background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System

   

Home Games Forum Downloads Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map About


 
Evidence in Alfonso X

26 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.749
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Alquerque
Date 1221-01-01 - 1284-12-31
Rules The board consists of 5x5 intersecting lines with diagonals. Pieces are placed on the intersections and can move along the lines. Each player has 12 pieces. Pieces can move to one adjacent point. Captures can be made by hopping over an opponent's piece. The goal is to capture all of the opponent's pieces.
Content Alfonso X, Libro de los Juegos fols. 91r, 91v, 92r. Translation by Sonja Musser Golladay. "This is twelve man’s morris (alquerque de doze) which is played with all its pieces. Since we have spoken in the previous books of all the ways of playing chess, dice, and tables that those three wise men showed as examples to the king and then that intelligent men spread through play, we want now to tell about other games that men later found that are not among those discussed above. However, they have similarities like mill takes some from chess, dice, and tables. There are others that take from chess and tables but not from dice. And we will begin first with twelve man’s morris because it is larger and it is played with more pieces. And we will tell in how many ways it is played, with how many pieces, and why it has in it part of chess, tables, and dice. Chess has a part in it because it is played by intelligence and so is mill. The pieces48 with which it is played resemble the pawns of chess. And it has some of tables because of the tie which ties the game in the same way and because of the lines on which the pieces are played. And it has part of dice in it due to luck, because as with the rolls of the dice that are luck so in mill players roll to decide who plays first. And it is played in this manner: on the millboard there are to be twenty-five places where the pieces can be placed and there are to be twenty-four pieces. And they put twelve of one colour on one side and the other twelve on the other in a troop formation. And one place remains in the centre to allow play. And the one who plays first has a disadvantage because he is forced to play in that empty space. And the other player moves his piece to the space the first left empty and captures the one that was first to move. That player captures the second player’s piece by jumping over it from one space to another according to the straight lines on the board, and over as many pieces as he should jump in this manner he will capture them all. And the other player does likewise. And the one that plays first always moves first trying to capture some piece from the other side. And the other player guards himself well from attack because of and by understanding the move that he wants to make so that he guards that piece of his best. And the other does the same thing that his opponent plans to do to him and therefore he is at a disadvantage, the one who plays first. And the one who guards his pieces worse and loses them more quickly, loses. And if both players known how to play it, they can both tie the game. And this is the mill, the pieces, and how they are placed in their spaces."
Confidence 100
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.759
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Cercar La Liebre
Date 1221-01-01 - 1284-12-31
Rules One player is the rabbit, and the other player plays with twelve other pieces. They may also play with either ten or eleven pieces instead of twelve. The pieces move along the lines. The goal is to corner the rabbit so that it cannot move. The rabbit may hop over the other pieces to capture them. The rabbit wins by reducing the opponent to nine pieces.
Content From Alfonso X (1221-1283)'s Libro de los Juegos, with diagram of the board and opening position. Translation by Sonja Musser Golladay: "The game called corner the rabbit that is also played on the twelve man’s morris board. This is another game that is also played on the twelve man’s morris board and it is called the corner the rabbit game and it is played like this: they take one piece and place it in the centre of the board and they put twelve of the other colour in a troop formation, or eleven or ten according to the wager between the two who are to play it. And they play it like this: The single piece plays first and then the others, however many they are, go after him. And that single piece alone is safe from capture because they are not to remove but rather trap him in a space so that there is nowhere for him to go. And he captures as many of the others as he can by jumping over them. And once he has captured one of the others [if they begin with ten], they cannot trap him. But if there were twelve,by capturing one eleven remain, and they can carry him with them wherever thy want. They will do the same with ten if they know how to play it well. But if one of the ten is captured, the nine that remain can never trap him in any way, and therefore lose the game. And this is the explanation of this game and this is the diagram of the board and of the pieces."
Confidence 100
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1142
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Acedrex (Alfonso)
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 8x8 board. The pieces move as follows, with the number per player: 1 x Shah (king): moves one space orthogonally or diagonally. 1 x Fers (counselor): One square diagonally. 2 x Rukh (chariot): Any number of spaces orthogonally. 2 x Pil (elephant): Two squares diagonally, jumping over the first. Cannot capture another Pil. 2 x Asb (horse): Moves as a chess knight. 8 x Sarbaz (soldier): Moves one space forward orthogonally; one space forward diagonally to capture. No en passant. Pawn may move two spaces on its first turn. Pawns are promoted to Fers when reaching the eighth rank. No castling. Stalemate results in win for player causing it. The player who checkmates the king wins.
