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Evidence in England

21 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.766
Type Contemporary text
Game Five Men's Morris
Date 1694-01-01 - 1694-12-31
Rules Name of game.
Content "Apud Anglos vocatur Bushels, fortè propter mediam Schematis partem, quae aliquando ita formatur, acsi Modium rotundum referrer videretur. Quin & alia habet Nomina sec. numerum frustulorum quibus luditur, eáque à Gallico Nomine corrupta quo tempore Normanni Angliam possiderent: sicut est...five penny Morris...five pin Morris..." Hyde 1694: 204.
Confidence 100
Source Hyde, T. 1694. De Ludis Orientalibus Libri Duo: Historia Nerdiludii, hoc est Dicere, Trunculorum, cum quibuidam aliis Arabum, Persarum, Indorum, Chinensium, & aliarum Gentium Ludis tam Politicis quam Bellicis, plerumque Europae inauditis, multo minus visis: additis omnium Nominibus in dictarum Gentium Linguis. Ubi etiam Classicorum Graecorum & Latinorum loca quaedam melius quam hactenus factum est explicantur. Oxford: E Theatro Sheldoniano.

Id DLP.Evidence.797
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Backgammon
Date 1753-01-01 - 1753-12-31
Rules The game is played on a board with twelve points on either side. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions (one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left. Each player has 15 pieces. The starting position is as such, number the points from the origin of each player's track: Point six: five pieces Point 8: three pieces Point 13: five pieces Point 24: two pieces Ply begins by each player rolling one die; the player who rolls the most plays first and plays the numbers on this first roll. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the number on one die and other the number on the other die, or by moving one piece the total number of both die. If doubles are rolled, the player must play the number on each die twice. Players cannot end their move on a point with multiple opposing pieces. If a player ends the turn on a point with one opposing piece, that piece is placed in the middle of the board (not on a point) and must reenter the board according the the next die roll, counting the origin point as a move of 1. They cannot reenter on a point with two or more pieces. No other pieces can move until all of the pieces belonging to that player are removed from the center. When all of a player's pieces are on their final 6 points, they may start removing pieces from the board. They can do so by rolling a 6 to move from the 6th point, and so on down to 1. Players must use all available moves presented by the dice. The first player to remove all of their pieces wins.
Content "A Short Treatise on the Game of Backgammon." Hoyle 1753.
Confidence 100
Source Hoyle, E. 1753. A Short Treatise on the Game of Backgammon. Dublin: George and Alexander Ewing.

Id DLP.Evidence.814
Type Contemporary text
Game Fox and Geese
Date 1633-01-01 - 1633-12-31
Rules Name of the game.
Content "let him sit in the shop with nere a paire of cuffs on his hands, and play at Fox and Geese with the foreman..." Marmyon 1633: Act 2 Scene 6. Murray 1951: 102 incorrectly quotes "shop" as "ship."
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Non-Elite, Elite
Genders Male
Source Marmyon, S. 1633. A Fine Companion. London., Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Marmyon, S. 1633. A Fine Companion. London.

Id DLP.Evidence.1428
Type Contemporary text
Game Fox and Geese
Date 1801-01-01 - 1801-12-31
Rules Seventeen Geese, in the same arrangement as with thirteen except the four extra appear start, two on the left and two on the right, in the next rank in front of the rest. Geese move orthogonally forward or to the side only. The fox moves orthogonally. The geese attempt to prevent the Fox from moving, the Fox captures the Geese by hopping over them.
Content "XIV.—Fox and Geese...To play this game there are seventeen pieces, called geese, which are placed as we see them upon the engraving, and the fox in the middle, distinguished either by his size or difference of colour, as here, for instance, he is black. The business of the game is to shut the fox up, so that he cannot move. All the pieces have the power to move from one spot to another, in the direction of the right lines, but cannot pass over two spots at one time...The geese are not permitted to take the fox if he stands close to them, but the fox may take a goose, in like case, if the spot behind it be unoccupied, or not guarded by another goose; and if all be taken, or the number so reduceed that the fox cannot be blocked, the game is won." Strutt 1801 (1846): 318-319.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Strutt, J. 1801 (1846). The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England: Including the Rural and Domestic Recreations, May Games, Mummeries, Shows, Processions, Pageants, and Pompous Spectacles, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. London: Thomas Tegg.

