
Evidence in Mongolia
45 pieces of evidence found.
Id DLP.Evidence.1182 Type Ethnography Game Unnee Tugalluulax Date 19740101  19741231 Rules 2x6 board. Six counters in each hole Sowing occurs from any of the holes in the player's row. If the final counter lands in a holes in the player's row containing three counters, four with the addition of the final counter, these are captured. Content "Unee tugaluulax (faire veler les vaches) a) matériel: le tablier (xölög) comporte deux rangées de trous et 36 pions (xorgol, litt. "crotte"), soit six pions par trou. Tablier fabriqué. Pions: on trouve aussi des crottes de chameau. b)règles de fonctionnement: joueur X, A, B, C; joueur Y, a, b, c. Chacun des joueurs peut jouer son coup à partir de n'importe quelle case de son camp. Pour effectuer une prise, le joueur doit trouver dans l'un des trous de son camp, après que l'adversaire ait fini de jouer, un pion et accumuler dans cette même case quatre pions en trois passages successifs. La logique de cette op´´ration se justifie et s'explique par les termes qui désignent les ´´tapes de l'accumulation des pions pour la prise: 1 pion (crotte) = singleton: ünee, vache. 2 crottes = couple: bux ünee xojor, vache et taureau. 3 crottes: ünee delegnene, vache dont le pis est gonflé (prête à véler) 4 crottes: ünee tugalsan, vache ayant vélé (la mère et son petit) Ces quatre étapes d'accumulation de pions dénotent les quatre phases de la génération: la vache en rut, puis l'accouplement, puis la grossesse avancée, puis enfin la maternité. Lorsque la case dans laquelle s'effectue la prise (4e phase), la matrice, contient plus de quatre crottes, le joueur n'a le droit d'enlever que "la vache qui a vélé." Popova 1974: 17. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1711 Type Ethnography Game Buga Nokhoi Date 19880101  19911231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each 3x3 quadrant of the board. On opposite sides, a square with diagonals, with one corner as the midpoint of one of the sides of the main board. One player plays as two deer, which begin on the points where the small squares intersect with the main board. The other player plays with twelve dogs, at least some of which begin in the main part of the board, but some may be introduced later. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. the goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content Description of some of the game rules and a drawing of the board in KabzińskaStawarz 1991:3437, 121122, Fig. 9.A. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1712 Type Ethnography Game Ijil Buga Date 19880101  19911231 Rules 5x9 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each 3x3 square of the board. On one short side, a square with diagonals, with one corner as the midpoint of one of the sides of the main board. on the other short side, a triangle, with a line bisecting the base and another bisecting this line and intersecting with the other two sides of the triangle. The triangle's apex is the midpoint of the opposite side as the square. On the long sides, two identical squares which intersect with the third and seventh horizontal line of the main part of the board, on the right hand side of the square on the short side. Opposite these are two triangles, identical to the one on the short side. One player plays as six deer, which begin on the points where the small squares intersect with the main board. The other player plays with a number of dogs ( between 12 and 80), at least some of which begin in the main part of the board, but some may be introduced later. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. the goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content Description of some of the game rules and a drawing of the board in KabzińskaStawarz 1991:3437, 121122, Fig. 9.B. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1713 Type Ethnography Game Ikh Buga Date 19880101  19911231 Rules 9x9 intersecting lines, with diagonals drawn in each 3x3 square. Intersecting with the third and seventh line on each side, a triangle, with a line bisecting the base and another bisecting this line and intersecting with the other two sides of the triangle. The apex intersects with the main board. One player plays as eight deer, which begin on the points where the small squares intersect with the main board. The other player plays with 80 dogs, at least some of which begin in the main part of the board, but some may be introduced later. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. the goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content Description of some of the game rules and a drawing of the board in KabzińskaStawarz 1991:3437, 121122, Fig. 9.C. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1714 Type Ethnography Game Temeen Tavag Date 19630101  19661231 Rules An X, with a rounded line connecting the four endpoints of the X, but leaving two unconnected. A circle is drawn between these two unconnected endpoints. Two pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty point on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving one of the pieces to an empty adjacent point on the board, moving along the lines. The player who blocks their opponent from being able to move wins.