Content Alfonso X, Libro de los Juegos, f. 2-10: "But among all the other games, they chose as best and most in common the one with the eight squares because it is not so slow as the one with ten or more nor is it as hurried as the one of six or fewer. And therefore men commonly use it in all lands, more than the other games. And the figure of the board is that it is to be square and it is to have eight horizontal ranks and in each flank eight squares which are in all sixty-four squares. And half of the squares are to be of one colour and the other half of another and likewise the pieces. Of how many colours all the chess pieces are to be. There are to be thirty-two pieces. And the sixteen of one colour should be arranged on the first two horizontal ranks of the board. And the other sixteen of the other colour are to be arranged on the other end of the board in that same way, opposite the others.And of these sixteen pieces eight are lesser, because they were made to resemble the common people who go in the army. And of the other pieces which are greater one resembles the king, who is the lord of the army and he should be in one of the two middle squares.2 And next to him in the other middle square, is another piece which resembles the fers (alfferez) who carries the standard of the king’s colours. And there are some men who do not know the name and call him “fersa” (alfferza).3 And these two pieces each one plays alone and does not have another in all the sixteen pieces that resembles them. And in the two other squares beside these there are two other pieces which resemble each other and they call them fils (alffiles) in Arabic which means the same thing in our language as elephants, which the kings used to bring into battle and each one brought at least two so if one of them died, that the other one would remain. And in the other two squares next to these there are two other pieces which resemble each other and everyone commonly calls them horses but their proper names are knights, which are placed as captains by order of the king, for the purpose of leading the ranks of the army. And in the other two squares on the end [f. 3v] there are two other pieces which also resemble each other and they call them rooks and they are made wide and stretched because they resemble the ranks of the soldiers. In the first rank are the major pieces that we said and in the second the pawns. And even though there are nine pieces in terms of squares, there are not more than six counting that they are doubled. Because the fils and the knights and the rooks which are six, become three and with the king and the fers and the pawns, which each count as one, they make six. And they put them thus doubled so that when one of them is captured, that another of that type remains to give check and mate to the king or to shelter him. Also they provided for the fers that when he should be lost, any one of the pawns managing to arrive at the furthest square on the opposite side of the board, where the major pieces begin, from then on they would be ferses and could play just like the former and move in that way. And this is because they rise from the status of the lesser pieces to that of the greater ones. The king they made so that he could not be captured but that they could give him check in order that they could make him leave from that space which he held, as though dishonoured. And if they cornered him so that he did not have anywhere to go, they named it checkmate which is the same as dead and this they did in order to shorten the game. Because it would become verylengthy if all the pieces were to be captured until only the two kings remained alone or the one of them. Chapter on the movement of the chess pieces The movement of the pieces was established also for this reason that we will tell you, because just as the king should not rush into battles but go very slowly and gaining always from the enemies and fighting so as to beat them, likewise the king of the chessmen is not to move more than one square straight or diagonally as one who looks all around him meditating on what he is to do. The fers moves one square diagonally and this is in order to guard the king and not leave his side and to shield him from the checks and checkmates when they are given to him and in order to go forward helping him to win when the game comes out well. But he can also on his first move jump to the second4 straight or diagonal square and even if another piece is in between. And this is in the manner of a good captain who charges ahead in great feats and battles and rushes everywhere they need him. And in this movement he joins forces with his foot soldiers and becomes one with them as if forcing them not to leave his side and to be as one in order to do the best thing and thus he guards himself and them, having some before him and standing before the others. And therefore when the fers is thus joined with the pawns, they call it flanked.5 The fils jump to the second6 diagonal square like the elephants that the kings used to bring at that time because no one dared to stand in front of them and the ones who were on them made them move diagonally to wound the ranks of their enemies so that they were not able to guard themselves. The knights jump three square counting one7 straight and taking the third diagonally in any direction. And this is like the good captains who lead the ranks turning their horses to the right and to the left in order to guard their men and conquer the enemies. The rooks play straight as far as they can move before them or behind or to the right or to the left. And this is like the ranks of the soldiers which go forward as far as they can or in whichever direction they understand will be best in order to more quickly be able to conquer those with whom they are fighting. [f. 4] The pawns do not go more than one square straight ahead of them like the foot soldiers of the army, they cannot move very far because they go on foot and they carry their weapons and the other things that they need on their backs.But there are also some that play the pawns to the second8 square on their first move and this is until they capture because afterwards they cannot do it. And this is like when the common people steal some things, that they carry them on their backs. Chapter on how the chess pieces capture The pieces’ capturing each other is in this manner. The king captures in all the squares that we said he could go, any piece from the other side which is there unless there is some other piece from the other side of that piece which shelters it. And the other major pieces do that same thing like the fils and the knights and the rooks but the fers cannot capture on the first move if it is played going to the second9 square but after it is played it will capture in the second diagonal square according to its movement. The pawns also, even though they can move to the second10 square on the first move if they want, they cannot capture in it but rather they capture diagonally moving forward one square. And this is like the foot soldiers who cannot wound each other being faced off straight in front each other, but he wounds the other who is to his diagonal because he does not guard against him as much."
Confidence 100
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1175
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Acedrex de los Cuatros Tiempos
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Played on an 8x8 checkered board, with large diagonals drawn on the inner square 4x4 spaces. Four players, seated, from top left, anti-clockwise: red, black, white, green.Each player has four pawns, a knight, a bishop, a rook, and a king. The kings begin in the corner space, with the knight to the adjacent square in the row with the king, the rook in the square in the column adjacent to the king, and the fil in the remaining 2x2 square in the corner. the pawns are placed on the orthogonally adjacent squares to this formation. Pieces move as follows: King: One square in any direction. Knight: As a knight in Chess. Rook: Orthogonally any number of spaces. Fil: moves diagonally two spaces, jumping over any piece in the intervening square. Pawns: move forward along the direction of their nearest edge, but capture diagonally forward. Upon reaching the opposite edge of the board, pawns are immediately promoted to Fers, which moves diagonally one space in any direction. Pieces are taken by moving onto a space occupied by an enemy piece. Kings cannot be in check, if a king is checkmated that player loses. Each player makes an opening bet. Any time a player loses a piece or their king is placed in check, they must pay into the pot. When a player's king is checkmated, they must pay into the pot for their remaining pieces. Each player may capture only the pieces of the player to their right. As players are eliminated, the targeted player is change accordingly.