Id DLP.Evidence.1439
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Trictrac
Date 1674-01-01 - 1674-12-31
Rules Backgammon board. Fifteen pieces per player. Pieces begin on the player's first point. Pieces may move to both sides of the board. A player gains a point when a move would in theory take land on a point with a single opponent's piece. Filling all of the points on the second quadrant of the board gives the player two points. If a player fails to score a point by "hitting" the opponent when they were able, the opponent may add that score to their total. Sometimes played with scoring options: A player places a piece on their eleventh point and on the opponent's eleventh point; when a player fills up their first quadrant, and by advancing a piece to the opponent's first quadrant before they have moved any pieces beyond it.
Content "Of TICK-TACK. ALL your men must stand on the Ace-point, and from thence play forward, but have a care of being too forward, or so at leastwise that Doublets reach you not. Secure your Sice and Cinque-point whatever you do, and break them not unless it be when you have the advantage of going in, which is the greatest advantage you can have next to a hit; for your Adversaries eleventh point standing open you have it may be the opportunity of going in with two of your men, and then you win a double Game. A hit is but one, and that is, when you throw such a cast that some one of your men will reach your Ad∣versaries unbound, but sometimes though it hits it will not pass by reason of a stop in the way, and then it is no∣thing. Sometimes it is good going over into your Adversaries Tables, but it is best for an After-game...Here note, if you fill up all the points of your second Table with your own men you win two, and that you may prevent your Adversary from do∣ing so (if you are in danger thereof) if you can, make a vacant point in his Tables, and it is impossible for him to do it.This is the plain Game of Tick-Tack, which is called so from Touch, and take, for if you touch a man you must play him though to your loss; and if you hit your Adversary and neglect the ad∣vantage, you are taken with a Why not, which is the loss of one: likewise if you are in, and your cast is such that you may also go into your Adversaries eleventh point by two other men, and you see it not, either by carelesness or eager prosecution of a hit which is ap∣parent before your eyes, you lose two irrecoverably. Besides, it is a very great oversight as your men may stand not to take a point when you may do it. Now some play this Game with Toots, Boveries, and Flyers; Toots is, when you fill up your Table at home and then there is required small throws; for if you get over with a Sice you have no benefit of Toots. Boveries is when you have a man in the eleventh point of your own Tables, and another in the same point of your Adversaries directly answering. Flyers is, when you bring a man round the Tables before your Adversary hath got over his first Table, to the effecting of which there is required very high throwing of your side, and very low throwing of his." Cotton 1674: 158-161.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Cotton, C. 1674. The Compleat Gamester, or, Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess Together with all Manner of Usual and Most Gentile Games either on Cards or Die: to which is Added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting. London: R. Cutler.

Id DLP.Evidence.1556
Type Rules text
Game Paumecary
Date 1300-01-01 - 1399-12-31
Rules Played on a board with 12 points per side, divided in half. Play occurs only in the top right quadrant of the board. Fifteen pieces per player. Two six-sided dice. A double throw grants the player another throw. Players enter their pieces according to the throws of the dice, and they must use the entire value of a die to place or to move a piece. When all of a player's pieces are one the board, they may bear off their pieces with throws equal to the number of remaining spaces, plus one. If a piece lands on a point with a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must re-enter. The player who bears off all their pieces first wins.
Content "6.2.3. England (14th c.): Paumecary (K.158b). Two dice; doublets give a second throw. Played by two persons or sides of two or three persons when all of those on one side and then those on the other side play in succession. Play is confined to af. Men can be piled and blots can be taken and then must re-enter. When either side has entered all its men, it proceeds to bear them, and when it has borne all its men, it proceeds to help bear the other side's men, smacking the loser's hands once for each of their men os borne." Murray 1951: 120 relaying information from King's Manuscript 13 A XVIII, now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.1557
Type Rules text
Game Fallas
Date 1300-01-01 - 1399-12-31
Rules Name of game
Content "6.2.18...Fails (K.159a)." Murray 1951: 123. Murray's attribution of game from Royal Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.1562
Type Rules text
Game Ketch-Dolt
Date 1674-01-01 - 1674-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Two six-sided dice. The players enter their pieces on the board on the points corresponding to the throws of the dice. A player who rolls a number corresponding to a point on the opponent's side of the board that contains a piece should remove the piece from the opponent's point, which must be reentered. If the player fails to do so, they lose instantly. Otherwise, players continue to place their pieces until all are on the board, and they then bear the pieces off from the same quadrant of the board. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "CHAP. XXXI. KETCH-DOLT. AT Ketch-Dolt the first throws and lays down from the heap of men without the Tables, what is thrown at it may be Sice Deuce, if the other throw either Sice or Deuce, and draw them not from his Adversaries Tables to the same point in his own, but takes them from the heap, and lays the Ace down, he is dolted & loseth the Game, or if he but touch a man of the heap and then recall himself, the loss is the same. Some by frequent practice will never be Dolted, and then they strive who shall fill up their Tables first; which done, he that bears them off first hath won the game. And so much for play within the Tables." Cotton 1674: 163.
Confidence 100
Source Cotton, C. 1674. The Compleat Gamester, or, Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess Together with all Manner of Usual and Most Gentile Games either on Cards or Die: to which is Added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting. London: R. Cutler.

