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Evidence for XII Scripta

104 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.154
Type Artifact
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of 12 squares divided in half down the middle with a circle and two semi circles. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.155
Type Artifact
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of 12 squares divided in half down the middle with a circle and two semi circles. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.156
Type Artifact
Location 37°58'27.19"N, 23°43'37.42"E
Date 0100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti on the NE platform of the Tower of the Winds, Athens. Three rows of squares, damaged but appears to be a XII Scripta pattern. Schädler 1995: 74-75.
Confidence 75
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.158
Type Contemporary text
Location 37°23'21.33"N, 5°59'1.50"W
Date 0556-01-01 - 0636-04-04
Rules Played with three dice, arrangement of board into three rows and also groups of six
Content Isidore Origines 18:60-64: "DE TABULA. Alea, id est lusus tabulae, inventa a Graecis in otio Troiani belli a quodam milite Alea nomine, a quo et ars nomen accepit. Tabula luditur pyrgo, calculis tesserisque. DE PYRGIS. Pyrgus dictus quod per eum tesserae pergant, sive quod turris speciem habeat. Nam Graeci turrem PURGON vocant. DE CALCULIS. Calculi vocati quod lenes sint eet rotundi. Vnde et calculus dicitur lapis brevis, qui sine molestia sui brevitate calcatur. Item calculi, quod per vias ordinales eant, quasi per calles. DE TESSERIS. Tesserae vocatate quia quadrae sunt ex omnibus partibus. Has alii lepusculos vocant, eo quod exiliendo discurrant. Olim autem terrerae iacula apellabantus, a iaciendo. DE FIGURIS ALEAE. Quidam autem aleatores sibi videntur physiologice per allegoriam hanc artem exercere, et sub quadam rerum similitudine fingere. Nam tribus tesseris ludere perhibent propter tria saeculi tempora: praesentia, praeterita, futura; quia non stant, sed decurrunt. Sed et ipsas vias senariis locis distinctas propter aetates hominum ternariis lineis propter tempora argumentantur. Inde et tabulam ternis discriptam dicunt lineis." Schädler 1995:81-82 interpretation: "Game is played with three dice. "the players argue, that theses ways are divided into six places because of the human ages and in three lines because of the tenses. And therefore they say that the board is arranged in three lines."
Confidence 100
Source Isidore. Episcopi Etymologiarum sine Originum.

Id DLP.Evidence.921
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII scripta board at the baths of Aphrodisias. Spaces are circles, central circles are decorated with rosettes. inv. no. 88.9 Roueché 2007: 101, Roueché 2004: 238.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Source Roueché, C. 2007. Late Roman and Byzantine game boards at Aphrodisias. In Finkel, I. ed. Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 100–105. , Roueché, C. 2004: Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions. http://insaph.kcl.ac.uk/ala2004/inscription/index.html

Id DLP.Evidence.922
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII scripta board from the baths at Aphrodisias. Playing spaces are circles, central circles are rosettes. inv. no. 69. Roueché 2004: 69; Roueché 2007: 101.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Source Roueché, C. 2007. Late Roman and Byzantine game boards at Aphrodisias. In Finkel, I. ed. Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 100–105. , Roueché, C. 2004: Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions. http://insaph.kcl.ac.uk/ala2004/inscription/index.html

Id DLP.Evidence.923
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII scripta board from the baths of Aphrodisias. Spaces are circles, with central circles as rosettes. Roueché 2004: 70, Roueché 2007: 101.
Confidence 100
Source Roueché, C. 2004: Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions. http://insaph.kcl.ac.uk/ala2004/inscription/index.html, Roueché, C. 2007. Late Roman and Byzantine game boards at Aphrodisias. In Finkel, I. ed. Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 100–105.

Id DLP.Evidence.924
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII scripta graffiti board on the stylobate of the east colonnade of the baths at Aphrodisias. Playing spaces are holes with a line dividing them in the middle of the board. Roueché 2007: 102 (i).
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public, Communal
Source Roueché, C. 2007. Late Roman and Byzantine game boards at Aphrodisias. In Finkel, I. ed. Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 100–105.

Id DLP.Evidence.925
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII scripta graffiti board on the stylobate of the east colonnade at the baths of Aphrodisias. Roueché 2007: 102 (ii).
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public, Communal

Id DLP.Evidence.926
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'23.74"N, 28°43'32.28"E
Date 0175-01-01 - 0525-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII scripta graffiti board from the stylobate of the east colonnade at the baths of Aphrodisias. Roueché 2007: 102 (iii).
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public, Communal
Source Roueché, C. 2007. Late Roman and Byzantine game boards at Aphrodisias. In Finkel, I. ed. Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: The British Museum Press. pp. 100–105.

