two spaces forward or backward; moves any distance left or right or diagonally, pieces in adjacent squares "perish by burning"; Rook General: moves any distance orthogonally, jumping over any intervening pieces; Bishop General: moves any distance diagonally, jumping over any intervening pieces; Lion Hawk: moves two spaces orthogonally and any distance diagonally; Water Buffalo: moves two spaces forward or backward or any distance left, right, or diagonally; Chariot Soldier: moves two spaces left or right and any distance forward or backward orthogonally or diagonally; Vertical Soldier: moves any distance orthogonally forward, two spaces left or right, or one step backward orthogonally; Side Soldier: moves any distance left or right orthogonally or two spaces left or right or one space backward; Dog: one space forward or one space backward diagonally; Multi General: moves any distance forward or backward diagonally; Heavenly Tetrarch: moves like the Chariot Soldier but not to adjacent squares; Free Eagle: moves like the Free King or Cat Sword twice. Tokin: promoted pawn. Pieces promote as follows: Knight to Side Soldier; Iron General to Vertical General; Side Soldier to Water Buffalo; Vertical Soldier to Chariot Soldier; Chariot Soldier to Heavenly Tetrarch; Horned Falcon to Bishop General; Soaring Eagle to Rook General; Bishop General to Vice General; Rook General to Great General; Water Buffalo to Fire Demon; Lion to Lion Hawk; Free King to Free Eagle.
Content Translation of late seventeenth century text Shogi Zushiki, as given by Peter Banaschak and published by Colin Adams. Includes the text referring to Tenjiku Shogi. A diagram of the starting position is included, but not reported specifically in the translation, but it given in Adams' own text. Adams 1999: 166167. Confidence 100 Source Adams, C. 1999. The Struggle for Survival: Testing Times for Tenjiku Shogi—Being an Introduction to the Game of Tenjiku Shogi, Including Analysis of the Opening phase of the Game and Example Games. http://history.chess.free.fr/papers/TenjikuColin%20Adams.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2021.
Id DLP.Evidence.2062 Type Contemporary text Game Jodo Sugoroku Date 14740101  14741231 Rules Played with dice. Content Entry from the diary of the aristocrat Yamashina Tokikuni: "I played Jodo sugoroku at the palace of Prince Fushinomiya." also, four days later: "I had the names carved on the dice used in Jodo sugoroku and bring it to his highness." Koichi 2004: 77. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Social status Elite, Royalty, Nobility Genders Male Source Koichi, M. 2004. "Scenic Views: ESugoroku.: In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel, eds. Asian Games: The Art of Contest. New York: Asia Society, 7787.
Id DLP.Evidence.2063 Type Artifact Game Jodo Sugoroku Date 18000101  18681231 Rules 91 squares. Players ascend from the bottom of the board toward the top. One space sends the player to Hell, a space which cannot be escaped, and thus losing the game. Content Jodo Sugoroku board from the nineteenth century with 91 squares, depicting hells at the bottom and Nirvana at the top. one square sends players to a hell spot which cannot be escaped. A player who gets sent there loses. Koichi 2004: 7779. Confidence 100 Source Koichi, M. 2004. "Scenic Views: ESugoroku.: In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel, eds. Asian Games: The Art of Contest. New York: Asia Society, 7787.
Id DLP.Evidence.2064 Type Artifact Game ESugoroku Date 16200101  16801231 Rules 22 spaces. One die. Dice rolls determine which space to go to, as indicated on the board. Content ESugorouku board with 22 sqaures, giving the dice throws to go to different saces. Koichi 2004: 87. Confidence 100 Source Koichi, M. 2004. "Scenic Views: ESugoroku.: In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel, eds. Asian Games: The Art of Contest. New York: Asia Society, 7787.
Id DLP.Evidence.2088 Type Contemporary text Game O Shogi (Futsu ShodoShu) Date 12970101  13021231 Rules 15x15 board. 29 different pieces, 130 pieces in total.