Content "les deux joueurs X et Y posent un par un leurs pions respectifs, alternativement et au choix, sur les m stations du tablier...Une fois les pions posés, les joueurs les déplacent coup par coup, sur une ligne, à l'intersection adjacente libre...1. temeen tavag (le sabot de chameau), II, fig. 1: ce jeu comporte 2x2 pions. Le tablier a cing intersections, dont une de 4e rang, deux de 3e et deux de 2ème rang. Pour gagner, il faut s'emparer de la station de 4e rang (A), centre stratégique du réseau du tablier." Popova 1974: 1618, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1715 Type Ethnography Game Temeen Tavag Date 19880101  19911231 Rules An X, with a rounded line connecting the four endpoints of the X, but leaving two unconnected. A circle is drawn between these two unconnected endpoints. Two players. Two pieces per player. The goal of the game is to block the other player from being able to move. Content "Temeen tawag (camel's paw). A board game. There are two players. Each has two pawns. The aim of the players is to block the rival and to keep him off the square designated as the well. The first player to reach the well wins" This is more a statement of strategy, the well being the central point. KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 37, 134, Fig. 11.A. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1716 Type Ethnography Game Temeen Tavag Date 19630101  19661231 Rules The board is a square, with diagonals drawn. One of the sides of the square is not drawn. Two pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty point on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving one of the pieces to an empty adjacent point on the board, moving along the lines. The player who blocks their opponent from being able to move wins.
Content "2. dörvön bux (les quatre taureausx), II, fig. 2: ce jeu est strictement identique au preecédent du point de vue fonctionnel: 2x2 pions qui sont appelés taureaux, et 5 intersections (de 4e, 3e, et 2ème rang)." Popova 1974: 18, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1717 Type Ethnography Game Temeen Tavag Date 19880101  19911231 Rules The board is a square, with diagonals drawn. One of the sides of the square is not drawn. Two pieces per player. Content "Dörvön buch has its variant based on a board game, similar to checkers, Each of the player has 2 pawns which are called buch (bulls) and the board is a sector of the square." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 37, 124, Fig. 11.B. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1718 Type Ethnography Game Dörvön Cag Date 19630101  19661231 Rules A circle, with four points equally spaced along the circumference, as well as a point in the center. A diameter is drawn between two of the outer points and through the center. Two players. Two pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent point along the lines. The player who blocks the other player from being able to move wins.
Content "dörvön cag (les quatre saisons), II, fig. 3: 2x2 pions et 5 stations, mais cette fois deux au 3e rang et trois au 2ème." Popov 1974: 1819, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1719 Type Ethnography Game Dörvön Cag Date 19880101  19911231 Rules A circle, with four points equally spaced along the circumference, as well as a point in the center. A diameter is drawn between two of the outer points and through the center. Two players. Two pieces per player. The player who blocks the other player from being able to move wins.
Content "Dörvön tsag (four seasons, four times). It is a game with playing board which has a circular shape. There are 5 marked places where the players put their pawns. Each of the two playerrs has two pawns. Their task is to block the opponent's movements." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 37, 124, Fig. 11.C. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1720 Type Ethnography Game Gurvan Xudag Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three vertical lines, and two horizontal lines intersecting them along their top end points and their midpoints. The ends of the lines which are not connected to one another are the calves' pens. Three pieces per player, one playing as calves (black), and the other as guardians (white), arranged on the intersections of opposite vertical lines. Players alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an adjacent spot. The guardians attempt to trap the calves into the three pens, the calves attempt to block the guardians from being able to move.
Content "tugul (le veau) ou gurvan xudag (les trois puits), II fig. 4: 2x3 pions, 9 stations (une au 4e rang, trois au 3e, deux au 2ème et trois au 1er rang). Position initiale: les pions blancs du joueur X se trouvent en a1, b1, c1; les pions noirs de Y en a3, b3, c3. Valeurs et positions initiales des pions de chaque équipe sont strictement équivalentes. Les pions noirs sont nommés "veaux" et les pions blancs "gardiens de veaux". Les stations c1, c2, c3 sont des encles où les gardiens cherchent à conduire les veaux. Les autres stations sont de pâturages." Popova 1974: 17, 19. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1721 Type Ethnography Game Gurvan Xudag Date 19880101  19911231 Rules Three vertical lines, and two horizontal lines intersecting them along their top end points and their midpoints. The ends of the lines which are not connected to one another are the calves' pens. Three pieces per player. The players attempt to block one another.
Content "Gurvan khudag( three wells). A board game. The board is a part of a square (see illustration no. 11). Two participants take part in the game. Each of them has 3 pawns. The players' task is to block the opponent's moves and to overthrow his pawns." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 37, 126, Fig. 11.D. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1722 Type Ethnography Game Üxrijn Ever Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Two arcs which meet, in the shape of a horn, curving to the left. Nine points along the left side, and eight along the right, with one at the apex. Zigzag lines connect points on either side of the board, connecting the first on the left to the first on the right, the first on the right to the second on the left, the second on the left to the second on the right, and so on. One player plays as the cow and the calf (black). The cow begins on the first point on the left, the calf on the second point on the right. The other player plays as two children (white), which begin on the second point on the left and the first point on the right. Players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot along the lines on the board. The cow never moves from its position. The calf plays first. The calf wins when it reaches the point at the apex; the children win when they force the calf onto the point with the cow.