Id DLP.Evidence.927
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'52.057"N, 7°2'36.154"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0299-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Aventicum, Located in the a la Conchette. Inv. 1904/03841 in the Roman Museum of Avenches. The lowest row is composed of 12 semi circles, divided in two with a larger central semi circle. The central row is made of complete circles and also divided in half. Roman in date. Schenk, A., Regard sur la tabletterie antique. Les objets en os, bois de cerf et ivoire d'Avenches. 2008. - Tuor-Clerc, D., Chance, les jeux de hasard pur. 1992. - Castella, D., Blanc, P. et al., Aventicum. Une capitale romaine. 2015. - Lazzarini, L., Poikiloi lithoi, versiculores maculae : i marmi colorati della Greccia Antica, Pisa-Roma, 2006. Daniaux 2019: 89, fig. 2. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.1

Id DLP.Evidence.928
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'52.057"N, 7°2'36.154"E
Date 0200-01-01 - 0300-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Aventicum Aventicum. Insula 10 east, demolition layer. Inv. 70/07929 Roman Museum of Avenches. The lowest row is composed of 7 remaining semi circles the last one is larger than the others. Same pattern used for the central row of complete circles. 4 of them are preserved. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.2

Id DLP.Evidence.929
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'52.057"N, 7°2'36.154"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Aventicum. Located in a la Conchette (Insula 21 or 27) Inv. 1904/03831 Roman Museum of Avenches Slab incised with 4 circles. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.3

Id DLP.Evidence.930
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'28.577"N, 28°43'26.162"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Aphrodisias at the stadium. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.7

Id DLP.Evidence.931
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'28.577"N, 28°43'26.162"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Aphrodisias at the stadium. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.8

Id DLP.Evidence.932
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'31.309"N, 28°43'31.292"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Baths at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.18

Id DLP.Evidence.933
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'28.577"N, 28°43'26.162"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from stadium at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.19

Id DLP.Evidence.934
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'28.577"N, 28°43'26.162"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the stadium at Aphrodisias.Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.20

Id DLP.Evidence.935
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'28.616"N, 28°43'26.339"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the stadium at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.21

Id DLP.Evidence.936
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'31.309"N, 28°43'31.292"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from baths at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.22

Id DLP.Evidence.937
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'31.309"N, 28°43'31.292"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from baths at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.23

Id DLP.Evidence.938
Type Artifact
Location 37°42'31.309"N, 28°43'31.292"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from baths at Aphrodisias. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.24

Id DLP.Evidence.942
Type Artifact
Location 41°0'45.49"N, 24°17'0.978"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board on a street at Philippi. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.41

Id DLP.Evidence.948
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'11.908"N, 27°20'41.95"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from a basiica at Ephesus 284. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.74

Id DLP.Evidence.949
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'11.544"N, 27°20'42.727"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from a basilica at Ephesus 287. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.75

Id DLP.Evidence.951
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'8.891"N, 27°20'42.158"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the Doric gate at Ephesus 292. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.80

Id DLP.Evidence.952
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'10.475"N, 27°20'35.682"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the street Ephesus 306. Three rows of 12 squares divided in the center with circles. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.82

Id DLP.Evidence.954
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'9.604"N, 27°20'35.556"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from a street at Ephesus 301. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.85

Id DLP.Evidence.957
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'17.678"N, 27°20'31.024"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the intercolumniation near the staircase at Ephesus 218, seven circles preserved. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.88

Id DLP.Evidence.960
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'14.69"N, 27°20'34.631"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Three row board.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the Herakles gate at Ephesus 273. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.101

Id DLP.Evidence.963
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'9.582"N, 27°20'35.675"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the colonnade behind the fountain at Ephesus 302. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.109

Id DLP.Evidence.964
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'4.744"N, 27°20'46.576"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the stylobate of St Luke's grave Ephesus 299. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.110

Id DLP.Evidence.965
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'21.714"N, 27°20'27.798"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the south hall of the Agora at Ephesus 169. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.117

Id DLP.Evidence.966
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'23.762"N, 27°20'28.543"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from the East hall at Ephesus 165. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.119

Id DLP.Evidence.969
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'33.655"N, 27°20'33.36"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from Ephesus 158. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.130

Id DLP.Evidence.970
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'29.501"N, 27°20'30.422"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from a street at Ephesus 149. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.139

Id DLP.Evidence.974
Type Artifact
Location 37°56'30.786"N, 27°20'24.529"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board. divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti game board from a street at Ephesus 112. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.216

Id DLP.Evidence.997
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from fortress at Abu Sha'ar. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 609, fig. 6. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
Source Mulvin, L. and S. Sidebotham. 2004. 'Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt).' Antiquity 78(301): 206–617.
External database Locus.332