Content Summary of the Futsu shodoshu of the monk Ryoki (12971302): "In addition, Futsu shodoshu, compiled by the monky Ryoki from 1297 to 1302, records an improved version of oshogi, further enlarged to use a board with fifteen squares on each side and twentynine types of pieces, with 130 pieces in total." Koichi 2004: 182. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Social status Clergy Genders Male Source Koichi, M. 2004. "Shogi: Japan's Game of Generals." In C. Mackenzie and I. Finkel (eds.), Asian Games: the Art of Contest. New York, Asia Society, 181185.
Id DLP.Evidence.2437 Type Artifact Game ChuShogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules Movement, placement, and promotion of all pieces. Content Sho Shogi Zushiki, which contains diagram of initial piece placement, the movement and promotion rules for all of the pieces. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
Id DLP.Evidence.2438 Type Contemporary rule description Game Wa Shogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules Piece placement and movement. Content Sho Shogi Zushiki, an anonymous manuscript that provides a board diagram showing the placement of the pieces and the movement properties of the pieces. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
Id DLP.Evidence.2439 Type Contemporary rule description Game Dai Shogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules Placement and positions of pieces. Content Sho Shogi Zushiki, an anonymous manuscript with diagrams of positions and movements of the pieces of Dai Shogi. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
Id DLP.Evidence.2440 Type Contemporary rule description Game Dai Dai Shogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules Placement, movement, and promotion of pieces. Content Anonymous manuscript Sho Shogi Zushiki, which provides diagrams of the placement, movement, and promotion of pieces. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
Id DLP.Evidence.2441 Type Contemporary rule description Game Maka Dai Dai Shogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules 9x19 board. Pieces are as follows:
First row: Kyosha (x2): slide orthogonally forward, placed on the corners of the first row; Dosho (x2): move one space forward or backward orthogonally, promote to Honnin, moves any distance forward orthogonally or backward diagonally, placed next to Kyosha; Sekisho (x2): move one space diagonally forward, promoted piece moves any distance diagonally forward, placed next to Dosho; Gasho (x2): moves one space diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, promotes to Honga which moves any distance diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, placed next to Sekisho; Techo (x2): moves one space forward orthogonally or diagonally, promoted piece moves any distance forward orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Gasho; Dosho (x2): moves one space forward orthogonally or diagonally or backward orthogonally, promoted piece moves any distance forward orthogonally or diagonally or backward orthogonally, placed next to Tessho; Ginsho (x2): moves one space diagonally or orthogonally forward or backward, promoted piece moves any distance orthogonally forward or diagonally any direction, placed next to Dosho; Kinsho (x2): moves one space orthogonally or forward diagonally, promoted piece moves any distance orthogonally or diagonally forward, placed next to Ginsho; Deva (x1): moves one space diagonally forward or orthogonally left or diagonally backward to the left, promoted to piece with unknown movement, placed next to left Kinsho; Mumyo (x1): moves one space diagonally forward, orthogonally right, or diagonally backward to the right, promotes to Hosei (unkonwn movement), placed next to right Kinsho; Osho (x1): moves one space in any direction, promoted piece can jump to anywhere on the board, placed between Deva and Mumyo.
Second row: Hensha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, promoted to Keigei, which moves any distance orthogonally forward and backward or diagonally backward, placed in front of Kyosha; Myojin (x2): moves one space diagonally, promotes to Honmyo which moves any distance diagonally, placed in front of Sekisho; Waikei (x1) moves one space diagonally forward, horizontally, or orthogonally backward, promotes to Senkaku, which moves any distance diagonally forward, horizontally, or orthogonally backward, placed in front of left Tessho; Banja (x1) moves one space backwards orthogonally or diagonally or forward orthogonally, promotes to Honja which moves any distance backward orthogonally or diagonally or forward orthogonally, placed in front of left Ginsho; Garyu (x1): moves one space orthogonally or diagonally backward, promotes to Hoonryu which moves any distance forward diagonally or orthogonally or one space backward diagonally or orthogonally, placed next to right Mohyo; Koen (x1): moves one space diagonally or backward orthogonally, promotes to Sambu which moves any distance diagonally or backward orthogonally or one space forward orthogonally, placed next to right Tessho; Mohyo (x2): moves one space any direction except horizontally, promoted piece moves any distance any direction except horizontally, placed in front of Kinsho; Moko (x2): moves one space in any direction except forward orthogonally, promotes to Hiroku which moves any distance diagonally or horizontally, placed next to Mohyo; Suizo (x1): moves one space in any direction except backward orthogonally, promotes to Taishi which moves one space orthogonally, placed in front of Osho.
