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Evidence for Ludus Latrunculorum

68 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.53
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0038-01-01 - 0104-12-31
Rules Winning game by enclosing opponent with pieces.
Content Martial Epigrams VII.lxxii.7-8 "Sic vincas Noviumque Publiumque Mandris et vitreo latrone clusos."
Confidence 100
Genders Male
Source Martial. Epigrammata.

Id DLP.Evidence.137
Type Contemporary text
Location 42°24'15.94"N, 12°51'25.45"E
Date 0116-01-01BCE - 0027-12-31BCE
Rules Rectangular board.
Content Varro, De Lingua Latina X.22 "Ad hunc quadruplicem fontem ordines deriguntur bini, uni transversi, alteri directi, ut in tabula solet in qua latrunculis ludunt."
Confidence 100
Source Varro. De Lingua Latina. trans. R. Kent. Loeb Classical Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.140
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0100-12-31
Rules Pieces can block one another, win by breaking through opponents ranks.
Content Laus Pisonis 192-208: "callidore modo tabula variatur aperta calculus et vitreo peraguntur milite bella, ut nievus nigros, nunc et niger alliget albos. Sed tibi quis non terga dedit? Quis te duce cessit calculus? Aut quis non periturus perdidit hostem? mille modis acies tua dimicat: ille petentem dum fugit, ipse rapit; longo venit ille recessu, qui stetit in speculis; hic se committere rizae audet et in praedam venientem decipit hostem; ancipites subit ille moras similisque ligato obligat ipse duos; hic ad maiora movetur, ut citus effracta prorumpat in agmina mandra clausaque deiecto populetur moenia vallo. Interea sectis quamvis accerima surgant proelia militibus, plena tamen ipse phalange aut etiam pauco spoliata milite vincis, et tibi captiva resonat manus etraque turba." "Cunningly the pieces are disposed on the open board, and battles are fought with soldiery of glass, so that now white blocks black, now black blocks white. But every foe yields to thee, Piso: marshalled by thee, what piece ever gave way? What piece on the brink of death dealt not death to his enemy? Thousandfold are the battle-tactics; one man in fleeing from an attacker, himself overpowers him; another, who has been standing on the look-out, comes up from a different corner; another stoutly rushes into the melee and cheats his foe now creeping on his prey; another courts blockade on either flank, and, under feint of being blocked, himself blocks two men; another's objective is more ambitious, that he may quickly break through the massed phalanx, swoop into the lines, and razing the enemy's rampart do havoc in the walled stronghold. Meantime, although the fight rages fiercely now the hostile ranks are split, yet thou thyself art victorious with serried line unbroken, or despoiled may be of one or two men, and both thy hands rattle with the prisoned throng." Translation from Austin 1934: 30.
Confidence 100
Source Anonymous. Laus Pisonis. Loeb Classical Library. , Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34.

Id DLP.Evidence.141
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0002-01-01BCE - 0002-12-31
Rules Pieces can move backwards, pieces can capture, two pieces are needed to capture one piece.
Content Ovid Ars Amatoria III.356-60: "Quam subeat partem callida, quamque vocet. Cautaque non stulte latronum proelia ludat, Unus cum gemino calculus hoste perit, Bellatorque sua prensus sine compare bellat." Translation Hejlduk 2014: "...and that she play prudently, not foolishly, Battles of Bandits when one counter perishes, vanquished by a twin foe, and the warrior, caught without his companion, wages war and the rival keeps retracing the path he's begun..."
Confidence 100
Genders Female, Male
Source Ovid. Ars Amatoria. , Hejduyk, J. 2004. The Offense of Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.142
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0002-01-01 - 0002-12-31
Rules Pieces can be captured.
Content Ovid Ars Amatoria II.208: "Sive latrocinii sub imagine calculus ibit, Fac pereat vitreo miles ab hoste tuus" Translation Hejduk 2014: "or if the counter will go forth in the guise of a bandit, make sure your soldier is killed by the glassy foe."
Confidence 100
Source Ovid. Ars Amatoria. , Hejduyk, J. 2004. The Offense of Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.143
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0008-01-01 - 0018-12-31
Rules Pieces are captured between two opponent pieces, pieces move in a straight path, pieces can move backwards.
Content Ovid Tristia II.477-478: "discolor ut recto grateur limite miles, cum medios gemino calculus hoste perit, ut bellare sequens sciat et revocare priorem, nec tuto fugiens incomitatus eat" Translation Wheeler 1924: 91: "...how the variegated soldier steals to the attack along the straight path when the piece between two enemies is lost, and how he understands warfare by pursuit and how to recall the man before him and to retreat in safety not without escort..."
Confidence 100
Source Ovid. Tristia. trans. A. Wheeler. 1924. Loeb Classical Library.