Id DLP.Evidence.998
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from fortress at Abu Sha'ar. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 610, fig. 7. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
External database Locus.333

Id DLP.Evidence.999
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half
Content XII Scripta game board from Abu Sha'ar Broken, with one outer and central lines preserved. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 610–611, fig. 8. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
Source Mulvin, L. and S. Sidebotham. 2004. 'Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt).' Antiquity 78(301): 206–617.
External database Locus.334

Id DLP.Evidence.1025
Type Artifact
Location 35°29'4.61"N, 6°28'0.33"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0499-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Forum at Timgad. Six words of six letters as playing spaces. VENARI LAVARI LUDERE RIDERE OCCEST VIVERE. Cagnat and Schmidt 1894: 1712; Austin 1934: 31.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Cagnat, R. and I. Schmidt. 1894. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum VII.2: Inscriptionum Provinciae Numidiae. Latinarum Supplementum. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1026
Type Artifact
Location 41°46'12.31"N, 12°39'30.71"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board on a cippus reused in Marino. Six six-letter words divided into two groups of three by a circle. LEVATE DALOCU LUDERE NESCIS IDIOTA RECEDE. Dessau 1887: 479 (4125); Austin 1934: 31.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Desssau, H. 1887. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIV. Inscriptiones Latii Veteris Latinae. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1027
Type Artifact
Location 49°45'0.51"N, 6°38'14.28"E
Date 0016-01-01BCE - 0459-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Trier. Six six-letter words making up the playing spaces, divided by circles. VIRTUS IMPERI HOSTES VINCTI LUDANT ROMANI. From crypt of church of St. Matthew. Hirrschfeld and Zangemeister 1904: 618 ()3865); Austin 1934: 31.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Hirschfeld, O. and C. Zangemeitster. 1904. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII.1. Trium Galliarum et Germinarum Latinae. Inscriptiones Belgicae. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1028
Type Artifact
Location 41°45'18.29"N, 12°17'23.15"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half, direction of play.
Content XII Scripta board from the "street of the fountain." Three rows of letters divided in half by circles. CCCCC BBBBBB AAAAAA AAAAAA DDDDDD EEE(EE). Wickert 1930: 760 (5317); Austin 1934: 33.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Wickert, L. 1930. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIV. Supplementum Ostiense. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1029
Type Artifact
Location 53° 4'42.21"N, 2°53'9.52"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0150-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from Holt. Made of ceramic. Fragmented, portions of all three lines preserved. Rosettes dividing the lines in half. Top edge is complete. Leaf-shaped marks making the playing spaces. Austin 1938.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R. 1938. 'A Roman game-board from Holt, Denbighshire.' Archaeologia Cambrensis 93: 250–253.

Id DLP.Evidence.1030
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graaffiti board from the Temple of Kom Ombo. Located in a corridor just outside the inner sanctuary. Three rows of 12 divided in half by square "brackets." do Voogt 2019: 97. One of four.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside, Public, Ritual
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1031
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti board from the Temple of Kom Ombo. Located in a corridor just outside the inner sanctuary. Three rows of 12 divided in half by square "brackets." de Voogt 2019: 97. Two of four.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside, Public, Ritual
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1032
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti board from the Temple of Kom Ombo. Located in a corridor just outside the inner sanctuary. Three rows of 12 divided in half by square "brackets." de Voogt 2019: 97. Three of four.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside, Public, Ritual
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1033
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta graffiti board from the Temple of Kom Ombo. Located in a corridor just outside the inner sanctuary. Three rows of 12 divided in half by square "brackets." do Voogt 2019: 97. Four of four.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside, Public, Ritual
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1034
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Temple of Kom Ombo. Three rows of 12 divided in half by triangular "brackets." do Voogt 2019: 97–98.
Confidence 100
Spaces Ritual
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1035
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'51.06"N, 12°29'54.56"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Row of twelve divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the "Liberian" catacombs in Rome. Two words of six letters, divided by an arch. PROSIO VICTOR. Ihm 1890: 236; de Rossi 1877: 274.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1036
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Catacombs of St. Callixtus, Rome. Broken, four words with six letters each, two on each side of arches. BELOCI LUSORI DICCTE IAUDES. Ihm 1890: 235; de Rossi 1877: 389.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1037
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 699-12-31
Rules Row of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII scripta board from the Catacombs of St. Callixtus in Rome. Broken, two words with six letters each, divided by an arch. INCIPE LUDERE. Ihm 1890: 236; de Rossi 1877: 350.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1038
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'32.19"N, 12°30'7.44"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board on a column capital found in Rome. Six six-letter words, divided in two groups of three by three Xs in the center. PATRON USTHE FANUSC APITAN EUSREP ARAVET. Ihm 1890: 238; Gatti 1887: 326.
Confidence 100
Source Gatti, G. 1887. 'Trovamenti risguardanti la topografia e la epigrafia urbana. Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Communale di Roma 15(11–12):325–335., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1039
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Row divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Catacombs of Callixtus. Broken, two words with an arch and a circle to their left, one letter preserved to left of arch. PACATE .....E ROMANI. Ihm 1890: 238; de Rossi 1877: 719.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1040
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board now in the house of Count Rinuccini, Florence, but from Rome. Damaged, originally six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three words with a ship in the center. ..CTOR VINCAS NABICE FEELIX SALBUS REDIAS. Ihm 1890: 233; Bruzza 1881: 298–299.
Confidence 100
Source Bruzza, L. 1881. 'Sopra alcuni oggetti ritrovati in un sepolcro della Via Prenestina.' Annali dell'Instiututo di Corrispondenza Archeologica 53: 90–301., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1041
Type Artifact
Location 41°52'15.06"N, 12°28'13.36"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Rome, from a cemetery where the Via Portuensis and Via Campana diverged. Damaged, originally six six-letter words divided into two groups of three with rosettes in the center. CIRCUS PLENUS CLAMOR INGENS IANUAE TEN... Ihm 1890: 237; Gatti 1887a: 190–191.
Confidence 100
Source Gatti, G. 1887a. 'Trovementi risgurdanti la topografia e la epigrafia urbana.' Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Communale di Roma 15(6): 173–191.