Id DLP.Evidence.1563
Type Rules text
Game Dubblets
Date 1674-01-01 - 1674-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Two six-sided dice. Play occurs only in two quadrants of the board, opposite one another, a player's pieces only leaving their quadrant to bear off. Two pieces are stacked each on the first three points, and three are stacked in the second three points. Players use throws to unstack pieces on their points, unstacking one piece per die which corresponds to that point. If a player cannot use the value of a die, the opponent uses it. Doubles allow the player to unstack or bear off a number of pieces equal to the total number of the throw. When all of the pieces are unstacked, that player may begin bearing their pieces off. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "CHAP. XXIX. DVBBLETS. AT Dubblets the fifteen men are thus placed; upon sice, Cinque and Quater there are three men apiece, upon Trey, Deuce, Ace, but two a∣piece. He that throws most hath the bene∣fit of throwing first, and what he throws he lays down; and so doth the other what the one throws and hath not the other lays down for him to his own advantage; and thus they do till all the men are down, and then they bear, but not till they are down; he that is down first bears first, and will doubtlesly win the Game if the other throws not Dubblets to overtake him; now he that throws Dubblets apace is certain to win, for as many as the Dubblets are, so many he lays down, or bears; for example, if two fours, he lays down, or bears eight, and so for the other Dubblets; and therefore he that can either nap, top, or hath high runners about him hath a great advantage herein." Cotton 1674: 161-162.
Confidence 100
Source Cotton, C. 1674. The Compleat Gamester, or, Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess Together with all Manner of Usual and Most Gentile Games either on Cards or Die: to which is Added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting. London: R. Cutler.

Id DLP.Evidence.1564
Type Rules text
Game Backgammon
Date 1674-01-01 - 1674-12-31
Rules The game is played on a board with twelve points on either side. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions (one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left. Each player has 15 pieces. The starting position is as such, number the points from the origin of each player's track: Point six: five pieces Point 8: three pieces Point 13: five pieces Point 24: two pieces Play begins by each player rolling one die; the player with the highest roll plays first and plays the numbers on this first roll. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the number on one die and other the number on the other die, or by moving one piece the total number of both die. If doubles are rolled, the player must play the number on each die twice. Players cannot end their move on a point with multiple opposing pieces. If a player ends the turn on a point with one opposing piece, that piece is placed in the middle of the board (not on a point) and must reenter the board according the the next die roll, counting the origin point as a move of 1. They cannot reenter on a point with two or more pieces. No other pieces can move until all of the pieces belonging to that player are removed from the center. When all of a player's pieces are on their final 6 points, they may start removing pieces from the board. They can do so by rolling a 6 to move from the 6th point, and so on down to 1. Players must use all available moves presented by the dice. The first player to remove all of their pieces wins.
Content "CHAP. XXVII. Of Back-Gammon. YOur men are placed as at Irish, and Back-Gammon differs but very little from it, but in Doublets which at this Game is plaid fourfold, which makes a quicker dispatch of the Game than Irish. Be sure to make good your Trey, Ace-points, hit boldly and come away as fast as you can, to which end if your Dice run high, you will make the quicker dispatch. When you come to bearing have a care of making when you need not, and Doublets now will stand you most in stead. If both bear together he that is first off without Doublets wins one. If both bear and one goes off with Doublets he wins two. If your Tables be clear before your Adversaries men be come in, that's a Back-Gammon, which is three; but if you thus go off with Doublets it is four." Cotton 1674: 156-157.
Confidence 100
Source Cotton, C. 1674. The Compleat Gamester, or, Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess Together with all Manner of Usual and Most Gentile Games either on Cards or Die: to which is Added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting. London: R. Cutler.