Content "Here begins another chess that was made after the four seasons of the year, which the ancient wise men divined...How the four-seasons board is made and how many colours the pieces are and how they are arranged on it This board should be made in this way: square with eight spaces per side for a total of sixty-four. It is to have four lines in the shape of an “x” that goes from the second [inside corner] square [b2, b7, g2, or g7] and goes to the second [inside corner] square diagonally across. The other line does the same. The one that goes through white squares is to be black and the one that goes through black, white in order to divide between the types of pieces. And these lines that cut through the squares mark the direction in which the pawns are to move first – those to the right move to the right and likewise for those to the left. They capture forward and diagonally as pawns should capture. And these pieces are thirty-two in total and are to be set up in the four corners of the board. Each arrangement is to have eight pieces that are a king, a rook, a knight, a fil, and four pawns. All pieces are to move wherever they want according to their movements in the other chess that is more common. And this is their arrangement: the kings are placed in the corner most squares on the board. The rook is next to the king, the knight is on the other, and the fil in front of him. Two pawns face one side of the board and the other two face the other. In this chess there is no fers until one of the pawns is promoted. And there are four kings and four men each with his pieces of his colour are to play on it. And the colours are these four that we have said correspond to the seasons. Spring’s pieces are green; summer’s are red; autumn’s black, and winter’s white. On how they are to begin to play with these pieces. The player with the green pieces is to play first and he should move towards his right, towards the other player who has the red pieces. This is like spring moving towards summer. He who has the red pieces should also play towards the other player who has the white pieces at the same time defending himself from green. The one with the black pieces is to play also towards his right, against the player who has the white (The ms. says black in error. Black, whose move is being described, cannot play towards himself. However, it is interesting to note that the two words used for black are different. In the first chapter, the “Libro del acedrex”, the word used for black is always prieto whether describing the black pieces or the black squares on the board. In this fifth chapter of four-player games the word used to refer to the black chess pieces is always negro while the black squares are described with prieto. In four-player tables the word used for black’s pieces is once again prieto. In the seventh and final chapter on astrological games, the word used for Saturn’s black piece is negro in both the chess and the tables.) guarding always from attack from the player with the red pieces. He who has the white pieces should do the same, guarding against attack from black. After [the first move] each player may move according to his will. And thus in playing these four players take from one another like the seasons of the year which also take from one another. And each of these four players should make an opening wager. Thereafter for each piece that a player loses he should pay an amount as well as for each check given to a king. And when a player is checkmated he pays the victor an amount for as many pieces as he has on the board and then removes his pieces. Of the three players that remain thereafter, the first to be defeated leaves on the board as much as he has won and an amount for each of his pieces that remain when he is checkmated. Of the two remaining players, the one who wins takes all the money on the board plus the loser gives him an amount for each of his remaining pieces. And this is what the board and pieces look like as well as their arrangement, painted here." Golladay n.d.: f. 87-89
Confidence 100
Social status Elite, Nobility
Spaces Inside
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1219
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Grande Acedrex
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 12x12 checkered board. Each player begins with 24 pieces with special moves: King (x1): Moves one space orthogonally or diagonally or may jump over one space forward orthogonally or diagonally on its first move; Aanca (x2): Moves diagonally one and one space orthogonally in the same direction, and may continue moving in that same direction any distance; Crocodile (x2): moves diagonally any distance; Giraffe (x2): moves two spaces diagonally and then one orthogonally in the same direction, jumping over any intervening pieces; Rhinoceros (x2): moves diagonally one space and then one orthogonally in the same directions, jumping over any intervening pieces, and then may continue along the diagonal in the same direction; Lion (x2); jumps orthogonally three spaces away. Rook (x2): moves any distance orthogonally; Pawns (12): move forward orthogonally one pace or diagonally one space to capture. When they reach the opposite edge of the board, they are promoted to the piece which began in that space. If this is the King's space, it is promoted to Aanca. The opening position is for white: Rook, Lion, Rhinoceros, Giraffe, Crocodile, Aanca, King, Crocodile, Giraffe, Rhinoceros, Lion, Rook. This is mirrored for black so that the kings face each other. The pawns begin on the fourth row. Pieces are captured when a piece lands on a space occupied by the opposing player. The goal is to checkmnate the King. When the King can be captured on the opponent's next turn, it is in check. The player must remove the King from check on their next turn. If the King cannot move out of check, it is checkmated and the opponent wins.
Content "Here begins the game of great chess that was made in India...just as the common chessboard is 8x8 squares, this one is 12x12. As the other chess has 16 pieces of each colour for 32 total, this one has 24 for each side for a total of 48. Because there is a king who is head and lord of his whole army, he leaps like the fers to any square two steps forward on its file or the diagonals on which it stands, even if the intermediate squares are occupied, or moves to any adjoining square on the file, rank, or diagonal(s) on which he stands. He captures, is shielded and is safe from check unless there is another piece in between. Next to him is a bird greater than all other birds...it is called aanca...like the fers it makes one step of one single square to any adjoining square on the file or rank of that square, maintaining its movement in the same direction away from its starting square...to the right of the king is the crocodile...It moves to any square on the diagonal(s) on which it stands...The giraffe...leaps to any vacant square three steps on the diagonals on which it stands so that when it begins on a black square it moves to a white one...The rhinoceros...move consists of two steps. First, like leaps like a knight. It may remain on that square if it wishes or may also continue to any square on the diagonal(s) of that square, maintaining its movement in a forward direction from that square. The lion...leaps to any square three steps away on its file or on its rank. The rook is like the ranks of soldiers and it plays like the rook in the other chess. The pawns...play as we described before. When a pawn is promoted in this chess it then moves like the piece in whose square it was promoted. If it is promoted in the king's square, it becomes another aanca. Pawns are set up on the fourth rank...Because this great chess is very slow and long to play, we, King Alfonso, ordered dice to be made to speed its play and which show their hierarchy by the pips on the dice. on the first side there are eight pips, on the next seven, and so on down to one. And because the king is more important his is the 8, the aanca the 7, the rhinoceros the 6, the rook is 5, the lion is 4, the crocodile is 3, the giraffe is 2, the pawn is 1..." Libro de los Juegos 81-83, translation from Golladay n.d.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Royalty, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1287
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Los Escaques
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Seven players. Seven concentric circles, divided into twelve equal sections, labeled after the twelve zodiac signs. The inner circle has one space per section, the next circle out has two per section, and so on, with the outer circle having seven spaces per section. Each player controls one piece, which travels in its circle only. Each piece begins in a different section, on the first space in that section: Saturn, beginning in Aquarius; Jupiter, beginning in Sagittarius; Mars, beginning in Scorpio; Sun, beginning in Leo; Venus, beginning in Taurus; Mercury, beginning in Virgo, and the Moon, beginning in Cancer. Each player rolls a seven-sided die, to determine which piece they play as, seven being Saturn and one being the Moon, and the others in order as already given. Movement is determined by the roll of this die, and proceeds in a clockwise direction. When a piece enters a new section, the player gains or loses points. Points are allocated based on how many sections away (either forward or behind) from the new section the other pieces are located. If a piece is two sections away, the player gains 24 points; if four sections away, 36; if three sections away, the player loses 36, if six sections away, loses 72; if the same section; 144.