Id DLP.Evidence.1042
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'9.93"N, 12°28'19.78"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Trastevere. Broken, four words remain, divided into two groups. CLA.OR INGENS LIBERO AUREOS. Ihm 1890: 236; Detlefsen 1861: 179–180.
Confidence 100
Source Detlefsen, D. 1861. 'Inscrizioni di Trastevere III.'Bullettino dell'Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica: 177–180., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1043
Type Artifact
Location 41°52'50.39"N, 12°28'1.15"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from excavations of old railway station in Trastevere. Two six-letter words preserved, parts of two others, divided in half by an arch. CIRCUS PLENUS ...... ...NUS ...... ....US. Ihm 1890: 237; Fiorelli 1886: 364.
Confidence 100
Source Fiorelli. 1886. Notizie degli scavi di antichità 1886. Rome: Accademia dei Lincei., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1044
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'23.28"N, 12°29'26.70"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board found in excavations between the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine in Rome. Fragmentary, most of the words are gone, two of the dividing circles are preserved. ...... ...... .....R MAGNU. ...... ...... Ihm 1890: 237; Lanciani 1878: 265.
Confidence 100
Source Lanciani, R. 1878. Supplementi al Volume VI del Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Communale di Roma 6(4):239–271.

Id DLP.Evidence.1045
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'13.41"N, 12°31'33.34"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board found in the Campo Verano cemetery. Broken, originally six six-letter words separated into two groups with circles. ...CUS PLENUS CLAMOR MANNUS .UCENI VINCAS. Ihm 1890: 236; Burzza 1877: 88.
Confidence 100
Source Bruzza, L. 1877. 'Tavole lusorie del Castro Pretorio.' Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 5: 81–99., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1046
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'31.53"N, 12°30'55.23"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Praetextatus Catacombs in Rome. Six six-letter words, divided by arches and a circle. .IRCUS PLENUS CLAMOR MAGNUS FILORO MUMORTU. Ihm 1890: 237; Boldetti 1720: 443.
Confidence 100
Source Boldetti, M. 1720. Osservazioni sopra i cimiteri de'Santi Martiti, ed antichi cristiani di Roma. Rome: Salvioni., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1047
Type Artifact
Location 42°13'58.81"N, 12°51'33.52"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Monteleone Sabino, now in the Museo Nazionale Romano in Rome. Five six-letter words, one now missing, divided into two groups of three with circles in the center. CIRCUS PLENUS CLAMOR POPULI .... CIVIUM. Ihm 1890: 236; Mommsen 1883: 468 (4907).
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Mommsen, T. 1883. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. IX. Inscriptiones Calbriae Apuliae Samnii Sabinorum Piceni Latinae. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1048
Type Artifact
Location 41°55'22.00"N, 12°31'7.00"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the catacombs at Sant'Agnese fuori le mura in Rome. Six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three with arches and a rosette in the center. DOMINE FRATER ILARIS SEMPER LUDERE TABULA. Ihm 1890: 231; Boldetti 1720: 47.
Confidence 100
Source Boldetti, M. 1720. Osservazioni sopra i cimiteri de'Santi Martiti, ed antichi cristiani di Roma. Rome: Salvioni., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1049
Type Artifact
Location 36°52'50.15"N, 6°54'20.39"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from Skikda (Roman Rusicade). Six six-letter words divided into two groups with an olive branch in the center. INVIDA PUNCT. IUBENT FELICE LUDERE DOCTUM. Ihm 1890: 232; Wilmanns 1881: 690(7998).
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Wilmanns, G. 1881. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. VIII. Inscriptiones Africae Latinae. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1050
Type Artifact
Location 41°55'22.00"N, 12°31'7.00"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the catacombs at Sant'Agnese fuori le mura in Rome. Broken, four six-letter words preserved divided into two groups with circles in the center. ...... ...... SUADET LUDERE SEMPER AMICO. Ihm 1890: 236; Armellini 1880: 309.
