background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System

   

Home Games Forum Downloads Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map Ludemes About


 
Evidence for 20 Squares

109 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.449
Type Artifact
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Enkomi. Murray et al. 1900: 12, pl. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Murray, A, A. Smith, and H. Walters. 1900. Excavations in Cyprus. London: British Museum.

Id DLP.Evidence.450
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0400-01-01BCE - 0101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.7.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.451
Type Artifact
Location 37° 6'12.09"N, 36°40'39.01"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Sam’al. May 1991: fig. 143.
Confidence 100
Source May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.452
Type Artifact
Location 35°27'26.34"N, 43°15'40.08"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ashur. Harrak 1987: 56.
Confidence 100
Source Harrak, A. 1987. Assyria and Hanigalbat: A Historical Reconstruction of Bilateral Relations from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Twelfth Centuries BC. New York: Hildesheim.

Id DLP.Evidence.453
Type Artifact
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. van Buren 1937: pl. VI.
Confidence 100
Source van Buren, E.D. 1937. A gaming-board from Tall Halaf. Iraq 4(1): 11–15.

Id DLP.Evidence.454
Type Artifact
Location 36°13'21.21"N, 43°24'54.34"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Balawat. de Kainlis 1942: 19.
Confidence 100
Source de Kainlis, A. 1942. 'Un jeu assyrien du musée du Louvre.' Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie oriental 39: 19–34.

Id DLP.Evidence.455
Type Artifact
Location 36°30'34.91"N, 43°13'44.45"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board etched on the base of a statue of a blessing Genius from Khorsabad. Castor, Musee du Louvre website: AO 19863. Falsely identified on the website as Tic-Tac-Toe.
Confidence 100
Source Castor, J.-M. 'Blessing Genius.' Musée du Louvre website https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/blessing-genius .accessed 04/02/2020.

Id DLP.Evidence.456
Type Artifact
Location 36°30'34.91"N, 43°13'44.45"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0800-01-01BCE - 0701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Khorsabad. Finkel 2008.
Confidence 100
Source Finkel, I. 2008. 'Board-games.' In J. Aruz, K. Benzel, and J. Evans (eds.) Beyond Babylon. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Id DLP.Evidence.457
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.11.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.458
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Twenty Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.3.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.459
Type Artifact
Location 31°24'28.24"N, 34°49'48.55"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Tell Beit Mirsim. Albright 1938: pls. 21.b and 37.a.
Confidence 100
Source Albright, W.F. 1938. The excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim. Volume II: The Bronze Age. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 17. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Id DLP.Evidence.460
Type Artifact
Location 31°16'51.65"N, 34°28'54.91"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Beth Peleth. Petrie 1930: pl. 34, 188.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W.M.F. 1930. Beth Pelet I. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.461
Type Artifact
Location 33°11'44.19"N, 44°36'40.71"E
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, doubled so the boards connect on the extensions, markings in squares 4 (x2), 8, 12, 16, 20 on both sides.
Content Double 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Bismaya. Banks 1912: 355.
Confidence 100
Source Banks, E.J. 1912. Bismaya, or the Lost City of Adab. New York and London.

Id DLP.Evidence.462
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Hama. Riis 1948: figs. 218-219.
Confidence 100
Source Riis, P.J. 1948. Hama, fouilles et recherches de la Fondation Carlsberg 1931–1938. Copenhagen: National-museets Skrifter.

Id DLP.Evidence.463
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 0900-01-01BCE - 0801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 236, fig. 310.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.464
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, marking in square 12.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.4.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.465
Type Artifact
Location 36° 4'3.24"N, 36°25'26.35"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Tell es-Saidiyeh. Finkel 2008: 152-153.
Confidence 100
Source Finkel, I. 2008. 'Board-games.' In J. Aruz, K. Benzel, and J. Evans (eds.) Beyond Babylon. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Id DLP.Evidence.466
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Leemans 1846-1850: pl. CXLIV (273a-c).
Confidence 100
Source Leemans, C. 1846–1850. Monuments égyptiens du Musée d’antiquités des Pays-Bas à Leide, Tome II. Leiden: Brill.