Content Libro de los Juegos 95-96. Discussion of the rules of Los Escaques.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Non-Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1463
Type Rules text
Game Doblet
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Twelve pieces per player. Pieces begin on one half of a player's side of the board (the half to the left of one player, and to the right of the other player), two per space, stacked on top of one another. Three dice. To begin, a player must first unstack their pieces, by rolling the number of the space on which the stack is located, and thus removing the stack, but keeping the piece on the same space. ONce complete, pieces move in a track the long way around the board toward the portion where the opponent begins. No more than two pieces can occupy a space at a time. When a piece lands on a space occupied by a single piece of the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board. Players attempt to bear off their pieces by rolling the exact number of spaces left on the board, plus one. When unstacking the pieces in the beginning or when bearing off at the end, if the player cannot play their roll but the opponent is able, the opponent may use the roll. The first player to bear off all of their pieces wins.
Content "This game they call doblet. And there is another game of tables that they call doblet which is played in this way. Each one of the players should have twelve pieces and put them doubled up, one on top of another, each one in his table of the board that is to be the one across from the other on the same side of the bar. The one who wins the battle will roll first.And they should unstack those twelve pieces that are on top of the others by the numbers of the pips of the dice. And also they should bear off and the one who bears off first will win the game. And if by chance either one of the players should make a roll that he does not have the pieces to play, either to unstack them or bear them off, the other player should do it. And in this way it happens many times that one player will win by the numbers that the other will roll. And this is the explanation of this game and this is the diagram of its arrangement." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos f.74, with picture showing two men playing, having just removed one of the pieces from its stack with three dice on the board.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1464
Type Rules text
Game Los Doze Canes
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Twelve pieces per player. Two dice. Each player enters their pieces into their home section of the board (to the left of one player, to the right of the other player, and move pieces along a horseshoe-shaped track around the board toward the other player's home space. At the beginning of play, the first player will choose one quadrant of the board, and the goal of the game will be for one player to move two of their pieces onto all six places in that quadrant. When a piece lands on a space occupied by a single piece of the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board, and must be reentered.
Content "This game they call the doze canes or doze hermanos (twelve dogs or twelve brothers). The second game is that the pieces are doubled up on the points and they call it twelve brothers or twelve dogs. And this is because it is played with twelve pieces so that they may be arranged doubled up two by two on the six-points in one of the tables of the board, chosen by the one who is to play first. And the one who can place his pairs the fastest, of the two players, will win because the other will not be able to capture one of his pieces once the point is doubled up. But each one of those that would play should hold their pieces in their hand or on the board apart from the points on which they are to play and they should not place them until the roll of the dice comes for them to be placed. And this is the play of this game." Golladay translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 73-74. Illustration depicts two children playing the game, and two dice on the table.
Confidence 100
Ages Child
Social status Elite, Nobility
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1465
Type Rules text
Game Quinze Tablas
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Pieces begin on one half of a player's side of the board (the half to the left of one player, and to the right of the other player), two per space, then two on the next space and one on the space following that one. Three six-sided dice. Pieces move in a track the long way around the board toward the portion where the opponent begins. No more than two pieces can occupy a space at a time. When a piece lands on a space occupied by a single piece of the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board. Players attempt to bear off their pieces by rolling the exact number of spaces left on the board, plus one. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "This is the first game that they call the quinze tablas (fifteen pieces). The first game of tables is this one that they call fifteen pieces or six and however many they can place there from fifteen to one." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 73-74. Accompanied by an illustration of two men playing with the pieces in the starting position and three dice on the table.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Non-Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1466
Type Rules text
Game Fallas
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Play begins with thirteen pieces on the seventh point of the track, and two pieces on the twelfth point. Three six-sided dice. Play moves around the board through starting from the quadrant where the pieces begin, through the one where the opponent's pieces begin, and then through the remaining quadrant on the opponent's side of the board, where the pieces a borne off the board. When a piece lands on a spot occupied by a single piece of the opponent, the opponent's piece is sent back to its starting quadrant. If a player's piece is sent back to start, but all of the spaces in their starting quadrant are occupied by the opponent's pieces, the player loses automatically. Also, any roll that allows the player to only move to spaces occupied by the opponent results in an automatic loss for the player. Otherwise, the first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "This is the game they call fallas (drop dead). There is another game of tables that they call fallas and it is set up in this way: that thirteen of the fifteen pieces are placed on the six-point which is inside one of the quarters on the board. And the [other] two are placed on the first point that is against the outside edge of the table that is across from the other one on the same side of the bar. And he who has that table, sets up in this same way as the one in the other table as we described. And when they are thus arranged each one of the two players should try to bring his pieces around through those two tables to his own table as fast as he can, because there he is to arrange them so that he can bear them off safely and in bearing off guard them so that the other does not hit them.Because if not, he would have to return them to the table where they first began. And if he should find that the other [player] has placed his pieces there where he must enter, he would die because he could not enter and he therefore would lose the game. Also, he who should roll in such a way that he would not have anywhere to go except for the point that the other had occupied, he will lose the game because he dies. So for this reason, they call this game fallas. But you can either lose or win and in another way. If by chance each one of the players should conduct his pieces safely to his inner table so that neither hits the other, the one who bears them off more quickly will win the game. And this is the explanation of this game." Golladay translation of Libro de los Juegos 74-75 by Alfonso X. Accompanied by an illustration of two men playing, showing the starting position and three dice on the table.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1467
Type Rules text
Game Seys Dos y As
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. Both players begin in the same quadrant of the board. One player's pieces are arranged as follows: Eight on the first point of the quadrant to their left, four on the fifth, and three on the sixth. The other player places five on the second, third, and fourth space of the same quadrant. The track proceeds in a clockwise direction around the board. When a player's piece lands on a space occupied by a single piece of the opponent, it is sent back to the beginning of the quadrant to the right of the starting quadrant. Pieces bear off from the quadrant diagonal from the starting quadrant. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "This is the game that they call seys dos & as This is another game that they call seys dos & as. And both players place their pieces in the same table of the board and he that wins the battle plays first and should put his fifteen pieces in this way on the six-point and on the inside of the board in the same table eight pieces and on the two-point in that same table four pieces and on the one-point three. And the other player should put his in that same table on the five-, four- and three-points with five pieces on each one. And because the one who wins the battle has the six-, two- and one-points they call this game thus. And he should play first and take as many points as he can in the other table that is contiguous along the track. And the other one that plays after him also will take as many points as he can in that same table. And if in taking those points one should hit one or more of the other’s pieces, he must return them not to the table which is on the same side of the bar nor to the point which is next to it but to the one which is diagonally opposite. And once he places them in this table he must bring them around through all the tables to that table from where they must be borne off. And he who should bear them off faster will win the game. And this is the explanation of the game which we described above." Golladay translation of Alfonso X's Libro de lof Juegos 75. Accompanied by an illustration with two women (?) playing with the starting position and three dice.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Female
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1468
Type Rules text
Game Emperador
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice.One player begins with all of their pieces on the space furthest to the left on their side, the other with their pieces on the point directly opposite it. Pieces move in opposite directions around the board, toward the point where the opponent's pieces begin, and bearing off the board from there. When a piece lands on the same space as an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to where it began. The first person to bear off all their pieces wins. If players move their pieces such that they fill up all the points in a quadrant, and the other fills up all of the points in an adjacent quadrant such that neither player can move, the game is a draw. It is a prime win when one player has twelve pieces arranged on consecutive points so that the other player cannot pass them. When the player sends four pieces back to the beginning while preserving this state, it is a prime win.