Confidence 100
Source Armellini, M. 1880. Il cimitero di S. Agnese sulla via Nomentana. Rome: Tipografia Poligliotta. , Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1051
Type Artifact
Location 35°51'11.78"N, 9°12'28.58"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the Forum at Maktar. Damaged, four complete six-letter words and partial remains of two others, divided into two groups of three by arches and a circle. APOLLO GENIUS LIBERO P..... CERERI CA.... Merlin 1954: 19.
Confidence 100
Source Merlin, A. 1954. L'Année épigraphique Année 1953. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Id DLP.Evidence.1052
Type Artifact
Location 40°40'56.08"N, 14°46'19.05"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Salerno. Broken, two complete six-letter words and remains of two others, divided into two groups by a circle and an omega. TURDOS CAP... TABULA DOCT.. ...... ...... Ihm 1890: 232; Mommsen 1883a: 66 (546).
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Mommsen, T. 1883a. Corpus Inscriptonum Latinarum. X. Inscriptiones Bruttiorum Lucaniae Campaniae Siciliae Sardiniae Latinae. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1053
Type Artifact
Location 37° 9'30.24"N, 29°29'52.55"E
Date 0400-01-01 - 0599-12-31
Rules At least two rows.
Content XII Scripta board from shops east of the agora of Kibyra. Damaged, portions of two rows preserved, divided in the center. Demirer 2013: fig. 2.
Confidence 100
Source Demirer, Ü. 2013. 'XII Scripta and two excavated game boards from Kibyra.' In S. Fazlullin and M. Antika (eds), Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology. Oxford: Archaeopress: 74–82.

Id DLP.Evidence.1054
Type Artifact
Location 37° 9'30.24"N, 29°29'52.55"E
Date 0400-01-01 - 0599-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Kibyra, reused in a pool of the Late Roman water system. Damaged, portions of all three rows remaining, divided into two groups of three lines of six by circles. Demirer 2013: fig. 4.
Confidence 100
Source Demirer, Ü. 2013. 'XII Scripta and two excavated game boards from Kibyra.' In S. Fazlullin and M. Antika (eds), Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology. Oxford: Archaeopress: 74–82.

Id DLP.Evidence.1055
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Rome. Six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three with arches and a circle. SADPAI STAPIE MERALA CANTAT AUCEPS ACPTAT. Ihm 1890: 233; Marangoni 1744: 466.
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Marangoni, G. 1744. Delle cose gentilesche e profane trasportate ad uso, e adornamento delle chiese opera

Id DLP.Evidence.1056
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'17.45"N, 12°29'57.29"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Rome. Six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three with a stalk of wheat, a wheel, and a leaf separating them. ABEMUS INCENA PULLUM PISCEM PERNAM PAONEM. Ihm 1890: 237; Lanciani 1876: 188.
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Lanciani, R. 1876. 'Ara di vermino 3.' Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 4(4):165–210.

Id DLP.Evidence.1057
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'31.34"N, 12°30'20.19"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Catacombs of Domitilla. Hybrid board with holes making up the first two rows of playing spaces, and two six-letter words making up the last row, with decorated circles dividing the two sides. VICTUS SURGES. Ihm 1890: 234; Bruzza 1886: 773, fig. 457.
Confidence 100
Source Bruzza, L. 1886. 'Spieltische und Würfel.' In F. Kraus (ed), Realencyclopädie der christlichen Altertümer II. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herdersche Verlagshandlung: 771–774., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1058
Type Artifact
Location 41°55'46.64"N, 12°30'30.72"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the catacombs of Priscilla, Rome. Broken, four six-letter words preserved, divided into two groups by two circles with inscriptions. IDIO LUDERE NESCIS VICTUS. Ihm 1890: 234; Marangoni 1744: 393.
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Marangoni, G. 1744. Delle cose gentilesche e profane trasportate ad uso, e adornamento delle chiese opera