Third row: Roso (x2): moves up to two spaces diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, promotes to Komari which moves any distance diagonally backward or orthogonally forward, placed in front of (outer) Dosho; Shincho (x2): moves one space orthogonally, placed in front of Gasho; Moyu (x2), moves one space diagonally or orthogonally backward, promoted to Hon'yu, which moves any distance diagonally, horizontally, or jumps to the second space diagonally forward, placed in front of Dosho (inner); Akuro (x2): moves one space diagonally or orthogonally forward, promoted piece moves any distance diagonally or orthongally backward or forward, placed in front of Mohyo; Kirin (x1): jumps to the second space orthogonally or moves one space diagonally, promotes to Shishi which moves one space in any direction and moves twice in one turn or may jump to the second space, placed in front of left Moko; Shishi (x1): which moves one space in any direction and moves twice in one turn or may jump to the second space, placed in front of Suizo; Hoo (x1): jumps to the second space diagonally or moves one space horizontally, promotes to Honno which moves any distance in all directions, placed to the right of Shishi.
Fourth row: Roba (x2): jumps to the secon space forward and backward orthogonally or moves one space horizontally, does not promote, placed in front of Honsha; Keima (x2): knight move, no promotion, place in front of Myojin; Mogyu (x2): moves one space orthogonally up to two spaces, placed in front of Weikei; Hiryu (x2): moves diagonally up to two spaces, placed in front of Banja and Garyu; Rasetsu (x1): moves up to three spaces diagonally forward or one space horizontally or orthogonally backward, no promotion, placed next to left Hiryu; Rikshi (x1): moves up to three spaces diagonally or one space horizontally, placed next to Rusetsu, Komainu (x1): moves up to three spaces in any direction, placed next to Rikshi; Kongo (x1): moves up to three spaces orthogonally or one space diagonally forward, placed next to Komainu; Yasha (x1): moves up to five spaces orthogonally or up to two diagonally, placed next to Kongo.
Fifth Row: Hisha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally, promotes to Ryuo which moves any distance orthogonally or one space diagonally; Sasha (x1): moves any distance orthogonally forward, diagonally forward right, diagonally back left, or orthogonally left, placed next to left Hisha; Usha (x1): moves any distance forward orthogonally, diagonally forward to the left, diagonally back right, or orthogonally right, place next to right Hisha; Ogyo (x2): moves any distance horizontally or one space orthogonally forward or backward, promoted piece moves any distance in all directions except orthogonally forward; Ohi (x2): moves any distance horizontally or one space diagonally, placed next to Ogyo; Shugyo (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward or one space horizontally, promotes to Higyu which moves any distance in all directions, placed next to Ohi; Kakugyo (x2): moves any distance diagonally, promotes to Ryuma which moves up to two spaces forward orthogonally or any distance in any other direction, placed next to Shugyo; Ryume (x2): moves any distance diagonally or one space orthogonally, promotes to Kakuo which moves up to two spaces forward orthogonally or any distance in any other direction, placed next to Kakugyo; Ryuo (x2): moves any distance orthogonally or one space orthogonally, promotes to Hiju which moves any distance orthogonally or up to two spaces forward diagonally, placed next to Ryume; Makatsu (x1): moves any distance diagonally and may make one perpendicular turn and continue moving during its move, placed next to left Ryuo; Honno (x1): moves any distance in all directions, placed next to Makatsu; Honno (x1): moves any distance orthogonally, may make one perpendicular turn and continue moving during its move, placed next to Honno.
Sixth row: Fuhyo (x19): moves one space orthogonally forward.
Seventh row: Chunin (x2): moves one space forward or backward orthogonally, promoted piece moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, placed in front of sixth and fourteenth Fuhyo.