Content "1. üxrijn ever (corne de boeuf), III, fig. 1: 2x2 pions soit deux xüü (blancs) contre une vache et un veau (noirs). Le rapport de force réel reste deux contre un puisque la vache restera immobile ((à la case 1) tout au long du jeu. Le tablier comporte 18 stations, soit 1 le point de départ et 18 le point d'arrivée (Dans d'autres variantes de ce jeu, la corne ne comporte que 9 stations.) Position initiale: la vache est à la case 1, le veau à la case 4 et les deux enfants aux cases 3 et 2. Le veau joue le premier. X (les blancs) cherche à conduire le veauau pâturage (case 18); Y (les noirs)cherche à empêcher qu'on éloigne le veau de sa mère." Popova 1974: 2021. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1723 Type Ethnography Game Üxrijn Ever Date 19880101  19911231 Rules Board shaped like a horn. Two players, two pieces per player, two playing as children and two playing as the cow and calf. The calf attempts to reach a particular space, the children attempt to block the calf. Content "The task of the playwers is also to block the animal's way to open space and lead it to the board's edge, which is shaped like a horn...Ükhrin ever (a cow's horn). the other name of the game is ever bukh (a bull's horn). Two white pawns called khüü (the children) are against two black ones (ükher and tugal  the cow and the calf)." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 38, 136 Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1724 Type Ethnography Game Neg Tugal Tuux Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Rectangular board, with 64 points along each long side. Lines connect the points opposite each other, as well as a diagonal line connecting each point on the left to the nexxt highest point on the right (e.g., the first left point with the second right point, the second left point with the third right point, an so on). One player plays as the calf, which begins in the bottom right corner. The second player plays as two children, which begin in the bottom left corner and the second point on the right. Players alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot on the board along the lines. The children move first. The children win by forcing the calf to move to the top left corner of the board, the calf wins by returning to its starting point after first having left it.
Content "neg tugal tuux (conduire le veau), III, fig. 2: les pions de X sont des xüü à cheval, representés par des petites figurines en bois sculptés. Leur adversaire est un veau. Position initiale: le veau se trouve dans son eclos, tout en bas du diagramme, à droite, et les deux xüü de part et d'autre de l'enclos. X doit conduire le veau à la 128e station (en haut, à gauche); Y doit déjouer les projets de X en fuyant." Popova 1974: 21, 23, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1725 Type Ethnography Game Neg Tugal Tuux Date 19880101  19911231 Rules Rectangular board, with 64 points along each long side. Lines connect the points opposite each other, as well as a diagonal line connecting each point on the left to the next highest point on the right (e.g., the first left point with the second right point, the second left point with the third right point, an so on). One player plays as the calf, which begins in the bottom right corner. The second player plays as two children, which begin in the bottom left corner and the second point on the right. Players alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot on the board along the lines. The children move first, and cannot move backward during the game. The calf can move in any direction. A player wins by blocking the moves of the opponent. Content "Neg tugal tuukh (driving a calf). a board game, A board is a rectangle with its longer sides linked by a zigzag line. One of the players has a white stone or an astragalus with the side of a "cow" facing up (it is a "calf"tugal). The other player has two black stones or astragaluses with the side of a "horse" facing up. The "horses" (mor') may move onwards only. A "calf" (tugal) may also move backwards. The task of the players is to block the moves of the opponent. The participants move their pawns on the board from right to the left hand side." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 37, 131, Fig. 11.E. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1726 Type Ethnography Game Uulyn Buga Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each 3x3 quadrant of the board. On opposite sides, a square with diagonals, with one corner as the midpoint of one of the sides of the main board. One player plays as two deer, which begin in the smaller squares.. The other player plays with twenty or 22 childreb, half of which begin in the main part of the board. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The player playing as the children may place one of their remaining pieces onto the board on their turn, on an empty spot. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. the goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content "Y, soit le joueur qui a les cerfs, les place dans leur repaire. X dépose alors la moitié de ses pions à des stations fixes. Les cerfs ont le trait. Ils se déplacent d'un seul pas et mangent au sautant par dessus les pions adverses quand l'occasion se présente. Le joueur X répond aux corps de Y soit en se déplacent les pions sur le tablier, soit en introduisant un nouveau chasseur dans le jeu, jusqu'à épuisement des pions. Le but des chasseurs est là aussi d'encercler le gibier pour le tuer. " Popova 1974: 25, with further discussion on 2224, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1727 Type Ethnography Game Talyn Buga Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 5x9 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each 3x3 square of the board. On one short side, a square with diagonals, with one corner as the midpoint of one of the sides of the main board. on the other short side, a triangle, with a line bisecting the base and another bisecting this line and intersecting with the other two sides of the triangle. The triangle's apex is the midpoint of the opposite side as the square. One player plays as two deer, on of which which begins on a point in the small square intersecting with the main board, the other in the triangle. The other player plays with 22, 24, or 26 hunters, half of which begin in the main part of the board. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. The player playing as the hunters may place a remaining piece on an empty spot on the board as their turn. The goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content "2. talyn buga (le cerf ded la paine), IV. fig. 2. 22 à 26 pions contre deux cerfs. Le tabllier comporte 55 intersections...Les règles sont les mêmes que pour la variante précédente" (uulyn buga). Popova 1974: 22, 26, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1728 Type Ethnography Game Ix Buga Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 9x9 intersecting lines, with diagonals drawn in each 3x3 square. Intersecting with the third and seventh line on two opposite sides, a triangle, with a line bisecting the base and another bisecting this line and intersecting with the other two sides of the triangle. The apex intersects with the main board. One player plays as eight deer, which begin on points in the triangles. The other player plays with 80 hunters, half of which begin in the main part of the board. Pieces move to an adjacent empty spot along the lines of the board. The deer may capture an adjacent dog by hopping over it to an empty space immediately on the opposite side of it along the lines of the board. The person playing as the hunters may place a remaining hunter on the board on any empty spot on their turn. The goal of the deer is to capture all of the dogs, the goal of the dogs is to block the deer from being able to move.
Content "3. ix buga (le grand cerf), IV, fig. 3. 80 pions contre 8 cerfs. 105 stations. Même règles que dans les variantes preeceedents." (uulyn buga, talyn buga). Popova 1974: 22, 26, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1730 Type Ethnography Game Engijn Zirge Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 3x3 intersecting lines, with diagonals. Three pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing pieces on the board. Once all of the pieces have been placed, the players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot on the board. The first player to place their pieces in a row along one of the lines wins.
Content "1. engijn zirge (marelle simple), fig. 1. 2x3 pions. Le marellier a 9 intersections dont une de 8e rang et les autres de 3e." With a description of zirge games preceding as alignment games in which pieces are placed and then moved on the board. Popova 1974: 31, fig. Va.1, quoting quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1731 Type Ethnography Game Altan Xaraacaj Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each quadrant. Six pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, they alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot along the lines of the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Pieces which are in a threeinarow arrangement cannot be removed from the board. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "2. altan xaraacaj (hirondelles d'or), fig. 2. Six hirondelles dorées contre six hirondelles bigarrées. Treize stations dont une de 8e rang, quatre de 43 rang et quatre de 3e rang." With a description of zirge games preceding as alignment games in which pieces are placed and then moved on the board. Popova 1974: 31, fig. Va.2, quoting quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1732 Type Ethnography Game Altan Xaraacaj Date 19880101  19911231 Rules 5x5 intersecting lines, with diagonals in each quadrant. Six pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. Players attempt to place their pieces in a line.
Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1733 Type Ethnography Game Xonin Shatar (Simple) Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three concentric squares, with lines connecting the corners and the midpoints of the sides. Twelve pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces have been placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot along the lines. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they remove one of the opponent's pieces. Pieces which are in a threeinarow pattern cannot be removed from the board. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "3. xonin satar (échecs des moutons), fig. 3...2x12 pions et 24 stations. With a description of zirge games preceding as alignment games in which pieces are placed and then moved on the board. Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Va.3, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1734 Type Ethnography Game Xonin Shatar (Complex) Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three concentric squares, with lines connecting the corners and the midpoints of the sides. Two diamonds drawn, one connecting the midpoints of the outer square and intersecting the corners of the second square; the second connecting the midpoints of the second square and intersecting the corners of the central square. Twelve pieces per plays. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot along the lines. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they remove one of the opponent's pieces. Pieces which are in a threeinarow pattern cannot be removed. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "3. xonin satar (échecs des moutons) fig 4. 2x12 pions et 24 stations." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Va.4, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1735 Type Ethnography Game Gurgaldaj Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three concentric triangles, with lines connecting their midpoints and corners. Eight pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot along the lines. When a player places three of their pieces in a row, the remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. A piece that is in a threeinarow pattern cannot be removed. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "4. gurgaldaj (le rossignol), fig. 5. 2x8 pions; huit rossingols jaunes contre huit rossignols gris. Le marellier triangulaire comporte 18 intersections, dont trois de 4e rang et quinze de 3e rang." Desrciption differs from the drawing, but the drawing does not produce a playable game. Popova 1974: 2632, Fig. Vb.5. quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1736 Type Ethnography Game Gurgaldaj Date 19880101  19911231 Rules Three concentric triangles, with lines connecting their midpoints and corners. Eight pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot along the lines. When a player places three of their pieces in a row, the remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. A piece that is in a threeinarow pattern cannot be removed. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "Altan gurgaldai (golden nightingale). A board of the jireg type.There are 2 participants. The pawns of one of them are marked with light stones and classified as yellow nightingales, the pawns of the other player are marked with dark stones and classified as grey nightingales." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 4041, 119120, Fig. 12.C. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.1737 Type Ethnography Game Xanan Zirge Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 9x9 intersecting lines. Forty pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty space on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot on the board. When a player places three of their pieces in an orthogonal or diagonal line, they remove one of the opponent's pieces. Players also remove one of the opponent's pieces when they place four pieces so that they are one the four corners of one of the squares on the board. Pieces which are in these alignments cannot be removed from the board. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "5. xanan zirge (marelle en forme de grille murale de yourte), Vb, fig. 6. 2x40 pions et 81 stations...Les joueurs cherchent des carrés, des "chausettes" ou des flèches (lignes orthogonales ou diagonales comme celles du diagramme." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vb.6, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1738 Type Ethnography Game Jesön Zam Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Two triangles, which form a sixpointed star, with lines connecting the corner of one triangle with the corner of the other triangle which is opposite it. Nine pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing a piece on an empty point on the board. Players cannot place a piece in the central point during this phase. When all of the pieces are placed, players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent point on the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they remove one of the opponent's pieces. When three pieces are in a threeinarow pattern, they cannot be removed. The player who removes all of the opponent's pieces from the board wins.
Content "6. jesön zam (les neuf routes), Vb, fig. 7. 2x9 pions et 19 stations...Dans le première phase du jeu, lorsque les joueur font entrer leurs pions, ils n'ont pas le droit d'occuper la station centrale." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vb.7, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1739 Type Ethnography Game Tavan Tal Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three concentric pentagons, with lines connecting the corners and the midpoints of each side. Fourteen pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, they alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot along the lines of the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Pieces which are in a threeinarow arrangement cannot be removed from the board. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "7. tavan tal...(les cind...côtés), fig. 8...La marelle pentagonale se joue avec 2x14 pions s'alignent par trois." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vc.8, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1740 Type Ethnography Game Zurgaan Tal Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Three concentric hexagons, with lines connecting the corners and midpoints of the sides. Seventeen pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, they alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot along the lines of the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Pieces which are in a threeinarow arrangement cannot be removed from the board. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "7...zurgaan tal (les...six côtés), Fig. 9...la marelle hexagonale avec 2x17 pions...les pions s'alignent par trois." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vc.9, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100
Id DLP.Evidence.1741 Type Ethnography Game Davxar Zirge (Type 1) Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Four concentric squares, with lines connecting the corners and the midpoints of the sides. Lines also connect the corners of a square with the midpoint of the next largest square. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, they alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot along the lines of the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row along a line that has only three spots, or four in a row along a line that has four spots, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Pieces which are in a three or fourinarow arrangement cannot be removed from the board. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "8. davxar zirge (marelles boubles ou étagées). Vd, fig. 10...Les pions sur ces deux marelliers s'alignent par trois et par quatre." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vd.10, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1742 Type Ethnography Game Davxar Zirge (Type 2) Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Four concentric squares, with lines connecting the corners and the midpoints of the sides. Three diamonds are also drawn within the squares, connecting the midpoints of a square to the corners of the next smallest square.. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on an empty spot on the board. When all of the pieces are placed, they alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an empty adjacent spot along the lines of the board. During either phase, when a player places three of their pieces in a row along a line that has only three spots, or four in a row along a line that has four spots, they may remove one of the opponent's pieces from the board. Pieces which are in a three or fourinarow arrangement cannot be removed from the board. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "8.davxar zirge...Vd, fig 11. Les pions sur ces deux marelliers s'alignent par trois et par quatre." Popova 1974: 2632, fig. Vd.11, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1743 Type Ethnography Game Aralzaa Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 3x3 board. Each player plays with three horseshaped pieces, which begin on the row of squares closest to the player. Pieces move one space forward and one space diagonally, jumping over any intervening pieces. The first player to place their pieces in the squares where the opponent started wins.