Content "This is the game that they call in Spain emperador (emperor), because he made it. There is another game of tables that they call in Spain emperor because he made it and it is set up and played in this way. The one player should place his fifteen pieces on the one-point in one table. And the other [places] his fifteen pieces in the other [one-] point that is in the table next to it on the same side of the bar. And he that should win the battle is to play first and bring his pieces by the rolls of the dice around through the tables of the board until he brings them into the table where the other had his [pieces]. And the other player should do this same thing towards him in the opposite direction. And if in passing the ones should hit the others, they must return to the table where they first were placed. And from there they must be taken again as before until they come to the table where they should be set up. And in passing by each other and being hit and returning again as above in order to play he that bring them around to the table where he should and bears them off safely, he wins the game. But there are two things that good players do.31 One is a tie and the other is a prime. And the tie is made in order to defend the player whose game [position] is worse so that he does not lose. And the prime in order to win by even more the player whose game is better. And the tie is like this, that each one has as many pieces that he cannot enter into the other’s table by the no matter what he rolls, all the points being held by his pieces or his opponent’s. And they should stop while even one piece remains on the points of the [f. 76] table or is to enter that they not put it on top of their other one even though it be alone nor on top of the others which are paired even though the roll of the dice says that they could do it if it were another game and in this way because neither one nor the other can enter, they call this game a tie; because the damage is equal on both sides. What is the prime of this game A prime in when one player has an advantage over the other and has twelve pieces set up so that the other even if can enter he cannot escape and of the other pieces that he has he must bring them down or make one [able] to be hit there. And when he hits four or more pieces the game is “primed” because he can bare his pieces off safely or hit him more if he wishes. And he wins the game in this case...And in this game no two pieces can occupy the same point until after they have passed the middle of the board as in the game of the emperor." Golladay translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 75-76; 79. Accompanied by an illustration of two kings playing, with the starting position and three dice.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Royalty
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1469
Type Rules text
Game Medio Emperador
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Two or three six-sided dice. One player begins with all of their pieces on the space furthest to the left on their side, the other with their pieces on the point directly opposite it. Pieces move in opposite directions around the board, only on the half of the board where the pieces begin, toward the point where the opponent's pieces begin, and bearing off the board from there. When a piece lands on the same space as an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is sent back to where it began. The first person to bear off all their pieces wins. If players move their pieces such that they fill up all the points in a quadrant, and the other fills up all of the points in an adjacent quadrant such that neither player can move, the game is a draw.
Content "This game they call medio emperador (half emperor) There is another game that they call medio emperador and it has this name because just as the other game that we described above is played on the four tables of the board, so this one is played on two tables. And it is played with two or three dice but there is no prime like the other one but there can be a tie.And because the game emperador is played on the whole board and this one only on half of it and with two dice, therefore they call it medio emperador. And this is the explanation of this game." Golladay translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 75-76, accompanied by an illustration of two men playing with the opening position and two dice on the board.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1470
Type Rules text
Game Cab e Quinal
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. One player places all of their pieces on the sixth point of one of the quadrants of the board, and the other player places all of their pieces on the fifth point of the same quadrant. Three six-sided dice. Players move the pieces along the same track around the board, which ends on the quadrant on the other side of the board from the starting quadrant. When a piece is moved to a space occupied by a piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is sent back to the starting point. The first player to bear off all of their pieces from the board wins.
Content "This game they call cab e quinal (alongside fives) There is another game of tables that they call cab e quinal and it has this name because all thirty pieces are put in one table of the four tables of the board. The fifteen that are of one colour on the six-point and the other fifteen on the five-point that is beside it. And the player on five is to roll first because if the player on six which are one point ahead of him played first, they would have two advantages, the first one point which they are ahead and the other rolling first. And they play in this way, they should bring themselves around through the other points of the tables of the board to the other table which is across from and on the same side of the bar as the one where they were set up and from there they should be borne off. And if any of them are should be hit in bringing them around they should return and enter with them on the points of the table where they began, if they should find (those points) empty or with blots or on top of their own, as many as can be. And in this way the game of cab & quinal with three dice differs from the game of emperador." Gollday's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 77, accompanied by an illustration of two men playing with the starting position and three dice on the board.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1471
Type Ethnography
Game Cab e Quinal
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player.Two dice are throw on each turn. Players choose a value from one to six, which will be considered the value of a third die. One player places fourteen pieces on the sixth point of one quadrant, and one on the point directly opposite it on the other side of the board. The other player places fourteen pieces on the fifth point of the same quadrant as the fourteen of the other player, as well as one on the fourth point in that same quadrant.Players move the pieces along the same track around the board, which ends on the quadrant on the other side of the board from the starting quadrant. When a piece is moved to a space occupied by a piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is sent back to the starting point. The first player to bear off all of their pieces from the board wins.