Content Anonymous manuscript Sho Shogi Zushiki, which provides diagrams of the placement, movement, and promotion of pieces fpr Maka Dai Dai Shogi. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
Id DLP.Evidence.2442 Type Contemporary rule description Game Tai Shogi Date 18340101  18341231 Rules 25x25 board. Piece placement and movement are as follows:
First row: Kyosha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward, placed in the corners of the board; Gonbu (x1): moves any distance forward orthogonally or diagonally, moves up to two spaces backward diagonally, or one space backward orthogonally, placed next to the left Kyosha; Keigei (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Gonbu and Byakko; Hiryu (x2) moves up to two spaces diagonally, placed next to Keigei; Tengu (x2): moves any distance diagonally, placed next to Hiryu; Kyuhan (x2): moves up to five spaces diagonally or orthogonally up to two spaces, placed next to the Tengu; Hisha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally, promoted to Ryuo which moves any distance orthogonally or one space diagonally, placed next to Kyuhan; Ryume (x2): moves any distance diagonally or one space orthogonally, promoted to Kakuo which move up to two spaces forward orthogonally or any distance in any other direction, placed next to Hisha; Ryuo (x2): moves any distance orthogonally or one sace diagonally, promotes to Hiju which moves any distance orthogonally or up to two spaces forward diagonally, placed next to Ryukme; Honno (x2): moves any distance in any direction, placed next to Ryup; Kinsho (x2): moves one space orthogonally or forward diagonally, promotes to hisha which moves any distance orthogonally, placed next to Honno; Deva (x1): moves one space diagonally forward, horizontally left, or diagonally backwards to the left, promotes to Kyoo (unknown movement), placed next to left Kinsho; Emperor (x1): jumps to any spot on the board, placed between Deva and Mumyo; Mumyuo (x1): moves one space diagonally forward, horizontally to the right or backward diagonally to the right, promotes to Hosei (unknown movement), placed next to right Kinsho; Byakko (x1): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, diagonally forward to the right, up to two spaces horizontally, or one space diagonally to the left, placed next to the right Kyosha.
Second row: Hensha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, promotes to Keigei which moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward orthogonally or diagonally, placed in front of Kyosha; Oryu (x2): movement not reported, placed next to Hensha; Hiju (x2) move any distance orthogonally or up to two spaces forward diagonally, placed next to Oryu; Keima (x2): moves like a knight in Chess, placed nextto Hiju; Hogyo (x2): moves any distance orthogonally or one space diagonally forward, placed next to Keima; Honbaku (x2): moves any distance diagonally forward or orthogonally forward and backward or up to five spaces horizontally, placed next to Hogyo; Kakugyo (2): moves any distance diagonally, promotes to Ryuma which moves up to two spaces orthogonally forward or any distance in any other direction, placed next to Honbaku; Moju (x2): moves up to two spaces horizontally or diagonally backward or one space forward orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Kakugyo; Hakuzo (x2): moves any distance diagonally backward or up to two spaces in any other direction except orthogonally backward, placed next to Moju; Honki (x2): moves any distance horizontally or diagonally forward, moves up to five spaces forward or backward orthogonally, placed next to Hakuzo; Ginsho (x2): moves one space diagonally or backward or forward orthogonally, promotes to Shugyo which moves any distance forward or backward orthogonally or one space horizontally, placed next to Honki; Sasho (x1): moves one space in all directions except orthogonally left, placed next to left Ginsho; Taishi (x1): moves one space in any direction, placed between Sasho and Usho; Usho (x1) moves one space in any direction except orthogonally right, placed next toright Ginsho.