Id DLP.Evidence.144
Type Contemporary text
Location 41°54'10.45"N, 12°29'46.38"E
Date 0004-01-01BCE - 0065-12-31
Rules Player with more pieces wins.
Content Seneca De Tranquilitate Animi 14.7: "Ludebat latrunculis. Cum centurio, agmen periturorum trahens, illum quoque excitari iuberet, vocatus numeravit calculos et sodali suo"Vide, inquit, ne post mortem meam mentiaris te vicisse.| Tum, annuens centurioni: "Testis, inquit, eris uno me antecedere." Lusisse tu Canum illa tabula putas? Illusit." Translation from Stewart 1900: "He was playing at draughts (latrunculi) when the centurion in charge of a number of those who were going to be executed bade him, join them: on the summons he counted his men and said to his companion, "Mind you do not tell a lie after my death, and say that you won;" then, turning to the centurion, he said "You will bear me witness that I am one man ahead of him." Do you think that Kanus played upon that draught-board? nay, he played with it."
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Seneca. De Tranquilitate Animi. trans. A. Stewart.

Id DLP.Evidence.145
Type Artifact
Location 42°4'24.97"N, 6°0'37.15"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules 9x7 or larger board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Petavonium, military camp of the Ala II Flavia legion. Incomplete board with a pattern of at least 9x7. Carretero Vaquero 1998: 125.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Carretero Vaquero, S. 1998. El Ludus Latrunculorum, un juego de estrategia practicado por los equites del Ala II Flavia. Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologìa 64: 117– 140.

Id DLP.Evidence.146
Type Artifact
Location 42° 4'24.97"N, 6° 0'37.15"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules 8x6 or larger board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Petavonium, military camp of the Ala II Flavia legion. Incomplete board with a pattern of at least 9x7. Carretero Vaquero 1998: 125.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Carretero Vaquero, S. 1998. El Ludus Latrunculorum, un juego de estrategia practicado por los equites del Ala II Flavia. Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologìa 64: 117– 140.

Id DLP.Evidence.147
Type Artifact
Location 55° 1'41.90"N, 2° 8'19.38"W
Date 0123-01-01 - 0406-12-31
Rules 7x8 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Chesters Fort on Hadrian's Wall, UK. Complete 7x8 board. Austin 1934: 27.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34.

Id DLP.Evidence.148
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 9x9 or 9x10 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress. Either 9x9 or 9x10 pattern (difficult to determine if lines overlap the board or form a new row). Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 612, fig. 9.1.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.149
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 8x9, 8x8, 6x8, 7x8, 7x9 or 6x9 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress with between 6-8 squares x 8-9 squares. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2003: 613, fig. 9.5.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.150
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0309-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules 8x6 or more spaces.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board from Abu Sha'ar Fortress 8x at least 6 squares. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2003: 612, fig. 9.4.
Confidence 100
Social status Military
Source Mulvin, L. and S.E. Sidebotham. 2003. Roman game boards from Abu Sha’ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Antiquity 78: 602–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.151
Type Artistic depiction
Location Fayyum Oasis
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 6x7 board, 17 pieces, pieces played in the squares.
Content Terracotta model of a Ludus Latrunculorum game in progress from the Fayyum oasis, Egypt. Petrie Museum UC59258. Crist et al 2016: 139; Petrie 1927: 55.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury. , Petrie, W.M.F. 1927. Objects of Daily Use. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.

Id DLP.Evidence.157
Type Contemporary text
Location 37°23'21.33"N, 5°59'1.50"W
Date 0560-01-01 - 0636-12-31
Rules Pieces trapped between two opposing pieces cannot move, pieces are placed on any space on the board in the beginning of play, pieces move forward or sideways.
Content Isidore Origines XVIII.67: "DE CALCULORUM MOTU. Calculi partim ordine moventur, partim vage: ideo alios ordinarios, alios vagos appellent; at vero qui moveri omnino non possunt, incito dicunt. Vnde et egentes homines inciti vocantur, quibus spes ultra procedendi nulla restat." Translation Schädler 1995: "Some of the pieces move regularly, others here and there: therefore the first are called ordinarii, the others vagi, and those that cannot move at all are called inciti."
Confidence 100
Source Isidore. Etymologiae (Origines). , Schädler, U. 1995. XII scripta, alea, tabula: new evidence for the Roman history of “backgammon.” In A. de Voogt (ed.), New Approaches to Board Games Research: Asian Origins and Future Perspectives. Leiden: IIAS. 73–98.