Id DLP.Evidence.467
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Needler 1953: 65, 74.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.469
Type Artifact
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the Ashlar Building at Enkomi. Dikaios 1969: pl. 128,65.
Confidence 100
Source Dikaios, P. 1969. Enkomi. Excavations 1948–1958. Vol. 1. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.470
Type Artifact
Location 35° 9'57.85"N, 33°52'13.12"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the Ashlar Building at Enkomi. Dikaios 1969: pl. 128,66.
Confidence 100
Source Dikaios, P. 1969. Enkomi. Excavations 1948–1958. Vol. 1. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.471
Type Artifact
Location 31°44'50.56"N, 34°59'18.36"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation space at Beth Shemesh. Grant 1934: 34, pl. XX.2, fig. 4.
Confidence 100
Source Grant, E. 1934. Rumeileh III. Biblical and Kindred Studies 5: Haverford.

Id DLP.Evidence.472
Type Artifact
Location 31°44'50.56"N, 34°59'18.36"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8 and 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a habitation at Beth Shemesh. Meyer 1982: fig. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1982. Lebermodell oder Spielbrett. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in Kamid el-Loz in den Jahren 1971 bis 1974. Bonn: Rudolf Hagelt Verlag, 53–79.

Id DLP.Evidence.473
Type Artifact
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 47, no. 220.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.474
Type Artifact
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 51, no. 225.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.475
Type Artifact
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2) and 8.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 5, no. 8.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.476
Type Artifact
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Loud 1939: pl. 5, no. 9.
Confidence 100
Source Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.477
Type Artifact
Location 32°34'43.20"N,35°10'5.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Megiddo. Decamps de Mertzenfeld 1954: pl. LIX,425.
Confidence 100
Source Decamps de Mertzenfeld, C. 1954. Inventaire commenté des ivoires phéniciens et apparentés découverts dans le Proche-Orient. Paris: É. de Brocard.

Id DLP.Evidence.478
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'47.10"N, 32°38'40.93"E
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 0901-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, doubled so the boards connect at the extensions, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16, 20.
Content Double 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kurna. Mond 1904: 98.
Confidence 100
Source Mond, R. 1904. Report of the work done in the Gebel ash-sheikh Abd-el-Kurneh at Thebes. Annales du Service des antiquités de l’Égypte 5: 97–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.479
Type Artifact
Location 29°50'59.34"N, 31°13'0.04"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Saqqara. Quibell 1909: 114, pls. LVIII-LIX.
Confidence 100
Source Quibbell, J. 1909. Excavations at Saqqara (1907–1908). Cairo: IFAO.

Id DLP.Evidence.480
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Needler 1953: 65 (no. 7), 74.
Confidence 100
Source Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Id DLP.Evidence.481
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1300-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8 , 12, and 16.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Pierret 1878: 81-82.
Confidence 100
Source Pierret, P. 1878. Recueil d’inscriptions inédites du Musée égyptien du Louvre. Études égyptologues 8. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.482
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in square 4.
Content 20 Squares game board from Deir el-Medineh. Rothöhler 1996: nr H54.
Confidence 100
Source Rothöhler, B. 1996. Ägyptischer Brettspiele außer Senet. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Id DLP.Evidence.483
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Kendall 1991: 149.
Confidence 100
Source Kendall, T, 1991. Le jeu des <>. In R. May (ed.) Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseilles: Musées de Marseilles, 148–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.484
Type Artifact
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset 20 Squares Liver Model
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple deposit at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1982: fig. 5, 1, fig. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1982. Lebermodell oder Spielbrett. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in Kamid el-Loz in den Jahren 1971 bis 1974. Bonn: Rudolf Hagelt Verlag, 53–79.