Content "1. aralzaa (marche irregulière de cheval), VI, fig. 1 (21). 2x3 pions et 3x3 cases. Les pions sont des chevaux noirs et blancs en bois sculpté comme ceux des échecs. ils en ont également la marche. Le but de chaque joueur est d'arriver à la position initiale de l'adversaire." Popova 1974:3235, Fig. VI.1, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1744 Type Ethnography Game Jesön Mor' Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 9x9 board. Nine horseshaped pieces per player. Pieces move orthogonally one space and then diagonally another, jumping over any intervening pieces. A player may capture one of the opponent's pieces by moving onto a space occupied by the opponent's piece. The goal is to move to the central space on the board.
Content "2. jesön mor' (les neuf cevaux), Vi, fig. 2. 2x9 pions et 9x9 cases. Les pions sont des figurines de chevaux comme pour le jeu précédent. Ils marchent également comme les chevaliers des échecs. Mais de plus, il peuvent prendre des pions adverses. Le but de chaque joueur est d'atteindrela case centrale (e5). Pour y parvenir, le joueur cherche, dans la mesure du possible, à réduire les chances de l'adversaire en mangent ses chevaux. Puisqu'il y a des prises, je jesön mor' n'est pas un jeu de course "pur". cependant ici, l'opération d'élimination est secondaire par rapport à la course." Popova 1974: 3235, Fig. VI.2, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1745 Type Ethnography Game Bajr Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 6x6 board. Two or four players. Three pieces per player, which begin in opposite corners of the board. Players alternate turns moving one piece to an empty adjacent space, orthogonally or diagonally. The first player to place their pieces in the squares in the opposite corner where the opponent's pieces started wins.
Content "3. bajr (jeu de stations) (22), VI, fig. 3. On y joue à deux ou quatre; en conséquence ou utilise deux ou quatre sortes de pions de couleurs différentes. Suivant les dimensions des tabliers, on distingue trois types de bajr, c'est à dire le petit, le moyen et le grand. Le petit bajr a 36 (6x6) cases ou "yeux" et 4x3 pions...Les pions se déplacent d'un seul pas à la fois sur les cases voisines, en diagonale, en verticale ou en horizontale mais pas on arrière. On joue à partir des quatre coins de tablier. Chaque joueur dispose ses pions dans les cases de son coin. Le but de chacun des quatre participants est d'arriver avec tous ses pions à la position initiale de son visàvis, Lorsqu'on joue à deux, on n'utilise que deux des coins, en opposition." Popova 1974: 3236, Fig. VI.3, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1746 Type Ethnography Game Bajr Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 8x8 board. Two or four players. Six pieces per player, which begin in opposite corners of the board. Players alternate turns moving one piece to an empty adjacent space, orthogonally or diagonally. The first player to place their pieces in the squares in the opposite corner where the opponent's pieces started wins.
Content "le bajr moyen a 64 cases et 4x6 pions." Popova 1974: 3236, Fig. VI.3, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1747 Type Ethnography Game Bajr Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 10x10 board. Two or four players. Ten pieces per player, which begin in opposite corners of the board. Players alternate turns moving one piece to an empty adjacent space, orthogonally or diagonally. The first player to place their pieces in the squares in the opposite corner where the opponent's pieces started wins.
Content "Le grand bajr a 100 (10x10) cases et 4x10 pions." Popova 1974: 3236, Fig. VI.3, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1748 Type Ethnography Game Toono Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Two concentric circles, With two perpendicular diameters intersecting both circles, and four other lines, positioned diagonally, connecting the circumferences of the two circles. Six pieces per player. which begin on opposite sides of the circle from the other player, three on each circle. Players alternate turns moving their pieces. Pieces move three spaces along the lines on the board, jumping over any pieces on the first and second places, and capturing any piece on the third. Pieces may change direction in a turn, as long as the lines are followed and there is no backtracking. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins. Content "1. toono (le toit de la yourte), VII, fig. 1. 