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Evidence for Qi Guo Xiangxi

1 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.1534
Type Rules text
Location 34°47'43.74"N,114°18'28.65"E
Date 1039-01-01 - 1647-12-31
Rules 19x19 lines, pieces are played on the intersections of the lines. Seventeen pieces per player, each with special moves, as follows: Jiang (General) x1: moves orthogonally or diagonally any distance; Pian (Deputy General) x1: Moves orthogonally any distancel Bai (Officer) x1: moves diagonally any distance; Ren (Emissary) x1: moves orthogonally or diagonally any distance, but cannot capture or be captured; Pao (Catapult) x1: moves orthogonally any distance, but can only capture by jumping overone of the player's own pieces first; Gong (Bow) x1: moves orthogonally or diagonally four spaces; Nu (Crossbow) x1: moves orthogonally or diagonally five spaces; Dao (Knife) x2: moves one space diagonally; Jian (Sword) x4: moves one space orthogonally; Qi (Mounted riders) x4: moves one space in a straight line then three diagonally, does not jump. Seven players. Players play as seven states: Ch'in (white), Ch'u (red), Han (orange), Ch'i (dark blue), Wei (green), Chao (purple), and Yen (black). They play in that order. One piece, the Chou (which is yellow), is placed in the central spot and does not move and pieces cannot enter that space. Pieces capture an enemy piece by moving to the spot it occupies. A player is eliminated when their general or ten of their pieces are captured. Play continues until one player remains, or one player captures two generals. The player with the most captured pieces wins.
Content "There are one hundred and twenty pieces used in the chess game symbolizing the seven (warring) states, Ch’i-kuo Hsiang Hsi. The Chou (kingdom) has one pieces, and each of the seven (warring) states has seventeen. The Chou (is colored) yellow; Ch’in is white; Ch’u is red; Ch’i is indigo (dark blue); Yen is black; Han is cinnabar-colored (orange-red); Wei is green; and Chao is purple. The Chou piece (symbolizing the powerless King of the Warring States period) stands in the center and does not move. The various feudal lords may not invade (this small territory).45 The Ch’in occupies the west; Han and Ch ’u start in the south ; Wei and Ch ’i stand in the east; Yen and Chao hold the north. Each of the seven states has a General. These move vertically, horizontally, or diagonally with no limit on distance (i.e., like the Queen in modern Western Chess). Each army has one Deputy General (p’ien) which moves vertically or horizontally with no limit on distance (i.e, like the western Rook). Each has one Adjutant General (pi) which moves diagonally without limit (i.e, like the western Bishop). Even though the game’s title uses the term hsiang (which can mean elephant), (among the various pieces) there are chariots, but no elephants.The Generals, deputy Generals, and Adjutant Generals are (viewed as being) mounted on chariots because elephants could not have been used in China. Each army has one Diplomat or Liason Officer (hsing-jen) which moves vertically, horizontally, or diagonally without limit. This piece may not engage in combat, nor may it be killed. Each has one Catapult or Ballista (p’ao) which moves vertically or horizontally without limit on distance of travel. (However), there must be one intervening piece for it to be enabled to attack another unit. If there is no intervening piece (between it and its desired target), or if there are more than one intervening pieces, it may not attack.48 Each has (one unit of) Archers (kung) which moves four spaces (on each move) vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, and (one unit of) Crossbowmen (nu) which moves five spaces vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Each army has two units of Shortswordsmen (tao) which move one space diagonally. and four units of Broadswordsmen (chien) which move one space vertically or horizontally. The four Cavalry (ch’i)units (in each army) move four spaces (on each move), following a crooked path by first going one space in a straight line and then moving three diagonally. Those who wish to play chess direct the army of the state (or states) they are given. If seven people play, then each directs one state. If six people play, then on player takes Ch’in and one other state in alliance with it. If only five play, then (in addition to the Ch’in alliance) Ch’u is allied with one other state. If only four play, (in addition to the Ch’in and Ch’u alliances) Ch’i is allied to another state. However, when each player takes possession of one state, leaving the other states open (for other players to take), those states with which they are allied are chosen by the players themselves. Both (of the allied states) are directed by the choosing players, who first take an oath saying, “If either of the states under my command is lost, it will be through my own carelessness.” If one orders an ally to attack a very strongly defended state, then he must first penalize himself by downing a glass of liquor. The order of play is Ch’in, Ch’u, Han, Ch’i, Wei, Chao, and Yen (i.e., counterclockwise beginning with the state in the west). If a piece is placed in a difficult position, it may not be taken back. If anyone moves a piece incorrectly, he is penalized. If one attacks his own ally, then the entire army of that ally is lost and removed (from the board). One wins (over another state) by capturing that enemy’s general. But even if the general is not taken, one can win by capturing more than ten other pieces of the opposing state. If an enemy has not not yet lost ten pieces and one’s own army loses more than ten, then one’s own side is lost. At the end of the game, the one who has captured the most pieces is the ultimate winner. (First) the victor takes a drink, then the loser take a drink, collect all the pieces, and put up the board. Should one player capture two generals, or take a total of thirty lesser pieces, he is declared Dictator (pa). Once one player has become Dictator, all the other states submit to him, and everyone drinks another round." Translation of T'ao Tsung-yi's Shuo Fu, 1647. quoting the rules from Sima Guang and containing annotations from 1206. Leventhal 1978: 24-28.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite, Nobility
Genders Male
Source Leventhal, D. 1978. The Chess of China. Taipei: Mei Ya.

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