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20 Squares (É Er-bé-et-ta, Iseb, Aseb, Game of Twenty, Twenty Squares, Room Four)
Ruleset: Simple 20 Squares


See the game 20 Squares for more details.




Northern Africa, Southern Asia, Western Asia


Played on a board with no markings.


Played on a 3x4 board with an extension of 8 in the middle row. Spaces are unmarked.


Browse all concepts for Simple 20 Squares here.


Future reconstruction.

Other Rulesets

Scholarly rulesets
Seleucid Proposed by Irving Finkel based on rules from Mesopotamia.

Incomplete rulesets
Marked 20 Squares Played on a board with certain marked squares.
20 Squares Liver Model Played on a board shaped to resemble a liver.
Double 20 Squares Played on a doubled 20 Squares board.

Evidence Map

59 pieces of evidence in total. Browse all evidence for Simple 20 Squares here.

Click on any marker or highlighted region to view the evidence relating to it.
To view all regions, please select it from the category options below.

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Evidence coloured based on:

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Albright, W.F. 1938. The excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim. Volume II: The Bronze Age. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 17. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.

Becker, A. 1993. Uruk. Kleinfunde I, Stein. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.

Carter, H and A.C. Mace. 1933. The Tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen. Cairo: Cassell & Co.

Castor, J.-M. 'Blessing Genius.' Musée du Louvre website .accessed 04/02/2020.

Daressy, G. 1902. Fouilles de la Vallée des Rois 1889–1899. Cairo: Imprimerie de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

de Kainlis, A. 1942. 'Un jeu assyrien du musée du Louvre.' Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie oriental 39: 19–34.

Erdös, S. 1986. Les tabliers de jeu de l’Orient ancien, Maîtrise d’archéologie orientale. Paris: Sorbonne.

Falkener, E. 1892. Games Ancient and Oriental and How to Play Them. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Finkel, I. 2008. 'Board-games.' In J. Aruz, K. Benzel, and J. Evans (eds.) Beyond Babylon. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Firth, C.M. 1927. The Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1910–1911. Cairo: National Printing Department.

Fugmann, E. 1958. Hama: fouilles et recherches 1931–1938 II.1: L’architecture des périodes préhellénistiques. Copenhagen: Fondation Carlsberg.

Harrak, A. 1987. Assyria and Hanigalbat: A Historical Reconstruction of Bilateral Relations from the Middle of the Fourteenth to the End of the Twelfth Centuries BC. New York: Hildesheim.

Hayes, W.C. 1935. The Tomb of Nefer-khewet and his family. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 30(2): 17–36.

Hayes, W.C. 1959. The Scepter of Egypt. Volume 2. New York.

Hoerth, A. 1961. Gameboards in the Ancient Near East. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Chicago.

Kendall, T, 1991. Le jeu des <>. In R. May (ed.) Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseilles: Musées de Marseilles, 148–152.

Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 1988. The ‘intercultural style” carved vessels. Iranica Antiqua 23: 45–95.

Leemans, C. 1846–1850. Monuments égyptiens du Musée d’antiquités des Pays-Bas à Leide, Tome II. Leiden: Brill.

Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. Oriental Institute Publications 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Macalister, R.A.S. 1912. The Excavation of Gezer 1902–1905 and 1907–1909. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.

Madjizadeh, Y. 2003. Jiroft, the Earliest Oriental Civilization. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Research Center.

Mariette, A. 1889. Les mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Paris: F. Vieweg.

May, R. (ed.) 1991. Jouer dans l’antiquité. Marseille: Musées de Marseille.

Meyer, J.-W. 1982. Lebermodell oder Spielbrett. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in Kamid el-Loz in den Jahren 1971 bis 1974. Bonn: Rudolf Hagelt Verlag, 53–79.

Meyer, J.-W. 1983. Spielbretter aus Kami el-Loz. In R. Wachmann (ed.) Frühe Phöniker im Libanon. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Labern, 101–104.

Needler, W. 1953. A thirty-square draught board in the Royal Ontario Museum. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39: 60–75.

Oppenheim, M. 1962. Tell Halaf IV: Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Parrot, A. 1958. Le palais. Mission archéologique de Mari, II. Paris: P. Geuthner.

Petrie, W.M.F. 1933. Ancient Gaza III. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Prisse-d’Avennes, É. 1847. Monument égyptiens, bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc. Paris: Didot frères.

Rothöhler, B. 1996. Ägyptischer Brettspiele außer Senet. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Woollet, L. 1962. Ur Excavations Vol. IX: The Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods. London: British Museum.



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