2x6 pons. Tablier circulaire du genre des marelliers avec 17 stations dont 5 de 4e rang et 12 de 3e. La position initiale est indiquée à la figure 1. Les pions marchent en traversant deux cases pour se poser sur la troisième, occupée ou vide. En faisant ce coup, le jouer dit: undeuxtrois" ou bien "droitcourbétordu". La forme du tablier rappelle, bien sûr, la charpente du toit d'une yourt mongole. " Popova 1974: 34, 3637, Fig. VII.1, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1749 Type Ethnography Game Böxijn Barildaan Date 19630101  19661231 Rules Four squares, arranged in a cross shape. The game is played along the lines. Four pieces per player, which begin on the corners of a square, opposite the square where the opponent's pieces are arranged. Players alternate turns moving their pieces. Pieces move three spaces along the lines on the board, capturing any piece on the third. The first two spaces in the move must be empty. Pieces may change direction in a turn, as long as the lines are followed and there is no backtracking. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "2. böxijn barildaan (la lutte), VII, fig. 2. 2x4 firgurines de lutteurs et un tablier en forme de croix à 12 intersections, dont 4 de 4e rang et 8 de 2ème rang. La position initiale des deux équipes est montrée sur la figure 2. Les pions se déplacent en traversant deux cases vides pour se poser sur la troisième. Ils mangent de la même façon." Popova 1974: 34, 3637, Fig. VII.2, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1750 Type Ethnography Game Xarajlt Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 3x5 intersecting lines. Six pieces per player, arranged on the two short rows on opposite sides of the board. Players alternate turns moving a piece to an empty adjacent spot. Pieces move orthogonally in a horizontal or forward direction only. A piece may jump over an adjacent opponent's piece to an empty spot immediately on the opposite side of the piece along the lines of the board. Pieces may capture in a backwards direction. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "3. xarajlt (le saut), VII, fig. 3. 2x6 pions; six agneaux blancs contre six chevreaux noirs. Le tablier rectangulaire a 12 intersections dont 3 de 4e rang, 8 de 3e et 4 de 2ème rang. La position initiale est montrée sur la figure 3. Les pions avancent d'un pas en avant ou de côté, mais ne peuvent pas reculer. Ils prennent par saut dans tous les sens, même en arrière." Popova 1974: 34, 3637, Fig. VII.3, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom.
Confidence 100 Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1751 Type Ethnography Game Buudal Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 3x3 intersecting lines, with diagonals in the four squares formed. Six pieces per player. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on the board. when all of the pieces have been placed, players alternate turns moving a piece by jumping over an adjacent spot to the next spot, along the lines of the board, which must be empty. If an opponent's piece is in the spot which was jumped, that piece is captured. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "4. buudal (la halte). 2x6 pions; des chiens tachetés et des chiens noirs. Le tablier est un marellier à 13 intersections. Les joueurs posent d'abord à tour de rôle leurs pions. Ensuite ils les déplacent en sautant la case voisine pour se poser sur la seconde station vide. Ils prennent de la même façon." Popova 1974: 34, 3637, Fig. VII.4, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1752 Type Ethnography Game Dööv Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 8x8 board. Eight pieces per player, which begin on alternating squares in the first two rows on opposing sides of the board. Players alternate turns moving one of their pieces to an adjacent space. Pieces move diagonally forward only. A piece may capture one of the opponent's adjacent pieces by hopping over it to an empty adjacent space immediately on the opposite side of the opponent's piece. Multiple captures are not allowed. When a piece arrives at the opposite edge of the board from where it began, it is promoted and may move diagonally forward or backward. The player who captures all of the opponent's pieces wins.
Content "5. dööv (jeu de dames), VII, fig. 4. 2x8 pions sur un damier à 64 (8x8) cases. Les pions sont des figurines sculptées de chiens tachetees et de chiens noirs, ou bien, dans certaines variantes, de loups. Les règles sont les mêmes que celles des dame européennes à une seule différence près: on ne peut prendre qu'un seul pion ennemi à la fois." Popova 1974: 34, 3637, Fig. VII.5, quoting quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom.
Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1753 Type Ethnography Game Dörvölz Date 19630101  19661231 Rules 17x17 intersecting lines, with alternating black and white points, four equally spaced along the third and fifteenth rank and two the . seventh and eleventh, forming a large square. Each player has two kinds of piece, six bullshaped pieces and 144 round pieces. To begin, players place their bullshaped pieces on the oppositecolor marked points on the board. Then, players alternate turns placing one of their pieces in an adjacent space next to one of their bull pieces. Once all of the bull pieces have been surrounded, the main phase of play begins. Players alternate turns placing one of their pieces on the board. The player who encloses the greatest number of empty spaces wins.