Id DLP.Evidence.485
Type Artifact
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1983, 101, 126, n. 24.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1983. Spielbretter aus Kami el-Loz. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Frühe Phöniker im Libanon. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Labern, 101–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.486
Type Artifact
Location 33°37'26.23"N, 35°49'16.23"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in an elite tomb at Kamid el-Loz. Meyer 1983: 101, 127, n. 25.
Confidence 100
Source Meyer, J.-W. 1983. Spielbretter aus Kami el-Loz. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Frühe Phöniker im Libanon. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Labern, 101–104.

Id DLP.Evidence.487
Type Artifact
Location 33° 1'2.57"N, 35°34'4.98"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a storehouse at Hazor. Yadin 1960: 6, pl. LXXVIII, CLIX.
Confidence 100
Source Yadin, Y. 1960. Hazor II. Jerusalem: Magres Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.488
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 130, pl. LXXV (b).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.489
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 130-132.
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.490
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, marking in square 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter and Mace 1933: 121-130, pl. XLII (a).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.491
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter 1933: 131, pl. XLII (b).
Confidence 100
Source Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.492
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Wiedemann 1897: 43.
Confidence 100
Source Wiedemann, A. 1897. Das Brettspiel bei den Alten Ägyptern. In Actes du Dixième Congrès Internationale des Orientalistes, 1894. Leiden: Brill, 35–61.

Id DLP.Evidence.493
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, square 16 marked.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Refat 1972: no. 7.
Confidence 100
Source Refat, W. 1972. Le jeu de trente cases dans l’Égypte ancienne. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Université libre, Brussels, Belgium.

Id DLP.Evidence.494
Type Artifact
Location 26°33'45.33"N, 31°44'41.70"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board possibly from Akhmim. Hoerth 1961: 33 no. 34.
Confidence 100
Source Hoerth, A. 1961. Gameboards in the Ancient Near East. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.495
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 4(x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Deir el-Medineh. Schiaparelli 1927: 175-179, figs. 159-160.
Confidence 100
Source Schiaparelli, E. 1927. Relazione sui lavori della missione archeologica Italiana in Egitto II. Turin.

Id DLP.Evidence.496
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'40.96"N, 32°36'5.13"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Deir el-Medineh. Kendall 1991: 148, fig. 141.
Confidence 100
Source Kendall, T, 1991. Le jeu des <>. In R. May (ed.) Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseilles: Musées de Marseilles, 148–152.

Id DLP.Evidence.497
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Drah Abu el-Naga. Mariette 1889: 17, pl. LII (a).
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.498
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Maspero 1883: 299f.
Confidence 100
Source Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg.

Id DLP.Evidence.499
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Prisse d’Avennes 1846: 741.
Confidence 100
Source Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Id DLP.Evidence.500
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board Egypt. Prisse d’Avennes 1847: 9, pl. XLIX (4).
Confidence 100
Source Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Id DLP.Evidence.501
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Hoerth 1961: 24, no. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Hoerth, A. 1961. Gameboards in the Ancient Near East. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Chicago.

Id DLP.Evidence.502
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Falkener 1892: 28-32.
Confidence 100
Source Falkener, E. 1892. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Id DLP.Evidence.503
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Hayes 1959: 198-199.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.504
Type Artifact
Location 29°56'25.60"N, 31° 9'5.13"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Zawiet el-Aryan. Rothöhler 1996: nr H33.
Confidence 100
Source Rothöhler, B. 1996. Ägyptischer Brettspiele außer Senet. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Id DLP.Evidence.505
Type Artifact
Location 22°46'32.56"N, 32°35'49.31"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Kubban. Firth 1927: 49, 83.
Confidence 100
Source Firth, C.M. 1927. The Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1910–1911. Cairo: National Printing Department.