Content "However if some wish to play it with two dice and count the other die as of whatever number they might agree upon and that they put as if the third die said six, it is set up in this way: they are to put the fourteen pieces on the six-point and the other one of that same colour ahead on the other six-point [of that table that is across from and on the same side of the bar as it]. And the other fifteen pieces they are to put fourteen of them on the five-point and the other one on the four-point that is next to it. And the movement and the capturing of these pieces is to bring themselves around just like the other game that we described above that is similar to this, that is played with three dice." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 77, accompanied by an illustration with two men playing with the starting position and two dice on the board.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1472
Type Rules text
Game Todas Tablas
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. The points form a continuous track in a horseshoe shape; each player progresses in opposite directions (one from their bottom right to the top right, the other from their bottom left to their top left). Fifteen pieces per player. The starting position is as such, number the points from the origin of each player's track: point six: five pieces; point 8: three pieces; point 13: five pieces; point 24: two pieces. Two dice. When a player's piece lands on a spot occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is sent back to the quadrant in which that player started with two pieces. Players bear off their pieces at the end of their track. The first player to bear off all their pieces wins.
Content "This game they call todas tablas (all tables) There is another game that they call todas tablas because it is set up spread out through all the four tables of the board.32 And in the two tables that are across from one another on the same side of the bar, one the first they place five pieces of one colour on the six-point. And of that same [colour] they place two on the one-point of the other table that is across from it on the same side of the bar, and in that same table [the other colour] also puts his pieces opposite it [the other colour] as we have said for this. And in the other two tables that are across the bar from these, on the one-points they put five pieces of the colour that placed the other five on the sixth point. And on the five-points they put three pieces in each of these colours. And it is played like this: the one to roll first will play whichever side he wishes bringing the two pieces from the one-point towards the six-point where he has five pieces. But if some pieces are taken, they are to be returned to the table where the two pieces are on the one-point. And from there they are to bring them to the table where the five pieces are on the six-point and from there to bear them off. And this game is played with two dice." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 77-78. Accompanied by an illustration with two men playing, but the starting position is incorrect; the pieces are placed correctly in number, but the centrally located pieces on the board should be switched.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1473
Type Rules text
Game Pareia de Entrada
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. Two or three dice. Both players enter their pieces into the same quadrant of the board, and move pieces along a horseshoe-shaped track around the board toward the quadrant on the opposite side of the board. When a piece lands on a space occupied by a single piece of the opponent, the opponent's piece is returned to the starting quadrant. When all of the dice present the same number, the player receives another turn. The player to bear off all of their pieces first wins.
Content "This game they call the pareia de entrada (paired entry) There is another game that they call pareia de entrada that is played with three or two dice in this way. The players who play this game should have their pieces outside of the points and place them in one of the four tables of the board upon which they agree as in doce canes. And he who first places them there should bring them through the tables of the board to the other table that is across from it on the same side of the bar and there he is to place them if he can and bear them off. And if each player in bringing his tables to the table where they are borne off, they hit one of them, it should return to that table where they were first placed. And he must strive to bring it as fast as he can to that table where they are to be borne off. And he that should bear them off the fastest will win the game. And so much of an advantage has either one of the players who rolls the same number on the three or two dice, because he is to move the entire roll as soon as he rolls the doubles or triples. And in addition it is to be his turn to roll again. And because in the beginning of this game they enter their pieces as in doce canes and after when they roll a double they are to complete it all, therefore they call this game pareia de entrada." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 76-77, accompanied by two men playing the game with three dice on the board.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1474
Type Rules text
Game Laquet
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 2x12 board, divided in half. Spaces on each side take the form of semi-circular sockets, into which the pieces fit. Fifteen pieces per player. One player places fourteen of their pieces on the first point of the table to their right closest to them, with the other piece on the point opposite it on the other side of the board. The Other player places three pieces on each of the four spots following the spot with the other player's fourteen, two on the spot following this, and one on the opposite end of the row of spots where the opponent's single piece is located. Two six-sided dice. Players move along the spaces of the board toward the spot where the first player's single piece is located, and from there they bear off. Pieces cannot be hit as in similar games. If a player cannot play a throw, the opponent may play it. The first player to bear off all of their pieces wins.
Content "This game they call laquet (the quest).33 There is another game of tables that they call laquet and it is played with two dice and set up in this way, fourteen pieces of one colour are placed in one table of the board on the one-point and the fifteenth is placed on the one-point of34 the other table which is across from it on the same side of the bar. And the other fifteen pieces are placed in this way, fourteen in the same table where the other fourteen are on the six-point, two on the five-, four-, three- and two-points each one of these points three pieces. And the fifteenth in the third table on the one-point and there they are arranged. And in this game the pieces do not hit one another. And the roll that one player cannot use; the other player is to use it. And he who first should bear off from that table where they should be arranged wins the game. And this game is now newly found and it does not agree with [the game of] its [same] name according to the other ancients. Note: ff. 79 – 79v are missing in the facsimile. Their illustrations will be added if they appear online." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 78, accompanied by an illustration with two women playing the game with the starting position and two dice.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Female
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1475
Type Rules text
Game Nine Men's Morris
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Played on a board of three concentric squares, with a line bisecting the perimeters of each square on each side, but not extending inside the perimeter of the central square. Play occurs on the intersections of the lines and the corners of the squares. Each player has nine pieces. Play begins with each player placing pieces on empty points The game is won when the opponent is reduced to two pieces.