Id DLP.Evidence.628
Type Artifact
Location 36°51'15.23"N, 10°20'5.85"E
Date 0145-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 9x8-10 board.
Content Graffiti ludus latrunculorum board from the Antonine Baths, Carthage. 9x8-10 board. de Voogt 2019: 91.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Genders Male
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.629
Type Artifact
Location 36°51'15.23"N, 10°20'5.85"E
Date 0145-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 8x10-11 board.
Content Graffiti ludus latrunculorum board from the Antonine Baths, Carthage. 10-11x8 or more board. de Voogt 2019: 91.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Communal
Genders Male
Source de Voogt, A. 2019a. 'Traces of appropriation: Roman board games in Egypt and Sudan.' Archimède 6:89–99.

Id DLP.Evidence.630
Type Artifact
Location 51° 7'26.64"N, 1°18'45.54"E
Date 0117-01-01 - 0160-12-31
Rules 10x10 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum board found in barracks at the Roman fort at Dover. 10x10, made of chalk. Dates from Hadrian to Antonine period. Philip 1981: 167.
Confidence 100
Source Philip, B. 1981. The Excavation of the Roman Forts of the Classis Brittanica at Dover 1970–1977. Dover: Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit.

Id DLP.Evidence.635
Type Artifact
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules 8x at least 5 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On marble casing stone. 8x5 preserved, 8 spaces in one direction is certain. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.2; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.636
Type Artifact
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules At least 9x7 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On marble casing stone. 9x7 preserved. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.1; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.637
Type Artifact
Location 51°17'36.05"N, 1°19'56.89"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0600-12-31
Rules At least 6x7 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Richborough Fort, UK. On Lower Greensand (stone). 6x7 preserved. Bushe-Fox 1928: Fig 1.3; p. 13.
Confidence 100
Source Bushe-Fox, J.P. 1928. Second Report on the Excavation of the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 7. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Id DLP.Evidence.939
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'51.521"N, 7°2'35.603"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least four squares.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from Aventicum. Inv. 1911/05118. Roman Museum of Avenches. 4 squares of a grid preserved. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.940
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'51.521"N, 7°2'35.603"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 6x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from Aventicum Theater. 6x8 grid Inv. X/02924. Roman Museum of Avenches. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.941
Type Artifact
Location 46°52'51.521"N, 7°2'35.603"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0300-12-31
Rules 6x6 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from Aventicum Theater: Drainage trench along the walls M90/M174/M175/M102/M112/M101 Inv. 13/15890-01 Roman Museum of Avenches. Daniaux 2019: 88-89. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.986
Type Artifact
Location 41°56'16.102"N, 12°46'34.9"E
Date 0117-01-01 - 0138-12-31
Rules 7x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from Hadrian's Villa 7x8 grid of squares in the Serapeum. Manderscheid et al. 2011: 514–518. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
Source Manderscheid, H., F. Carboni and M. Bruno. 2011. 'Tabulae lusoriae del mondo Romano: Il tavioliere dei muratori di Villa Adriana, tabulae di Traiano a Roma e dal complesso Severano di Leptis Magna. Archeologia Classica 62: 513–535.

Id DLP.Evidence.987
Type Artifact
Location 37°58'17.36"N, 23°43'34.295"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board on the Parthenon, Athens. 8x8 squares. Karakitsou 2009: 24. Data from Locus Ludi Project.
Confidence 100
Source Karakitsou, E. 2009. Games in the Parthenon. The Acropolis Restoration News 9:23–25.

Id DLP.Evidence.1001
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules At least 6x4 grid.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board from fortress at Abu Sha'ar. Fragmentary, at least six squares in one direction, four in the other. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 612, fig. 9.2.
Confidence 100
Source Mulvin, L. and S. Sidebotham. 2004. 'Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt).' Antiquity 78(301): 206–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.1002
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules At least 4x4 grid.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from fortress at Abu Sha'ar. Fragmentary, small piece with at least 4x4 grid. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 612, fig. 9.3.
Confidence 100
Source Mulvin, L. and S. Sidebotham. 2004. 'Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt).' Antiquity 78(301): 206–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.1015
Type Artifact
Location 27°22'7.73"N, 33°40'58.02"E
Date 0301-01-01 - 0400-12-31
Rules At least 8x6 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from fortress at Abu Sha'ar. Game surface is damaged, at least 8x6 grid. On opposite side of same block as DLP.Evidence.148. Mulvin and Sidebotham 2004: 612, fig. 9.1.
Confidence 100
Source Mulvin, L. and S. Sidebotham. 2004. 'Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt).' Antiquity 78(301): 206–617.