Content "dörvölz (jeu de go) (VIII, fig. 1)...a) matériel: le tablier est un tapis gris ou jaune sur lequel est dessiné un quadrillage de 3 x 17 lignes rouges formant 289 stations...Six stations sont marqueees par des points noirs et six stations sont marquées par des points blancs. Deux sortes de pions:  2x6 taureaux blancs et noirs: des pierres ou des pions en porcelaine ou en verre;  144 gölög (chiens) blancs et 144 gölög noirs; des pierres ou des pions en verre ou porcelaine ronds, plus petits que les taureaux. Soit 300 pions au total. b) règle de fonctionnement: ce jeu se compose de deux phases. La première manche est un tabia, c'est à dire un arrangement préliminaire fixe, qui n'existe pas dans la variante normalisée. Les deux joueurs doivent poser alternativement leurs taureaux, les taureaux blancs sur les points noirs et les taureaux noirs sur les points blancs. Ensuite, chaque joueur à son tour entourent ses taureaux par ses propres pions. Cet arrangement divise le tablier en 12 zones d'influence équipotentielles et simplifie beaucoup le jeu. Pendant la seconde phase, les joueurs placent alternativement leurs chiens sur les intersections libres en cherchant à former des enclos ("yeux"), c'estàdire à entourer de leurs pions posés on ne peut plus les déplacer. Gagne celui qui a conquis le plus grand nombre d'intersections vides entourées par ses chiens." Popova 1974: 3839, 45, quoting Namzildorz's Mongolyn Togloom. Confidence 100 Source Popova, A. 1974. "Analyse formelle et classification des jeux de calculs mongole." Études mongoles 5: 1974: 760.
Id DLP.Evidence.1764 Type Ethnography Game Bajii Date 19880101  19911231 Rules Four 3x8 rectangles, arranged in a square. Four players. Eight fields are marked with a cross, which gives the player an extra throw. Some fields are marked with diagonal lines, and when a piece lands on them the piece is sent back to start. Pieces must be entered onto the board. The player who brings their pieces around the board to the point where it entered the board wins.
Content "Bajii. Four players or 4 teams of 23 participants each take part in the game. the board is made of two slats nailed crosswise. It can also be dawn on aa piece of paper or cloth. Each arm of the cross is divided with vertical lines into three parts and with horizontal lines into 8 squares. In some fields there are marksfor example a swastika, a cross, a square, or a triangle. These are the socalled safe places giving the player the right for an extra throw if he stops his pawn in this field. Other fields marked with a black circle or diagonal lines are considered to be dangerous. If a player stops his pawn here, he has to take it back to the start or depending on the contract, quits the game. The winner is the one who first brings his pawns to the starting point after having gone around the whole cross. In the case of a team play, the winner is the team whose pawns will first be brought to the starting point." KabzińskaStawarz 1991: 120121. Confidence 100 Source KabzińskaStawarz, I. 1991. Games of Mongolian Shepherds. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Id DLP.Evidence.2079 Type Contemporary rule description Game Mongolian Chess Date 18120101  18591231 Rules 8x8 board. Pagoda (x1): begins on the space to the right of center on the back row; Cannon (x1): begins to the left of center in the back row; Camel (x2): placed in the second row, one to the right and one to the left of the Pagoda and Cannon, moves sideways for nine spaces; Horse (x2): placed in the second row, one to the right and one to the left of the Pagoda and Cannon, moves six spaces orthogonally sideways; Chariot (x2): placed in the second row, one to the right and one to the left of the Pagoda and Cannon. Foot Soldier (x): moves forward orthogonally one space or diagonally forward one space to capture. When it reaches the final row, it is promoted to a Chariot. There is no river. When a player's piece moves to a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is captured. When the Pagoda can be captured on the opponent's next turn, it is in check. The Pagoda cannot be in check at the end of the player's turn. If this is impossible, it is checkmate and the opponent wins.
Content Translation of Ye Mingfeng's work Qiaoxi Zaji: "The board is nine lines by nine, forming sixtyfour squares. Each side has sixteen pieces, comprising eight footsoldiers, two chariots, two horses, two elephants, one cannon and one general. The two sides are distinguished by red and black. The general is to the right of center, and the cannon is to the left of center. One square above the general, the chariots, horses and elephants are placed to the left and right. the footsoldiers are placed in front. This is roughly similar to Chinese chess. The pieces are threedimensional and have no characters on them. The general is carved like a pagoda as a sign of respect for Buddhism. The elephant is carved like a camel or bear, because in the meandering frontiers of the north, there are no elephants. There are many footsoldiers, because there is strength in numbers. There are no scholars, because they are not valued. The pieces are not placed on the lines but on the squares because this would be more secure. The horse always moves sideways for six squares, and the camel sideways for nine. This is because a camel is faster than a horse. Pieces can go all over the board, and there is no river boundary. This is to follow the water and grasses for pastures. The footsoldier moves on square forward each time to the last rank. It captures an enemy piece in front by moving diagonally. After it has gone...it...move backwards, and is promoted to chariot. This is to commend its merit. The pieces all aim to encircle and attack the pagoda, and only when the pagoda has no avenue of escape is there defeat." Lo 2007: 126. Confidence 100 Ages Adult Genders Male Source Lo, A. 2007. An introduction to board games in Late Imperial China. In I. Finkel (ed), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 125–132.