Content "On how nine men’s morris is played without dice. This nine men’s morris is played in another way, without dice but brains. The players take all their pieces in their hands and they roll to see who plays first. And the first to play has the advantage because in placing the pieces he always takes the first space he likes, the quicker to make a mill as we said and take one piece from his opponent each time so as to trap him so that none of his pieces have anywhere to move. And if perchance the first player should err in placing his pieces well, he is defeated because the other player retains a piece and puts it wherever it will bother the first. And make his pieces equal in number as we said and thereby wins the game. And this game is called nine men’s morris because the pieces that it is played with are nine of each colour. This is the diagram of the millboard, pieces, and this is its explanation." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 92, accompanied by an illustration with two men playing the game.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1476
Type Rules text
Game Alquerque de Tres
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 3x3 intersecting lines, with diagonal lines of the board. Three pieces per player. players alternate turns placing a piece on one of the empty spots. The player who places their pieces in a line wins. If no player can win, the game is a draw.
Content "This is another alquerque of three (three men’s morris). There is another mill game and it is called three men’s morris. It is called that because it is played with six pieces, three of one colour and three of another. In this one dice do not have a part. And this game is this: And the first one to put his pieces in a row wins. And since the one who plays first should place his piece in the centre of the millboard, the second player will place his wherever he likes. The first player should place his second piece in such a manner that the other player is forced to place his piece in a row with his opponents’ [to block]. Since the first to play is forced to play the same on the first two turns and all his pieces are now placed. And if in this way he placed them so that wherever the other player puts his remaining piece he loses. And if the first player does not play like that the other will be able to tie or to win.And because of the tied game and the board markings where the pieces are placed it has part of tables and part of chess because the pieces with which it is played resemble its pawns. And this is the figure of the board and of the pieces." Gollday's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 93, accompanied by an illustration of two children playing the game.
Confidence 100
Ages Child
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1477
Type Rules text
Game Tablas Astronomias
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Seven players. Heptagonal board, with seven semi-circular socket as spaces on each side. Seven pieces per player, which begin on the leftmost spot on their side. Players are as follows: Saturn = black; Jupiter = green; Mars = red; the sun = yellow; Venus = purple; Mercury = multi-colored; the moon is white. Pieces move in an anti-clockwise direction around the board. Three seven-sided die. When a piece lands on a space with a single piece belonging to an opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board. Play continues until one player remains, who becomes the winner.
Content "This is the board for tables, after the (same) nature of the checkers, which is played by astrology. The board for these tables is to have seven sides, like the board for the checkers, both inside and out. And on the inner division it is to have seven spaces. And this should be on each one of the other divisions. And in between the one division and the other there is to be a divider that marks both sides. And from that divider there is to be a long line that goes to the middle of the board. And each ones of the pieces of these sides, are to be of the colour of the planets. And the pieces are to be as many as the spaces. And over each side there is to be drawn the likeness of the planet to which it belongs, that side painted and coloured of that colour which suits. Saturn in black, Jupiter in green, Mars in red, the Sun in yellow, Venus in purple, Mercury in many different colours, the Moon white. And because the pieces belong to that planet, they are to be of its colour. And the arrangement is to be in this manner: that all seven pieces be placed in the first and leftmost of the seven spaces and they are always to move to the right, according to the numbers that the seven-sided die show, as we said above. And neither is counted the space they occupy nor the space to their right which is the beginning space for the other seven pieces, unless there remains one lone piece which can be captured, leaving the space empty or occupying it according to astrology53. And play is in this way: that each one of the players has seven amounts of whatever wager they agree upon of maravedí or whatever coin they like. And if one captures the piece of another, he is not to return it and he should take one amount from him for it and for as many as he captures. And so on around until the whole game belongs to one of those that play it, because that one who remains is the winner. And this is the diagram of the board and of the pieces." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 97, accompanied by an illustration with seven men player in the starting position and with three die.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1527
Type Rules text
Game El Mundo
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Four players. Circular board, with 24 semi-circular sockets along the circumference, divided into four sections of six. Twelve pieces per player; the player's colors are green ,red, black, and white, in that order anti-clockwise around the board. Three seven-sided dice. Play proceeds in an anti-clockwise fashion around the board, as is the order of player turns. Players enter their pieces on the board according to the throws of the dice. The player must enter all of their pieces, and then attempt to move all of their pieces in the section of the board belonging to the player sitting opposite them. Once the player achieves this, they begin bearing their pieces off the board. When a piece lands on a spot occupied by a single piece belonging to the opponent, the opponent's piece is returned to the place where it started. When a player bears off all their pieces, they beat the player to their right.
Content "This is the board of tables of the four seasons, called the world, which begins like this: Since we have told about the board of the four seasons, as the ancient wise mean ordered it, now it is fitting that we show the tables board that is played after that some manner. This board is squared and the points are placed in a circle. The circle is divided into four parts; each part has six spaces that are carved out in semi-circles in which the pieces fit. And on this board four men are to play, each with his pieces of his colour according to the colours of the chess that we have named. And each one of these players is to have twelve pieces of the colours of the aforementioned chessmen which are these: green, red, white, and black – for a total of forty-eight. And they are played with the [7-sided] dice of this same chess and the players roll to see who plays first. And then the player to his right and so on around. And the first to begin is to place his pieces according to the rolls of the dice as in doze canes and all the others do likewise. And once they all have placed all their pieces each must bring his pieces to where the third player first entered which is across from his own, by playing around to his right according to the rolls of the dice. And when one makes a roll that he cannot use, let the player who to his right use it. And if he cannot, the third. And if he cannot, the fourth. And also in this game if a roll is made that allows the capture of an unguarded piece, it is to be captured. The one whose piece was captured must return it to where it was first placed. And no pieces are to be borne off until each player has his pieces in the opposite quarter as is stated above. And the player who first should bear off all his pieces will beat the player to his right and so on around. And this is the explanation of this game. And this is the diagram of the board and of the pieces and of their colours and of the arrangement." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos 89-90.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Royalty
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1678
Type Rules text
Game Alquerque de Nueve
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Three concentric circles, with lines connecting the midpoints of the sides. Nine pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. Players place pieces on the board according to the throws of the dice. When a player places three pieces in a row, they capture one of the other pleyer's pieces.
