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Evidence in Korea

9 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.763
Type Contemporary rule description
Game O-Pat-Kono
Date 1893-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules Played on a 4x4 grid. Each player has seven pieces, placed on the intersections of the lines, five on the back row and one on each outer intersection of the second line. Pieces are moved diagonally across the squares. The object is to place one's pieces in the opponent's starting position. The first player to do so wins.
Content "LXXVIII. O-Pat-Ko-No—Five-field Kono. The board is set as shown in Fig. 107. The players move one square at a time, either backward or forward diagonally across the squares. The object of the game is to get the pieces across to the other side in the place of those of the opponent, and the one who does this first wins the game." Culin 1895: 102.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.767
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Nei-Pat-Kono
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules 4x4 board, 8 pieces each player. Pieces move orthogonally by either jumping a player's own piece to capture an opponent's piece or by moving one space into an empty hole. Captures are not compulsory. The goal is to reduce the opponents pieces to 1 or blocking them so they can no longer move.
Content "LXXVII. Nei-pat-ko-no—Four Field Kono Each player has eight pieces, which are set as shown in Fig. 106. The players move alternately along the lines and take an opponent's piece by jumping over one of their own pieces to the third place. When not thus taking, the pieces are moved one square at a time. The object is to block or capture the opponent's men." Culin 1895: 101.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.774
Type Artifact
Game Janggi
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules The board has nine vertical lines and ten horizontal rows, and the pieces are placed on the intersections of these lines. Centreed along the back lines of each side is a three by three square with diagonals known as the palace. Pieces have special movement values: Janggun (general): May move one spot along the lines within the palace but cannot leave it. Sa (guards): Same movement as the Janggun. Ma (horses): Move one spot forward orthogonally and then one forward diagonally. Sang (elephants): Move one spot orthogonally forward then two spots diagonally forward. A Ma and Sang can be switched in the initial setup. Cha (chariots): Move like a rook in Chess, but also diagonally within the palace. Po (cannons): Jump over exactly one piece, over any distance horizontally or vertically, but cannot jump over or capture another cannon. Byeong/Jol (soldiers): Move and capture one point forward or sideways. Play continues until Woetong (checkmate) of the Janggun.
Content "LXXIV. TJYANG-KEUI—CHESS. By W. H. Wilkinson, Late H. B. M. Acting Consul-General in Korea. Korean chess, Tjyang-keid (Chinese, tseungk'i) is admittedly a variant of Chinese, yet, as will be seen, there are some important differences be- tween the two games. The design of the board, but not its shape, is the same, save that in Korea the files are carried across the " river," which is, in fact, ignored. The men, again, have the same names as in China, and, except that the King is placed in the centre of his " camp," and that the " Horse" and " Elephant" are interchangeable, occupy the same positions at starting. But their powers and privileges in most cases differ largely. A Korean chess-board and men, arranged for a game, is represented in Fig. 93. It will be noticed that the board is not square, but oblong, the width being greater than the breadth. All the Korean chess.-boards have this shape, the object in view being to facilitate the moving of pieces when they have reached the opponent's end of the board. It may be observed, in passing, that chess-boards would seem to be all of domestic manufacture, as they are not sold in any shops, even at the capital. The men can be procured, though they are usually made to order, inclosed in a net resembling an onion bag. Another feature in which the Korean game will be seen to differ out- wardly from the Chinese is the shape of the men and the circumstances that the hieroglyphics on one side are inscribed in the " grass character," or running hand. Korean chessmen are not circular, as in China, but octagonal,^ and vary in size according to their value, the King (General) being the largest, the Chariot, Elephant, Horse and Cannon of medium size and the Pawns (soldiers) and Counsellors the smallest. The hiero- glyphs on one side are usually colored red, on the other green—the draughtsmen, for such in appearance they are, being all of the same wood and undyed. In describing the powers of the pieces, it will be convenient to give each its corresponding Western name, the Hpo, a piece we unfortunately lack, being styled a Cannon. The Korean names are as follows 1. Tjyang (Chinese, tseung), " General," more usually called Koung (Chinese, kiin), " Palace," the King. 2. Tcka (Chinese,M), "Chariot, "Rook. 3. Hpo (Chinese), p'du), "Cannon." 