Id DLP.Evidence.1565
Type Rules text
Game Todas Tablas
Date 1674-01-01 - 1674-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions (one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left). Fifteen pieces per player. The starting position is as such, number the points from the origin of each player's track: point six: five pieces; point 8: three pieces; point 13: five pieces; point 24: two pieces. Two dice. When a player's piece lands on a spot occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is sent back to the quadrant in which that player started with two pieces. Players bear off their pieces at the end of their track. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "Games within the Tables. CHAP. XXVI. Of IRISH. IRish is an ingenious Game, and re∣quires a great deal of skill to play it well, especially the After-game. It is not to be learn'd otherwise than by observation and practice, however I shall lightly touch hereon. The men which are thirty in number are equally divided between you and your Adversary, and are thus places, two on the Ace point, and five on the sice of your left hand Table, and three on the cinque, and five on the Ace point of your right hand Table, answer'd on the like points by your Adversaries men with the same number; or thus, two of your men on the Ace point, five on the double sice, or sice Cinque point, three on the Cinque point in your own Tables, and five on the sice point at home, and all these pointed alike by your Adversary. In your play have a care of being too forwards, and be not too rash in hitting every blot, but with discretion and consideration move slowly but se∣curely; by which means though your Adversary have fill'd his Tables, but withal blots, and you by hitting him enter, you may win the Game; nay sometimes though he hath born his men all to a very few." Cotton 1674: 154-155.
Confidence 100
Source Cotton, C. 1674. The Compleat Gamester, or, Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess Together with all Manner of Usual and Most Gentile Games either on Cards or Die: to which is Added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting. London: R. Cutler.

Id DLP.Evidence.1618
Type Contemporary text
Game Diagonal Draughts
Date 1805-01-01 - 1805-12-31
Rules 10x10 board, 20 pieces per player, arranged on the dark squares, leaving the diagonal from bottom left to top right empty, with each player's pieces on opposite sides of it. Pieces move diagonally one or can jump an opponent's adjacent player to capture it. Pieces can move forward or backwards. When a piece reaches the opposite edge of the board from its starting position, it becomes a king and can may move and jump over any number of spaces diagonally. Captures are compulsory and the maximum number of jumps must be made. Winning is achieved by capturing all the opponent's pieces or by blocking them from moving.
Content "In the Diagonal game, the Pawns are so arranged that the middle line is vacant at the beginning, instead of the two parallel lines which are usually so." Twiss 1805: 173.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Twiss, R. 1805. Miscellanies in Two Volumes. London: Twiss.