Content "This is nine men’s morris that is played with dice and it is played like this: There is another mill game that is played with eighteen pieces – nine of one colour and nine of another. And it is played both with and without dice like chess. And it has part of tables in it because of the lines where the pieces are placed are similar to those because they have six and five and four and three and two and one like the millboard but there are played on the markings. And in the pieces. And in the play. On the markings they are played by the marks where the tables pieces are played which are made around the board which are called points or in those which are scalloped. The millboard is all marks inside as well as around. And the pieces are different because in tables the pieces are round and flat like wheels or square. The others are round and tall like chess pawns and these are used in mill. The placement is different for this reason.The first to play rolls the dice first, if they should say 6+5+4, 3+3+6, 5+2+2, or 1+1+4 because he wants to roll these rolls, he will place three pieces in a row and he will remove each time one of the pieces of the other player. And if he rolls so that he makes two mills he will remove two pieces. This mill is making a row of three as we said and as many times as one is made that many pieces are removed. And this same thing [f. 92v] the other player does each time he can make a mill. And in this way mill is different from tables. This is the diagram of the board and of the pieces." f. 92 from Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos, translation be S. Golladay.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1688
Type Rules text
Game Forçado
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 8x8 board. The pieces move as follows, with the number per player: 1 x King: moves one space orthogonally or diagonally. 1 x Queen : One square diagonally. 2 x Rook: Any number of spaces orthogonally. 2 x Fil: Two squares diagonally, jumping over the first. Cannot capture another Pil. 2 x Knight: Moves orthogonally one space and then diagonally another space, jumping over any intervening pieces; 8 x Pawns: Moves one space forward orthogonally; one space forward diagonally to capture. No en passant. Pawns are promoted to Queen when reaching the eighth rank. No castling. When a piece can be captured, it must be. The most powerful piece must be captured, and the least powerful piece must make the capture if several are able to capture the same piece. Stalemate results in win for player causing it. The player who checkmates the king wins.
Content "And we wish next to tell of the game which they call forçado. And this is because even though it may be played according to each player’s will, in it there is also to be an element of force because a man goes against his will losing his best piece to his opponent’s worst, willing or not by putting it on a square where the other is forced to capture it, according to the movement of the piece against which it is put. And this game is arranged just the same as the first and the pieces move and capture each other in that same way except that there is in addition the forced capture. And therefore those that play it are to be knowledgeable so that they do not put their best pieces in a position where they are to give them up to lesser and more lowly pieces. Because in this lies all the wisdom of this game and its play. And because of this force which we described, they call it the forced game. But because some tell that the damsels first invented it overseas, they call it the juego de las donzellas." Golladay's translation of Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos: 5.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Female
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1858
Type Rules text
Game Buffa de Baldrac
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules Played on a Tables board with sockets for the pieces instead of points. Fifteen pieces per player. Three six-sided dice. Players move according to the number on each die by moving one piece the value on one die, another piece the value on another die, and another piece the value on the final die, by moving one piece the value of two of the die subsequently, and a second piece the value of the remaining die, or one piece the value of each die subsequently. Pieces begin off the board. Players must enter all of their pieces onto one half of the board (on player entering in the quadrant to their right and the other player's entering into the quadrant on their left), according to the throws of the dice. Once a player has entered all of their pieces, they move through all of the quadrants of the board toward the quadrant where the opponent entered their pieces. A piece landing on a space with a single opponent's piece sends the opponent's piece back to start, and it must be reentered. once players enter all of their pieces into the final quadrant, they may bear off their pieces. They can do so by rolling a 6 to move from the sixth point, and so on down to 1. Throughout the game, a player must use the maximum number of moves presented by the dice. The first player to remove all of their pieces wins.
Content Golladay's translation from the Libro de los Juegos f.79: "This game they call the buffa de baldrac (common puff) There is another game that they call the buffa de baldrac and it is played with three dice. And the roll battle and he who wins the battle plays first. And both players are first to set up the pieces in the pair of tables on one half of the board, according to the rolls of the dice. And afterwards each one has places his pieces in the tables as we said, they bring them around according to the rolls of the dice, the one towards the other through all the tables of the board. And if they meet and they are found unprotected they can hit each other if the wish. And the piece that is hit is to return to the table where it was first placed. And in this way, the players bring their pieces towards each other until they pass each other to the other table of the board across from where they were first placed. And if they throw rolls on the dice that they cannot entirely taken, they take the largest number they can. And this game is played with three dice and both players are to hold their pieces in their hands and according to the rolls of the dice, thus place the pieces." Golladay n.d. f. 79
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Royalty
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

Id DLP.Evidence.1948
Type Contemporary rule description
Game Los Romanos Rencontrat
Date 1283-01-01 - 1283-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half. Three dice. Pieces begin on the opponent's side of the board, on the rightmost point with respect to the player. Play proceeds from right to left on the opponent's side of the board, and then left to right on the player's side of the board. When a piece hits an opponent's piece, it is sent back to its starting point. Pieces cannot be doubled on the player's first half of the board.
Content Accoutn from Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos: "This game the Romans call reencontrat (rencontre) This is another game that the Romans call reencontrat and it is played with three dice. And they first roll battle and he who wins the battle plays first. And the black pieces in this game are places in the table of the board to the right hand of he who is to play with them on the other side of the board. And the whites are set also on the opposite side of the board on the right-hand side of he who is to play with them. And the players are each to bring their pieces around through the tables of the board to where they put them in the table of the opposite side of the board across from where they were first placed. And if they meet and hit each other they are to return to the piece that is hit to the table where it was first placed. And in this game no two pieces can occupy the same point until after they have passed the middle of the board as in the game of the emperor. And the strength of this game is in knowing how to double up the pieces well after the piece is past the middle of the board, according to the rolls of the dice. And this is the explanation of this game and this is the diagram of its arrangement." Libro de los Juegos 79v.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Royalty
Genders Male
Source Golladay, S. M. n.d. Alfonso X’s Book of Games. Translated by Sonja Musser Golladay.

     Contact Us
     ludii.games@gmail.com
     cameron.browne@maastrichtuniversity.nl

lkjh Maastricht University Data Science and Knowledge Engineering (DKE), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council