4. Pyeng (Chinese, ping), or tjol (Chinese, tsut), " Foot-soldier," Pawn. 5. Sd (Chinese, sz'), "Counsellor, "Queen. 6. Syang{ OamtsG, tseung),"Elephant,"Bishop. 7. Ma (Chinese, ma), " Horse," Knight. The moves of these pieces follow two general laws, the existence of which makes Korean chess a more finished or more logical game than the Chinese. The first is that the pieces invariably take as they move ; the second, that, within their limitations, they move along any marked line. In Chinese chess the P'du moves like a Rook, but takes only when a piece intervenes ; the Korean Cannon moves and takes in the same way. On the Chinese board the files between the fifth and sixth ranks are not marked, in order to better indicate the " river," after the crossing of which the Pawns acquire increased powers; yet for the purposes of play they exist. The diagonal lines joining the corners of the General's " camp " may be, though they seldom are, omitted from a Chinese chess-board ; but neither they nor the river files must be left out on the Korean. For, as has been said, wherever a line is marked a Korean piece can, within its limitations, move along it. Thus the Chariot, which has precisely the same powers as our Rook, may move from one corner of the " camp " to the centre, or, if so desired, to the corner diagonally opposite, because those points are connected by a marked line. For the same reason the Cannon, if on one such corner, may, when the centre is occupied, hop over to the opposite corner along the line of the diagonal. A similar train of reason- ing has made identical the movements of the two Counsellors and the General. The General, or King, as he shall be called, may move from his original position at the centre on to any one of the nine points in his camp, but he can never leave his camp. Within it he moves only one step at a time, and that only along marked lines. Thus, if the King were at 5 a he could move thence to 5 b (the centre), 6 a or 4 a, but he could not move to 4 b or 6 b, because there is no line connecting 5 a with these last two points. As in the Chinese game, the Kings check one another across the board if they are on the same file, with no piece intervening. Korean chess, however, leans here, as in other games, toward the losing side. If one of the players has an overpowering advantage the other is allowed, should opportunity occur, to check his opponent's King with his own.Thus, if Red has King on 6 i, Pawns on 3 d and 6d, while Green has King on 5a, Rook on 7a, Pawn on 7d, Red is allowed to play King 6i to 5i (check). When Green moves his King to 4 a or 6 a (his only alternatives), Red again checks with his King, making the game a draw. It should, how- ever, be observed that the act of checking the opponent's King with one's own is in itself a confession of inferiority, and deprives the player of any chance of winning the game,—he can at most draw it.' The King on the losing side is allowed yet another privilege. If he is the only piece on his side, and if his moving would greatly endanger him, he is allowed, as the equivalent of a move, to turn over and remain in his original position...The Counsellors, or Queens, move in all respects like the King, and are equally confined to the nine points of the camp. They cannot give check, however, across the board. They are more powerful than the Chinese Ss', which can only occupy the five points on the diagonals. The Chariots, or Rooks, have exactly the powers of our own Castles, or the Chinese Kii, except that, as has been said, they can also move along the marked diagonals of either their own or the enemy's camp. The Horses (Knights) have precisely the move of the Chinese Md, which is also that of the Western Knight, with one important limitation. The Korean and the Chinese Md always moves first one step along a file or rank, and then a step diagonally. If there be a piece, whether of his own side or the enemy's, at the elbow, so to speak, of his beat, he cannot move. Thus in the example given above, the Red Knight on 3 c could not move to 5b or 5d, because of the Pawn on 4c; had the Pawn been on 4b or 4 the Knight would not be stopped. It will be seen that it is, owing to this rule, possible to cover check- from a Korean Knight. The Elephant, or Bishop, moves one step along a rank or file, then two steps diagonally. It differs from the Jafna/ or Camel of Tamerlane's Chess, in that the latter moves first a step diagonally, and then two straight wise, and has, which the Syang has not, the privilege of