Third row: Sosha (x2): moves any distance orthogonally or one space bacjkward diagonally, placed in front of Hensha; Hokku (x2): moves any distane forward orthogonally or diagonally or backward orthogonally, placed next to Sosha; Yohei (x2): moves any distnce dagonally forward,m placed next to Hokku; Mogya (x2): moves up to two spaces orthogonally, placd next to Yohei; Myojin (x2): movees one space diagonally, promotes to Honryo which moves any distance diagonally, placed next to Mogyu; Moyu (x2): moves one space diagonally or any distance diagonally backward, promotes to Hon'yu which moves any distance diagonally or horizontally or jumps to the second space diagonally forward, placed next to the Myojin; Ginto (x2): moves any distance backward diagonally or one space forward diagonally, placed next to Moyu; Konroku (x2): moves any distance forward diagonally or one space backward diagonally, placed next to Ginto; Moen (x2): moves one space diagonally or horizontally, promotes to Sambo which moves any distance diagonally or orthogonally backward or one space orthogonally forward, placed next to Konroku; Moko (x1): moves one space in all directions except forward orthogonally, promotes to Hiroku which moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward or one space in any other direction, placed next to left Moen; Honko (x1): moves any distance diagonally or horizontally, placed next to right Moen; Rasetsu (x1): moves up to three spaces forward diagonally or one space horizontally or backward orthogonally, placed next to Moko; Yasha (x1): moves up to five spaces orthogonally or up to two spaces diagonally, placed next to Honko; Rikishi (x1): moves up to three spaces diagonally or one space horizontally, placed next to Rasetsu; Kongo (x1): moves up to three spaces orthogonally or one space diagonally forward, placed next to Yasha; Kinno (x1): moves one space in any direction, placed between Rikishi and Kongo.
Fourth row: Heishi (x2): moves any distance orthogonally or diagonally backward, placed in front of Socha; Suigyu (x2): moves any distance diagonally or horizontally or up to two spaces orthogonally backward or forward, promotes to Honbaku, which moves any distance diagonally forward or orthogonally forward or backward or up to five spaces horizontally, placed next to Heishi; Mohyo (x2): moves one space orthogonally or forward or backward or diagonally, promoted to Kakugyo, which moves any distance diagonally, placed next to Suigyu; Seiju (x1): moves up to two spaces horizontally or one space orthogonally forward or backward, promotes to Komainu, which moves up to three spaces in all directions placed next to left Mohyo; Hokuteki (x1): moves up to two spaces diagonally forward or one space horizontally or diagonally backward, promotes to Kozo, which moves any distance diagonally forward or up to two spaces in all other directions, Toi (x1): moves one space orthogonally left or up to two spaces orthogonally forward or back, promotes to Shishi which moves one space in all directions and either can move twice or can jump to the second square, placed next to Seiju; Nanban (x1) moves one space orthogonally to the left or up to three spaces diagonally backward, promotes to Hakuzo which moves one space diagonally backward or up to two spaces in all other directions except orthogonally backward, placed next to Hokuteki; Waikei (x2): ones one space diagonally forward, horizontally, or orthogonally backward, promotes to Sankaku which moves any distance diagonally forward, horizontally, or orthogonally backward, placed next to Toi and Nanban; Kakuo (x2): moves up to two spaces orthogonally forward or any distance in any other direction; placed next to Waikei; Koen (x2): moves one space diagonally or backward orthogonally, promotes to Sambu which moves any distance diagonally, backwards or forwards orthogonally, placed next to Kakuo; KOtetsu (x1): moves up to two spaces orthogonally or one space diagonally forward, placed next to left Koen; Gyocho (x1): moves any distance in all directions except orthogonally backwards, promotes to Honki which moves any distance orthogonally horizontal or diagonally forward or up to five spaces orthogonally forward or backward, placed next to right Koen; Kujaku (x2): moves any distance diagonally, and then may turn perpendicularly and move up to two more spaces, placed next to Kotetsu and Gyocho; Dairyu (x1): moves up to three spaces diagonally backwards, up to two spaces orthogonally forward and backward, or eighte any distance or up to three spaces horizontally, placed next to left Kujaku; Kinshi (x1): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, up to two spaces horizontally or diagonally up to three spaces, placed next to right Kujaku; Kirin (x1): jumps to the second square orthogonally or moves one space diagonally, promotes to Shishi which moves one space in any direction and either moves twice or jumps to the second space, placed next to Dairyu; Hoo (x1): jumps to the second space diagonally or moves one space orthogonally, promotes to Honno which moves any distance in any direction; placed next to Kinshi; Shishi (x1): moves one space in any direction and may move twice in one turn or jump to the second space, placed between Kirin and Hoo.