Id DLP.Evidence.1810
Type Contemporary text
Game Double Fox and Geese
Date 1681-01-01 - 1681-12-31
Rules Played on a Fox and Geese board with twice as many holes as the standard game. One player plays as two foxes, the other as thirty geese.
Content "England: Double fox and geese (R. Holme 1681, 168). 'There is another sort of board called the double fox and geese, it has twice as many holes as this (Fig. 47), in which is played two foxes and thirty geese." Murray 1951: 104.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.1811
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Treble Fox and Geese
Date 1681-01-01 - 1681-12-31
Rules Played on a Fox and Geese board with twice as many holes as the standard game, and with diagonals in each square. One player plays as three or four foxes, the other as fifty or sixty geese.
Content "England: Treble fox and geese (R. Holme 1681, 168). 'In which there is three or four foxes and fifty or sixty geese. Every square in the double board hath in this another crosse line made in it from corner to corner of the square." Murray 1951: 104.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.1812
Type Rules text
Game Baralie
Date 1300-01-01 - 1350-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Two six-sided dice. Both players begin on the same side of the board, one player with fifteen pieces on the rightmost point, the other player with fourteen pieces on the point behind it, and one on the point behind that. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. On each throw the player also plays a throw of 6 in addition to the throw presented by the dice. Pieces move in an anti-clockwise direction around the board. A piece cannot move to a point that is occupied by more than one of the opponent's pieces. If a piece lands on a point occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must enter again from the leftmost point in the row where the pieces began. A piece may be borne off the board when a throw is greater than the number of points left on the board. The first player to bear all of their pieces off the board wins.
Content "England: Baralie (K. 159a). Only differs from 6.2.13 in that it is played with two dice and an invariable throw of 6 instead of a third die." Murray 1951: 123 citing Royal Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Royal Mamuscript 13 A XVIII. British Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.1813
Type Rules text
Game Imperial
Date 1300-01-01 - 1350-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions, one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left. Pieces begin on the board, five each on the sixth, seventh, and eighth point in their track. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. Pieces move in an anti-clockwise direction around the board. A piece cannot move to a point that is occupied by more than one of the opponent's pieces. If a piece lands on a point occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must enter again from the beginning of the player's track. A piece may be borne off the board when a throw is greater than the number of points left on the board. The first player to bear all of their pieces off the board wins.
Content "England (14th c.): Imperial (K.159as) Three dice. C has E af; M amnz; B tz and five men on f, g, and h. D has E zt; M znma; B fa and five men on t, s, and p." Murray 1951: 123, quotinf Royal Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Royal Mamuscript 13 A XVIII. British Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.1814
Type Rules text
Game Myles
Date 1300-01-01 - 1350-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Two six-sided dice. Both players begin on the same side of the board, one player (who plays first) with five pieces on the rightmost point of the starting row, four on the fifth and sixth points and two in the eleventh point in the opposite row. The other player has three pieces each on the right five points in the second row.Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. On each throw the player also plays a throw of 6 in addition to the throw presented by the dice. Pieces move in an anti-clockwise direction around the board. A piece cannot move to a point that is occupied by more than one of the opponent's pieces. If a piece lands on a point occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must enter again from the leftmost point in the row where the pieces began. A piece may be borne off the board when a throw is greater than the number of points left on the board. The first player to bear all of their pieces off the board wins.
Content "England: name unrecorded but Strutt calls it Myles (K. 159b). Two dice and an invariable throw of 6 instead of the third die. Both players have E af; M amnz; B tz. C, who plays first, has five men on m, four on r and s, two on x; D has three on n, o, p, q, r." Murray 1951: 123 quoting Kings Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Royal Mamuscript 13 A XVIII. British Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.1815
Type Rules text
Game Provincial
Date 1300-01-01 - 1350-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half, where the spaces are rendered as points. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions, one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left. Pieces begin on the board, each player with eight pieces on the sixth and seven on the eighth point of their track. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. Pieces move in an anti-clockwise direction around the board. A piece cannot move to a point that is occupied by more than one of the opponent's pieces. If a piece lands on a point occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must enter again from the beginning of the player's track. A piece may be borne off the board when a throw is greater than the number of points left on the board. The first player to bear all of their pieces off the board wins.
Content "England: Provincial (K. 159a). A variety of 6.2.20. Three dice. C has E af; M amnz; B tz and eight men on f and seven on g. D has E z; M znma; B fa and eight men on t and seven on s." Murray 1951: 123 quoting the fourteenth century Kings Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Royal Mamuscript 13 A XVIII. British Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.1816
Type Rules text
Game Ludus Anglicorum
Date 1300-01-01 - 1300-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. One player begins with all of their pieces on the space furthest to the left on their side, the other with their pieces on the point directly opposite it. Pieces move in opposite directions around the board, toward the point where the opponent's pieces begin, and bearing off the board from there. A player cannot have two of their pieces on the same spot in the starting half of the board. When a piece lands on the same space as a single opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and must enter again into the quadrant of the board from which it started. The first person to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "England: Ludus Anglicorum (K. 158a)...Three dice. In England if only two dice are available, an invariable throw of 6, for the third die, or the player or his opponent chooses the third throw. Neither player can re-enter a man on a point already occupied by one of his own men or pile men in his half of the board." Murray 1951: 124, quoting the fourteenth century Kings Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Royal Mamuscript 13 A XVIII. British Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.1817
Type Rules text
Game Ludus Lombardorum
Date 1300-01-01 - 1350-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of points. Fifteen pieces per player. Two or three six-sided dice. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die then another piece the value on the other die, or by moving one piece the value of one die and then the value of the other. One player begins with all of their pieces on the space furthest to the left on their side, the other with their pieces on the point directly opposite it. Pieces move in opposite directions around the board, only on the left half of the board where the pieces begin, toward the point where the opponent's pieces begin, and bearing off the board from there. A player cannot have two of their pieces on the same spot in the starting quadrant. When a piece lands on the same space as an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to where it began. The first person to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "England: Ludus Lombardorum (K. 159a). The same as 6.2.25 but confined to the two tables af and tz." Murray 1951: 124, quoting the fourteenth century Kings Manuscript 13 A XVIII now in the British Library.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.2030
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Long Assize
Date 1230-01-01 - 1230-12-31
Rules 8x8 board, Starting position.
Content Extract from British Museum Royal Manuscript 13 A. XVIII, with a diagram of the opening position and describing it as the Long Assize. Murray 1913: 455-456, 594.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Murray, H. J. R. 1913. A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press.

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