Id DLP.Evidence.506
Type Artifact
Location 31°30'15.88"N, 34°28'39.06"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1101-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Gaza. Petrie 1933: pl. 28, 25.
Confidence 100
Source Petrie, W.M.F. 1933. Ancient Gaza III. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.507
Type Artifact
Location 26°11'0.40"N, 31°55'21.50"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Abydos. Hayes 1959: 198, fig. 113.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.508
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Daressy 1902: 31-32, pl. IX.
Confidence 100
Source Daressy, G. 1902. Fouilles de la Vallée des Rois 1889–1899. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

Id DLP.Evidence.509
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1500-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from a tomb in Egypt. Maspero 1897: 86.
Confidence 100
Source Maspero, G. 1897. Les jeux de dames en Égypte. Bibliotèque Égyptologique 5: 83–96.

Id DLP.Evidence.510
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Hayes 1935: 34, fig 1.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.511
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a tomb at Thebes. Hayes 1935: 34, fig. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.512
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, two marked spaces in the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Thebes, Egypt found in the Tomb of Nefer-khawet and his family, a middle-class family buried in Thebes, Egypt. Hayes 1935: 32. Only the square inlays for the playing pieces survive, with markings in two spaces on the central row.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Id DLP.Evidence.513
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Pieper 1909: 4, fig. 5(b).
Confidence 100
Source Pieper, M. 1909. Das Brettspiel der alten Ägypter. Berlin: Weidmännische Buchhandlung.

Id DLP.Evidence.514
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1201-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 5, 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Gezer. Macalister 1912: pl. CCI.10.
Confidence 100
Source Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Id DLP.Evidence.515
Type Artifact
Location Southern Levant
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content Unprovenienced 20 Squares game board from the southern Levant. Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem 1992: 74.
Confidence 100
Source Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem. 1992. Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, Guide to Collection. Jerusalem: R. Sirkis Publishers Ltd.

Id DLP.Evidence.516
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from an elite tomb at Asasif (Thebes), Egypt. Hayes 1959: 25, fig. 10.
Confidence 100
Source Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Id DLP.Evidence.517
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Drah Abu el-Naga, Egypt found in an elite tomb. Mariette 1889, pp. 16-17, pl. LI.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.518
Type Artifact
Location Ancient Egypt
Ruleset Double 20 Squares
Date 1700-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 4, 8, 12, 16, 20.
Content Double 20 Squares game board from Egypt. Refat 1972.
Confidence 100
Source Refat, W. 1972. Le jeu de trente cases dans l’Égypte ancienne. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Université libre, Brussels, Belgium.

Id DLP.Evidence.519
Type Artifact
Location 31°24'28.24"N, 34°49'48.55"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1800-01-01BCE - 1501-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Beit Mirsim. Erdös 1986: 70, pl. 32.
Confidence 100
Source Erdös, S. 1986. Les tabliers de jeu de l’Orient ancien, Maîtrise d’archéologie orientale. Paris: Sorbonne.

Id DLP.Evidence.520
Type Artifact
Location 31°50'18.71"N, 45°28'50.65"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Abu Hatab. Heinrich 1931: 146, pl. 76.9.
Confidence 100
Source Heinrich, E. 1931. Fara: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen der deutschen Orient-gesellschaft in Fara und Abu Hatab 1902/1903. Berlin.

Id DLP.Evidence.521
Type Artifact
Location 34°15'55.53"N, 42°18'11.08"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell as-Sib. Harrak 1987: 57.
Confidence 100
Source Harrak, A. 1987. Assyria and Hanigalbat: A Historical Reconstruction of Bilateral Relations from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Twelfth Centuries BC. New York: Hildesheim.