vaulting. For the Korean Elephant must have a clear course from start to finish, like the Chinese Elephant. Unlike the latter (whose move is that of Tamerlane'sF il, or the original Bishop, the Fil less their power of vaulting), the Korean Elephant is not confined to its own side of the river, but may move freely all over the board. At starting, the Korean Bishop must stand on one of the two points between the Rook and the Queen, the Knight being placed on the other; but on which point depends upon the whim of the player. Perhaps it would be simpler to say that at the commencement of the game, the men being arranged as in Chinese chess (except that the Kings are on 5 b, not 5 a, and 5 i, not 5 j, either player may, before moving, but not afterward, interchange Knight or Bishop at one or both sides of his Hne. If one player so inter- changes, it is generally considered advisable for the other to do the same, but he is under no obligation in the matter. The Soldiers (Pawns) differ from those of China in that they have from the first the move which the Chinese Ping only gets after crossing the river. A Korean Pawn moves one step sideways or forward, but never backward or diagonally. When he reaches his tenth rank (the enemy's first) he does not change his condition, but remains a Pawn, restricted to a sidelong movement up and down that rank. For this reason a Pawn is not often advanced to the last line—is, indeed, seldom carried beyond the eighth rank, his strongest position. We have seen that, in common with the Rook, the King, and Queen, the Pawn can travel along the diagonal of the camp. The Cannon differs from the P'du of China in that it moves as it takes, and that another Cannon can neither form a " Screen " for it nor be taken by it. The Korean Hpo moves in a straight line, horizontally or perpendicularly, but only when some piece (not itself a Cannon) intervenes." Wilkinson in Culin 1895:82-88.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.779
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Latin Square
Date 1700-01-01 - 1700-12-31
Rules NxN grid filled with n symbols which cannot repeat in a row or column.
Content Gusuryak (구수략) by Choi Seok-jeong, a treatise on Latin Squares of order 9 from the Joseon period of Korea. (Sung Sook 2012).
Confidence 100
Source Sung Sook, K. 2012. 'Orthogonal Latin Squares of Choi Seok-Jong.' History and Pedagogy of Mathematics: 823–826.

Id DLP.Evidence.1005
Type Ethnography
Game Oumoul Kono
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules Pieces begin on opposite sides of the square or players may take turns placing pieces. Players take turns moving the piece to an empty spot either orthogonally or diagonally. but one orthogonal direction is forbidden. The player who blocks the other player from being able to move wins.
Content "Ou-moul-ko-no is played upon a diagram, Fig. 103. Each player has two stones which they may put down alternately or may set at the beginning, as shown on the diagram. The players move one piece at a time, in alternate plays along the sides of the square, except that marked with a circle, which is barred, or from the corners to the centre. The object of the game is to block the opponent's men so that they cannot move." Culin 1895: 101.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.1313
Type Ethnography
Game Nyout
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules Twenty small circles arranged in a large circle, with a cross of nine more circles in the center of the large circle. The central circle and the circles where the crosses meet the larger circle are larger than the others. Played with two to four players. Two players play with either one or four pieces. Four stick dice with a white and a black side, with the following values for the throws: four white sides up = 4; four black sides up = 5; three white sides up = 3, two white sides up = 2, one white side up = 1. Throws of 4 and 5 allow the player another throw, pieces being moved after all of the player's throws. Pieces enter the board on the spot to the left of the topmost position of the circle, and proceed around the circle in an anti-clockwise direction. If a piece lands on one of the spaces where the central cross meets the circle, the piece may proceed along the cross to the opposite side on the next turn. A piece may not turn and move along a cross if it does not land on the end of the cross at the end of a throw. Pieces proceed to the topmost space, and move off the board by throwing one or more than required to land on this space. When a player lands on the same spot as one of their own pieces, these may be moved together as one piece. When a player lands on an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to the start and the player receives another turn. the first player to remove all of their pieces from the board wins.