Id DLP.Evidence.1059
Type Artifact
Location 41°45'18.29"N, 12°17'23.15"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board. Fragmentary board, parts of three words remain. ...... .....L ...... NESCIS ...... LEBATE. Ihm 1890: 234, Fiorelli 1886: 127; Dessau 1887: 479 (4125.3).
Confidence 100
Source Desssau, H. 1887. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIV. Inscriptiones Latii Veteris Latinae. Berlin: George Reimer. , Fiorelli. 1886. Notizie degli scavi di antichità 1886. Rome: Accademia dei Lincei., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1060
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'17.45"N, 12°29'57.29"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board found at the Castro Pretorio in Rome. Broken, parts of three six-letter words remain an arc is preserved in the center, originally dividing the board into two. LEVADE ...... NESC.. ...... RI.... ......Ihm 1890: 234; Bruzza 1877:94.
Confidence 100
Source Bruzza, L. 1877. 'Tavole lusorie del Castro Pretorio.' Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 5: 81–99., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1061
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the catacombs of Callixtus in Rome. Six six-letter words, divided into groups of three by two arches. SITIBI TESSEI LATAVE TECOTE STUDIO VINCAM. Ihm 1890: 232; Marangoni 1740: 140.
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Marangoni, G. 1740. Acta A. Victorini Episcopi Amiterni, et Martyris. Rome: Joannem Mariam Salvioni.

Id DLP.Evidence.1062
Type Artifact
Location 41°55'19.34"N, 12°29'24.94"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the catacombs os Sant'Ermete (Basilla) in Rome. Six six-letter words, separated into two groups of three. VICTUS LEBATE LIUDERE NESCIS DALUSO RILOCU. Ihm 1890: 233.
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1063
Type Artifact
Location 41°54'13.41"N, 12°31'33.34"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the Campo Verano, Rome. Broken, remains of five six-letter words divided into two groups of three with circles in the center. .....S RECEDO RIXARI NESCIO MELIUS ...... Ihnm 1890: 234; Gatti 1887b: 44
Confidence 100
Source Gatti, G. 1887b. 'Trovamenti risguardanti la topografia e la epigrafia urbana. Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Communale di Roma 15(2):33–51., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1064
Type Artifact
Location 41°55'22.00"N, 12°31'7.00"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the catacombs of St. Agnese fuori le mura in Rome. Broken, two pieces, four six-letter words remain, divided in half by arches and a circle. VICTUS ...... LUDERE NESCES ...... RILOCU. Ihm 1890: 234; Armellini 1880: 308–309.
Confidence 100
Source Armellini, M. 1880. Il cimitero di S. Agnese sulla via Nomentana. Rome: Tipografia Poligliotta. , Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1065
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from near the catcombs of Callixtus, Rome. Broken, remains of three six-letter words divided into two groups with arches and a circle. ...... ...... ...... PACATE .....E ROMANI. Ihm 1890: 238; de Rossi 1887: 719.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci., Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1066
Type Artifact
Location 36°22'0.45"N, 5°30'30.96"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Ain el-Kebira, Algeria. Six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three by two arches. PATRIUS ETFILI SERVUS PLENUS EXIVIT ARATOR. Ihm 1890: 233, Wilmanns 1881a: 719 (8407).
Confidence 100
Source Ihm, M. 1890. 'Römische Spieltafeln.' Bonner Studien: Aufsätze aus der Altertumswissenschaft, Reinhard Kekulé zur Erinnerung an seine Lehrthätigkeit in Bonn gewidmet von seinen Schülern. Berlin: W. Spemann., Wilmanns, G. 1881a. Corpus Inscriptiunum Latinarum. VIII.2. Inscriptiones Africae Latinae. Inscriptiones Mauretaniarum. Berlin: George Reimer.

Id DLP.Evidence.1067
Type Artistic depiction
Location 34°39'51.64"N, 32°53'19.90"E
Date 0200-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules Rows divided in half.
Content Depiction of a XII Scripta board on a moasic floor in the House of Eustolios, Kourion, Cyprus. Spaces represented as rectangles, with six in each row, divided into two groups with circles. Not an exact replica of an actual board, but the style is clearly imitating known boards. Swiny 1986: fig. 56g; Schädler 1995: 94–95.
Confidence 100
Source Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98. , Swiny, S. 1986. The Kent State University Expedition to Episkopi Phaneromeni. Nicosia: Paul Åströms Förlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.1068
Type Artifact
Location 36°51'41.94"N, 10°19'52.62"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the cemetery at at basilica of Damous el-Karita in Tunisia. Three rows of twelve spaces, divided in have by two circles and an arch. In the outer two rows the spaces are rendered as leaves, in the central as circles. Delattre 1911: 12–13; Schädler 1995: fig. 7b.
Confidence 100
Source Delattre, A. 1911. 'Deux tables de jeux trouvées à Carthage.' Revue Tunisienne: 12–19., Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.1069
Type Artifact
Location 36°51'21.43"N, 10°18'53.63"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII scripta board from the amphitheater at Carthage. Three lines of twelve spaces, divided half with squares containing diagonals. The playing spaces are rendered as vertical lines. Schädler 1995: fig. 11.b; Delattre 1911: 12–13.
Confidence 100
Source Delattre, A. 1911. 'Deux tables de jeux trouvées à Carthage.' Revue Tunisienne: 12–19., Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.1070
Type Artifact
Location 36°33'4.32"N, 9°26'31.02"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Three rows.
Content Duodecim scripta board from the house of Amar bel Hadj at Testour, Tunisia. Broken, probably the left side preserved. Three six-letter words, with circles to their right. INFORO ...... INDOMO ...... INATRIO ...... Delattre 1911: 17; Carton 1895: 83–84 (114).
Confidence 100
Source Carton, L. 1895. Découvertes épigraphiques et archéologiques faites en Tunisie (région deDougga). Lilli: Imprimerie L. Danel. , Delattre, A. 1911. 'Deux tables de jeux trouvées à Carthage.' Revue Tunisienne: 12–19.