Id DLP.Evidence.522
Type Artifact
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board in secondary context from Uruk, Mesopotamia. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 805.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.523
Type Artifact
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1601-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 12 or 16.
Content 20 Squares game board on a brick from Uruk. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 806.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.524
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.1.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.525
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.2.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.526
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.3.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.527
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 13, fig. 7.4.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.528
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules number of spaces, markings in squares
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari (Parrot 1958: 46-47)
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.529
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in squares 8, 14.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 182, fig. 211.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.530
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 182, fig. 211.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.531
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Identical to DLP.Evidence.532. Parrot 1958: 247, fig. 291.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.532
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Identical to DLP.Evidence.531. Parrot 1958: 247, fig. 291.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.533
Type Artifact
Location 34°33'3.17"N, 40°53'19.48"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares graffiti game board found in the palace at Mari. Parrot 1958: 258, fig. 333.
Confidence 100
Source Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Id DLP.Evidence.534
Type Artifact
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1900-01-01BCE - 1801-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from a palace at Uruk. Becker 1993: 65, pl. 51, 804.
Confidence 100
Source Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Id DLP.Evidence.535
Type Artifact
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 130.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.536
Type Artifact
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 131.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.537
Type Artifact
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb.. Madjidzadeh 2003: 136.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.538
Type Artifact
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 133.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.539
Type Artifact
Location 28°40'30.41"N, 57°44'13.74"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Jiroft, Iran, probably from a looted tomb. Madjidzadeh 2003: 135.
Confidence 100
Source Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Id DLP.Evidence.540
Type Artifact
Location 28°19'51.00"N, 56°52'3.00"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1701-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tepe Yahya. Lamberg-Karlovsky 1988: 76, pl. XX.C.
Confidence 100
Source Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 1988. The ‘intercultural style” carved vessels. Iranica Antiqua 23: 45–95.

Id DLP.Evidence.541
Type Artifact
Location 34°53'16.22"N, 33°36'13.83"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1600-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found on the surface at Hala Sultan Tekke. Only the central row is preserved. Swiny 1986: 40, fig. 57:d..
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.542
Type Artifact
Location 32°11'23.02"N, 48°14'55.78"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 1401-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, marking in square 8.
Content 20 Squares game board from Susa. de Mecquenem 1943: 44, fig. 39.
Confidence 100
Source de Mecquenem, R. 1943. Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse, Vol. XIX. Paris.

Id DLP.Evidence.543
Type Artifact
Location 34°41'53.92"N, 32°35'38.07"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 2000-01-01BCE - 0001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board found in the dromos of a tomb at Kouklia Skales, Cyprus. Swiny 1986: 38, fig. 43:c.
Confidence 100
Source Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.544
Type Artifact
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1000-01-01BCE - 0001-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur. May 1991: 150, fig. 142.
Confidence 100
Source May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Id DLP.Evidence.545
Type Artifact
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. Oppenheim 1962: pl. 42.e.
Confidence 100
Source Oppenheim, M. 1962. Tell Halaf IV: Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Id DLP.Evidence.546
Type Artifact
Location 36°49'35.95"N, 40° 2'22.62"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Tell Halaf. Oppenheim 1962: pl. 42.f.
Confidence 100
Source Oppenheim, M. 1962. Tell Halaf IV: Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Id DLP.Evidence.547
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 117, fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.548
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-02BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a temple at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 117, fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.549
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content Twenty Squares game board found in a courtyard at Hama. Fugmann 1958: fig 216.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.550
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.551
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.552
Type Artifact
Location 35° 8'27.20"N, 36°45'18.72"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 1200-01-01BCE - 0332-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board found in a palace at Hama. Fugmann 1958: 238.
Confidence 100
Source Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Id DLP.Evidence.553
Type Artifact
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia, in the University of Pennsylvania Museum. B16562. Woolley 1962: 111).
Confidence 100
Source Woollet, L. 1962. Ur Excavations Vol. IX: The Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods. London: British Museum.

