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Awithlaknannai (Awithlaknan Mosona, Kolowis Awithlaknannai, Awe Thlacnawe)





Northern America


Board, War, Leaping.


A game played by the Zuni in New Mexico. Older Zuni men claim it came there from Mexico. Zuni men described the game and were observed playing it by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. Nick Graham, a Zuni man, drew the board for Stuart Culin, who also observed a board on the roof of a Zuni house. Culin suggests there are two different versions based on the two boards he documented, but Stevenson is clear that the size of the board is not of a specific size.


A series of three parallel lines are drawn, with diagonals connecting the outer lines at intervals, crossing each other at the central line. Pieces are moved along the intersections, and they are placed on the board on opposing sides, leaving the central spot empty. The first player moves to this spot along one of the lines, and the opponent jumps this pieces, thereby capturing it.

Culin 1907: 801; Stevenson 1903: 496-497.

These rules were taken from the Mosona ruleset.

All Rulesets

Observed rulesets
Mosona Mosona style board.
Kolowis Kolowis style board.



Ludeme Description


Evidence Map

2 pieces of evidence in total. Browse all evidence for Awithlaknannai here.

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Culin, S. 1907. Games of the North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Stevenson, M. C. 1903. Zuñi Games. American Anthropologist 5(3): 468-497.




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