background Ludii Portal
Home of the Ludii General Game System


Home Games Forum Downloads References Concepts Contribute Tutorials Tournaments World Map Ludemes About

Um el-Bagara (Mangala, The Cow Game)DLP Game   

Period Modern

Region Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa

Category Board, Sow, Two rows


Um el-Bagara is a two-row mancala-style game board from Sudan. It was documented in the early twentieth century but is probably much older. The game is usually played as holes dug into the sand.


2x5 board. Play begins with five counters in each hole. Players sow from any one of their holes. Sowing can occur in the following directions: From the leftmost two holes: clockwise. From the rightmost two holes: anti-clockwise. from the center hole: the player may choose either direction. If the final counter falls into a hole in the opponent's row containing either one or three counters, making it now contain two or four, these are taken. If the holes before them also contain two or four, in an unbroken sequence, they may all be captured. Single counters cannot be sown. When neither player can move, the single counters in each player's rows are taken by the player belonging to those rows. The player with the most counters wins.

Davies 1925: 140-141.



Ludeme Description

Um el-Bagara.lud


Browse all concepts for Um el-Bagara here.


Murray 1951: 194

Evidence Map

1 pieces of evidence in total. Browse all evidence for Um el-Bagara here.

Click on any marker or highlighted region to view the evidence relating to it.
To view all regions, please select it from the category options below.

Evidence category:

Evidence coloured based on:

Map style:


Davies, R. 1925. 'Some Arab Games and Puzzles.' Sudan Notes and Records. 8: 137–152.

Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Similar Games

Um el Tuweisat

Mangala (Turkey)



Tap Urdy





La'b Akila




     Contact Us

lkjh Maastricht University Department of Advanced Computing Sciences (DACS), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council