Id DLP.Evidence.554
Type Artifact
Location 30°57'41.76"N, 46° 6'19.02"E
Ruleset Simple 20 Squares
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row doubled and connected at the ends of the central row.
Content 20 Squares game board from Ur, Mesopotamia, now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum. B16498. University of Pennsylvania Online Collection Database.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.842
Type Contemporary rule description
Location 32°32'32.04"N, 44°25'15.37"E
Date 0177-11-03BCE - 0176-11-03BCE
Rules Boards consist of a grid of 3x4 squares and a continuation of the central row in the grid that extends for 8 further squares. The game is played with two astragals as dice: one from a sheep and one from an ox. The sheep astragal provides the base value for the roll, and the ox astragal serves as a bonus. Each player starts play on one of the right corners of the 3x4 grid, proceeding left down that row to the opposite corner, and then right down the central track, which both players use, with the goal of moving off the end of the track. If a player lands on a square occupied by the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and may reenter on a subsequent turn. Rosettes on certain squares in the central track mark spaces where a player is safe from being sent to the beginning. Rosettes in the corners allow a player to roll again when a player lands on them. A player wins when they remove all seven of their pieces from the board by rolling the exact number of spaces left in the track, plus one.
Content Cuneiform tablet BM 33333B; written by Itti-Marduk-balatu with the rules of the Seleucid twenty squares game. Finkel 2007; Wee 2018.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Finkel, I. 2007. On the Rules of the Royal Game of Ur. In I. Finkel (ed), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press,16–32., Wee, J. 2018. 'Five Birds, Twelve Rooms, and the Seleucid Game of Twenty Squares.' In S. Panayotov and L. Vacin (eds), Mesopotamian Medicine and Magic. Leiden: Brill. 833–876.

Id DLP.Evidence.843
Type Contemporary rule description
Location 31°19'26.84"N, 45°38'15.93"E
Date 0626-01-01BCE - 0539-12-31BCE
Rules Boards consist of a grid of 3x4 squares and a continuation of the central row in the grid that extends for 8 further squares. Each player starts play on one of the right corners of the 3x4 grid, proceeding left down that row to the opposite corner, and then right down the central track, which both players use, with the goal of moving off the end of the track. If a player lands on a square occupied by the opponent, the opponent's piece is removed from the board and may reenter on a subsequent turn. Rosettes on certain squares in the central track mark spaces where a player is safe from being sent to the beginning. Rosettes in the corners allow a player to roll again when a player lands on them. A player wins when they remove all seven of their pieces from the board by rolling the exact number of spaces left in the track, plus one. Reference
Content Neo-Babylonian cuneiform tablet (dated based on script) with the rules for 20 squares. likely from Uruk. Bottéro 1956: 16–25, 30–35; Finkel 2007. The tablet was destroyed during World War I but photographs of it survive.
Confidence 100
Source Bottéro, J. 'Deux curiosités assyriologiques (avec une note de Pierre Hamelin).' Syria 33: 17–35., Finkel, I. 2007. On the Rules of the Royal Game of Ur. In I. Finkel (ed), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press,16–32.

Id DLP.Evidence.844
Type Artifact
Location 31°51'31.80"N, 34°55'15.26"E
Date 2300-01-01BCE - 1-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with an 8 square extension of the central row, markings in squres 4(x2), 8, 12, 16.
Content Ivory gaming board showing the game of twenty squares with rosettes in the usual spots. Found in the fill of the palace and dating to the 10th century BCE. Wolff and Ortiz 2018: 958-959.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source Wolff, S. and S. Ortiz. 2018. 'Roll the Dice: Iron Age II Gameboards and PLaying Pieces from Gezer. In I. Shai, J. Chadwick, L. Hitchcock, A. Dagan, C. McKinny, and J. Uziel (eds), Tell it in Gath: Studies in the History and Archaeology of Israel. Ägypten und Altes Testament 90. Mënster: Zaphon, 956–965.

Id DLP.Evidence.1163
Type Artifact
Location 25°43'51.67"N, 32°35'49.20"E
Ruleset Marked 20 Squares
Date 1400-01-01BCE - 1301-12-31BCE
Rules 3x4 board with 8 square extension of central row, markings in squares 8, 12, 16.
Content 20 Squares game board from the tomb of Tutankhamun, Thebes. Carter and Mace 1933 130, pl. LXXV (b).
Confidence 100

     Contact Us
     ludii.games@gmail.com
     cameron.browne@maastrichtuniversity.nl

lkjh Maastricht University Data Science and Knowledge Engineering (DKE), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council