Fifth row: Sasha (x1): moves any distance orthogonally forward, diagonally forward right, diagonally back left or one space orthogonally left, placed in front of left Heishi; Usha (x1): moves any distance forward orthogonally, diagonally forwrd to the left, diagonally back to the right, or one space orthogonally to the right, placed in front of right Heishi; Seiryu (x1): moves any distance horizontally, forward left diagonally, up to two spaces orthogonally forward or backward, or one space forward right diagonally, placed next to Sasha; Suzaku (x1): moves any distance forward diagonally, back orthogonally, up to two spaces back diagonally, or one space forward orthogonally, placed next to Usha; Mokusho (x2): moves up to two spaces diagonally forward, placed next to Seiryu and Suzaku; Dosho (x2): moves one space forward or backward orthogonally, promoted piece moves any distance forward othogonally or back diagonally, placed nextto Mokusho; Sekisho (x2): moves one space diagonally forwrd, placed next to Dosho; Gasho (x2): moves one space diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, promoted piece mves any distance diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, placed next to Sekisho; Tessho (x2): moves one space forawrd orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Gasho; Dosho (x2): moves one space forward orthogonally or diagonally or backward orthogonally, promotes to Ogyo which moves any distance horizontally or one space orthogonally forward or backward, placed next to Tessho; Roso (x2): moves up to two spaces diagonally forward or orthogonally backward, promoted piece moves any distance diagonally or one space backward orthogonally, palced nextto Dosho;Banja (x2): moves one space backward diagonally or orthogonally or forward orthogonally, promotes to Honja which moves any distance backwards diagonally or orthogonally or forward orthogonally, placed next to Roso; Garyu (x2): moves one space orthogonally or diagonally backward, promotes to Haryu which moves any distance forward diagonally or orthogonally or backward orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Banja; Makatsu (x1): moves any distance diagonally and can turn perpendicularly and continue moving, placed next to left Garyu; Kogyo (x1): moves any distance orthogonally, placed next to right Garyu; Suizo (x1): moves one space in akl directions except backward orthogonally, promotes to Taishi which moves one space in all directions, placed between Makatsu and Kogyo.
Sixth row: Kiken (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or one space orthogonally backward, palced in front of Sasha and Usha; Barin (x2): moves one space orthogonally or up to two spaces diagonally forward, promotes to Honno which moves any distance in all directions, placed next to Kiken; Henri (x2): moves up to two spaces orthogonally except backwards, promoted to Kyuhan which moves up to five spaces diagonally or up to two spaces orthogonally, placed next to Barin; Roba (x2): jumps to the second space forward and backward orthogonally or moves one space horizontally, placed next to Henri; Higyu (x2): moves any distance in all directions except horizontally, placed next to Roba; Ogyo (x2): moves any distance horizontally or one space orthogonally forward or backward, promoted piece moves any distance in all directions except forward orthogonally, placed next to Higyu; Shugyo (x2): moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, or one space horizontally, promotes to Higyu which moves any distance in all directions except horizontally, placed next to Ogyo; Moyu (x2): moves one space horizontally or diagonally forward, placed next to Shugyo; Zenki (x2): moves any distance forward orthogonally or diagonally, moves up to two spaces horizontally or one space backward orthogonally or diagonally, placed next to Moyu; Yorolu (x2) moves up to two spaces horizontally or one space in all other directions except backwards orthogonally, promotes to Hogyo which moves any distance orthogonally or one space diagonally forward, placed next to Zenki; Shincho (x2): moves one space orthogonally, placed next to Yoroku; Akuro (x2): moves one space diagonally or orthogonally forward, placed next to Shincho; Kumainu (x1): moves up to three spaces in any direction, placed next to Akuro.
Seventh row: Fuhyo (x25): moves one space orthogonally forward.
Eighth row: Chunin (x2): moves one space orthogonally forward or backward, promoted piece moves any distance orthogonally forward or backward, placed in front of seventh and nineteenth Fuhyo. Content Anonymous manuscript Sho Shogi Zushiki, which provides diagrams of the placement, movement, and promotion of pieces for Tai Shogi. Confidence 100 Source Anonymous. n.d. Sho Shogi Zushiki. Unpublished Manuscript.