Content Extensive discussion of the rules and play of Nyout in Culin 1895: 66-77.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.1754
Type Ethnography
Game Ssang-Ryouk
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules The game is played on a board with twelve points on either side. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions (one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left. Each player has 15 pieces. The starting position is as such, number the points from the origin of each player's track: Point six: five pieces Point 8: three pieces Point 13: five pieces Point 24: two pieces Play begins by each player rolling one die; the player with the highest roll plays first and plays the numbers on this first roll. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the number on one die and other the number on the other die, or by moving one piece the total number of both die. It is customary to move two pieces when doubles are thrown. Players cannot end their move on a point with multiple opposing pieces. If a player ends the turn on a point with one opposing piece, that piece is placed in the middle of the board (not on a point) and must reenter the board according the the next die roll, counting the origin point as a move of 1. They cannot reenter on a point with two or more pieces. No other pieces can move until all of the pieces belonging to that player are removed from the center. When all of a player's pieces are on their final 6 points, they may start removing pieces from the board. They can do so by rolling a 6 to move from the 6th point, and so on down to 1. Players must use all available moves presented by the dice. The first player to remove all of their pieces wins.
Content ""LXXIII Ssang-ryouk—double sixes (backgammon). The game of backgammon is known in Korea under the name of Ssang-ryouk (Chinese, sheeung luk), "Double Sixes." It is played with wooden pins or men called mal (Chinese má), "horses," upon a hollowed wooden board caled Ssang-ryouk-hpan. The board has mortised sides, which extend above the surface. The divisions on either side, called pat (Chinese fin) "field," are outlines in black. The large ones in the middle are not counted in moving, and are used to throw the dice in. The men, Fig. 88, are about three and a half inches in height. Fifteen are employed on each side, one set being painted red and the other left the natural color of the wood. They are usually made of boxwood, but some softer wood is used in the cheaper sets. The moves are made according to the throws with two dice, and receive the same names as the corresponding pieces in the Domino game. A diagram of the board, as set at the opening of the game, is shown in Fig. 89. It will be seen to be the same as in the English game of Backgammon. The first player is determined by the highest throw with one die. The pieces are moved as in the English game, but it is customary to move two pieces when doublets are thrown, and doublets do not entitle the player to another throw, nor to an additional count. A player may take an opponent's place, called tjap-ta, "to catch," and the piece so taken must be re-entered again. When a player gets all his men around to his own place he bears them off according to his subsequent throws." Culin 1895: 79-81; 1895a: 499-504."
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.1755
Type Ethnography
Game Patok
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules 19x19 intersecting lines. The central, as well as every third spot, in a square with the corners at the fourth point from the corners of the board. Players alternate turns placing a piece on the board on one of the marked spaces. When all of the marked spaces have been occupied, players may place a piece on any empty spot on the board. If a player surrounds one or more of the opponent's pieces orthogonally, they capture the opponent's pieces. The edge of the board can be included in such an enclosure. A group of pieces which contain two empty enclosures cannot be captured by the opponent, When no further pieces can be placed, the players count the number of their pieces on the board and the number of empty spaces they enclose, and the player with the higher score wins.
Content Detailed description of the rules of Patok (in reference to Wei-ki an Go) in Culin 1895: 91-97.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

Id DLP.Evidence.2066
Type Artifact
Game Tjyong Kyeng To
Date 1895-01-01 - 1895-12-31
Rules Board with 108 squares. Five-sided die, marked from 1-5.
Content Board and die in the Penn Museum (17626 and 17628). Board with 108 squares, with writing in each of thw squares telling the player where to proceed based on the rolls of the five-sided die, marked 1-5. Culin 1898: 820-821.
Confidence 100
Source Culin, S. 1898. Chess and Playing-Cards. Washington: Government Printing Office.

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