Id DLP.Evidence.1071
Type Artifact
Location 22°14'1.56"N, 31°36'53.11"E
Date 0400-01-01 - 0699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board divided in half, 15 pieces per player, up to five dice (D6).
Content XII Scripta board found outside Tomb 3 at Qustul. Wooden board ivory inlay and silver frame with three rows of 12 squares rendered, divided in half by circles. Found with a bag of fifteen ivory and fifteen ebony pieces, five cubic dice, and a dice tower. de Voogt 2019a: 94–95; Emery and Kirwan 1938: 345, pl. 87.
Confidence 100
Social status Elite
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99. , Emery, W. and L. Kirwan. 1938. Mission Archéologique de Nubie 1929–1934. The Royal Tombs of Ballana and Qustul. Cario: Government Press Boulaq.

Id DLP.Evidence.1072
Type Artifact
Location 36°32'3.24"N, 10° 4'14.67"E
Date 0300-01-01 - 0499-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board in a mosaic floor at the baths of Jebel Oust, Tunisia. Three rows of twelve spaces, divided in half by two squares and a circle. Spaces are rendered as vertical lines. ben Abed and Scheid 2005: 341–342, fig. 15–16.
Confidence 100
Source ben Abed, A and M. Scheid. 2005. 'Nouvelles recherches archéologiques à Jebel Oust (TUnisie). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 149(1): 321–349.

Id DLP.Evidence.1073
Type Artifact
Location 35° 3'45.19"N, 24°56'48.98"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board found at Gortyn, Greece. Three rows of twelve squares, divided into two groups of eighteen by circles. Barresi 2000: 249–250, fig. 1.
Confidence 100
Source Barresi, P. 2000. 'Su una tabula lusoria da Gortyna.' Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e delle Missioni Italiane in Oriente 76–78: 249–271.

Id DLP.Evidence.1074
Type Artifact
Location 36°26'21.56"N, 28°13'34.80"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Row of twelve divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Rhodes, Greece. Reused as a tub. central row of 12 squares preserved, divided in half with an X. Rhodes musem 16888. Barresi 2000:256-257, fig. 8.
Confidence 100
Source Barresi, P. 2000. 'Su una tabula lusoria da Gortyna.' Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e delle Missioni Italiane in Oriente 76–78: 249–271.

Id DLP.Evidence.1075
Type Artifact
Location 36°21'21.80"N, 29°19'5.47"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Xanthos, Turkey. Three lines of thirteen squares, the central squares in each marked with an X, therefore making three lines of twelve playing spaces. Barresi 2000: 256–258, fig. 10.
Confidence 100
Source Barresi, P. 2000. 'Su una tabula lusoria da Gortyna.' Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e delle Missioni Italiane in Oriente 76–78: 249–271.

Id DLP.Evidence.1076
Type Artifact
Location 39°45'1.84"N, 29°30'8.01"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content Duodecim scripta board from Çarsamba, Turkey. Three rows of twelve squares, divided into two groups of eighteen by decorated circles. Levick et al. 1993: 107 (330).
Confidence 100
Source Levick, B, S. Mitchell, J. Potter, and M. Waelkens (eds). 1993. Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua X. Monuments from the Upper Tembris Valley, Cotiaeum, Cadi, Synaus, Ancyra, and Tiberiopolis Recorded by C.W.M. Cox, A. Cameron, and J. Cullen. London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

Id DLP.Evidence.1077
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the catacombs of Calixtus, Rome. Top row preserved, damaged. Six leaves, an arch, then four more leaves. de Rossi 1877: 374.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci.

Id DLP.Evidence.1078
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least two rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the catacombs of Callixtus, Rome. Two rows of twelve, damaged, divided in half with an arch and a circle. de Rossi 1877: 383.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci.

Id DLP.Evidence.1079
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least two rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the catacombs of Callixtus, Rome. Two rows of six, damaged, with a square and half circle to their left, indicating the original center of the board. de Rossi 1877: 391.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci.

Id DLP.Evidence.1080
Type Artifact
Location 41°51'38.85"N, 12°30'31.65"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from the cemetery of Santa Sotere. One row, damaged, with two holes, an arch, and six holes. de Rossi 1877: 170.
Confidence 100
Source de Rossi, G. 1877. La Roma sotteranea cristiana III. Rome: Saliucci.

Id DLP.Evidence.1081
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'48.68"N, 12°29'0.33"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least two rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from excavations at the Via Nazionale, Rome. Broken, parts of two rows preserved, divided by squares. Playing spaces are short vertical lines. Gatti 1904: 154, fig. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Gatti, G. 1904. 'V. Roma.' Notizie degli scavi di antichità: 153–158.

Id DLP.Evidence.1082
Type Artifact
Location 41°52'43.06"N, 12°32'54.53"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from the catacombs of San Marcellinus, Rome. Six six-letter words, divided into two groups of three. PARTHI OCCISI BR.TT. VICTUS LUDIT. .OMANI. Dessau 1892: 964 (8626a).
Confidence 100
Source Dessau, H. 1892. Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae II. Berlin: Weidmann.

Id DLP.Evidence.1083
Type Artifact
Location 50°42'47.38"N, 6°34'29.11"E
Date 0300-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content Dice tower from Froitzheim, Germany. Tower contains as decoration six six-letter words; evoking the same subject and structure as XII Scripta boards. PICTOS VICTOS HOSTIS DELETA LUDITE SECURI. Horn 1989.
Confidence 100
Source Horn,H. 1989. 'Si per me misit, nil nisi vota foret. Ein römischer Spielturm aus Froitzheim. Bonner Jahrbücher 189: 139–160.

Id DLP.Evidence.1084
Type Artifact
Location 55°26'40.59"N, 10°18'34.37"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules Rows of twelve, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta game board from a bog deposit at Vimose, Denmark. Wooden board, broken, one line of six circles preserved, along with large half-circle dividing board in half. Krüger 1982: 162, 222.
Confidence 100
Source Krüger, T. 1982. Das Brett- und Würfelspiel der Spätlatènezeit und römischen Kaiserzeit im freien Germanien. Hildesheim.

Id DLP.Evidence.1085
Type Artifact
Location 26° 6'46.06"N, 34° 2'2.03"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII scripta Board from the praesidium at Dawwi. Broken, parts of all three rows of holes. divided in half by a reverse "N" motif. 2, 6, 3, 6, 3, 6 preserved. Brun 2003: 135, fig. 174; de Voogt 2019: fig. 2.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Brun, J.-P. 2003. 'Dawwî.' In H. Cuvigny (ed.), La route de Myos Hormos: L'armée romaine dans le désert Oriental d'Égypte. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale 133–135., de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.1088
Type Artifact
Location 36°25'8.53"N, 10°27'31.64"E
Date 0400-01-01 - 0499-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content Mosaic game board from the Salle de Nutrix at Sidi Jdidi, Tunisia. Six six-letter words, damaged but portions of each word preserved. POPINA FLORET ..BENS GAUDE O..PIE .TUTAR. ben Abed et al. 2004: 70–71.
Confidence 100
Spaces Communal
Source ben Abed, A., B. Khader anmd R. Hanoune. 2004. 'La salle de Nutrix à Sidi Jdidi.' In C. Balmelle, P. Chevalier and G. Ripoll (eds), Mélanges d'antiquité tardive: Studiola in honorem Noël Duval. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. 67–73.

Id DLP.Evidence.1181
Type Artifact
Location 36°57'41.04"N, 30°51'14.60"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content XII Scripta board from Pergamon. three rows of twelve squares, divided in half by leaf motifs arranges in circles. Bean 1968: 33-34.
Confidence 100
Source Bean, G. 1968. Turkey's Southern Shore.London: John Murray.

Id DLP.Evidence.1397
Type Artifact
Location 32°38'17.32"N, 14°18'3.20"E
Date 100-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 3x12 board, divided in half.
Content Graffiti XII Scripta board from the steps of the East Quay near the "Tempietto" at Leptis Magna. 3x12 squares, divided in half by three "x"s. Bartoccini 1958: 122, PL. LXVI.2.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Bartoccini, R. 1958. Il Porto Romano di Leptis Magna. Rome: Centro Studi per la Storia dell'Archittetura.

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