Id DLP.Evidence.1016
Type Artifact
Location 24°28'11.30"N, 32°56'17.27"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x9 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board from Kom Ombo. Crist et al 2016: 140–141, fig. 6.7.
Confidence 100
Source Crist, W., A.-E. Dunn-Vaturi and A. de Voogt. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play: Board Games Across Borders. London: Bloomsbury.

Id DLP.Evidence.1017
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'31.19"N, 12°29'5.24"E
Date 0283-01-01 - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum graffiti game board at the Basilica Iulia, Rome. Schädler 1994: 49–50.
Confidence 100
Source Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.1018
Type Artifact
Location 40° 5'56.51"N, 8°29'37.69"W
Date 0069-01-01 - 0468-12-31
Rules At least 4x4 board.
Content Fragment of Ludus Latrunculorum game board from the Roman settlement at Conimbriga. 4x4 board preserved. da Ponte 1986:138–139, fig. 3.
Confidence 100
Source da Ponte, S. 1986. 'Jogos romanos de Conimbriga.' Conimbriga: Revista de Arqueologia 25:131–141.

Id DLP.Evidence.1019
Type Artifact
Location 54°58'41.26"N, 2° 1'44.15"W
Date 0122-01-01 - 0169-12-31
Rules 7x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board found in 1911 from excavations at the Roman fort of Corstopitum. 7x8 grid. Murray 1913: 30 (note 15e), Murray 1951: 33; Austin 1934: 26; Schädler 1994: 50, 63 (note 17).
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Spaces Military
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Murray, H. J. R. 1913. A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press. , Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.1020
Type Artifact
Location 51°49'11.17"N, 1°55'28.32"W
Date 0100-01-01 - 0410-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from Chedworth, from the Roman Villa. 8x8 grid of squares. Baddesley 1925; Schädler 1994: 50; Murray 1951: 3; Austin 1934: 26.
Confidence 100
Source Austin, R.G. 1934. 'Roman board games I.' Greece & Rome 4(10): 24-34. , Baddeley, S. 1925. 'A Roman Draught-board.' Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 25: 125. , Murray, H.J.R. 1951. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Oxford: Clarendon Press., Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.1021
Type Artifact
Location 50°43'6.28"N, 3°32'2.04"W
Date 0056-01-01 - 0410-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board from Exeter. 8x8 grid of squares. Holbrook and Bidwell 1991: 278, fig. 134.9; Schädler 1994: 50, 52.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Holbrook, N. and P. Bidwell. 1991. Roman Finds from Exeter. Exeter: University of Exeter., Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.1022
Type Artifact
Location 50°43'6.28"N, 3°32'2.04"W
Date 0056-01-01 - 0410-12-31
Rules 6x8, 6x9, 7x8, or 7x9 board.
Content Ludus latrunculorum game board from Exeter. Broken, grid of at least 6x8 squares, could be 7x9 also. Holbrook and Bidwell 1991: 279, fig. 135; Schädler 1994: 50.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Holbrook, N. and P. Bidwell. 1991. Roman Finds from Exeter. Exeter: University of Exeter., Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.1023
Type Artifact
Location 47° 2'53.46"N, 23° 2'40.18"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0299-12-31
Rules At least 7x3 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board from the fortress at Buciumi. Fragmentary, incised on ceramic. 7x3 square grid preserved. Gudea 1971: 60, pl. LVI.4; Mihailescu-Birliba 2016: 44.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Gudea, N. 1971. 'Ceramica.' In E. Chirila, N. Gudea, V. Lucacel, and C. Pop (eds), Castrul de la Buciumi. Cluj: Muzeul de Istoire si Arta Zalau., Mihailescu-Birliba, V. 2016. 'Games and gamers in Dacia.' Arheologia Moldovei 39: 33–56.

Id DLP.Evidence.1024
Type Artifact
Location 45°37'7.61"N, 25°26'29.44"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0299-12-31
Rules At least 3x4 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum board from the fortress of Cumidava. Fragmentary, 3x4 grid of squares preserved, made of ceramic. Gudea and Pop 1971: 54, pl. LII.3; Mihailescu-Birliba 2016: 44.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military

Id DLP.Evidence.1086
Type Artifact
Location 54°59'28.12"N, 2°21'38.05"W
Date 0085-01-01 - 0370-12-31
Rules At least 7x9 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board from Fortress of Vindolanda at Hadrian's Wall. Grid of at least 7x9 squares. Penn and Courts n.d.
Confidence 100
Source Penn, T. and S. Courts. n.d. 'Playing Games at Vindolanda.' Vindolanda Charitable Trust. https://www.vindolanda.com/blog/playing-games-at-vindolanda

Id DLP.Evidence.1087
Type Artifact
Location 54°59'28.12"N, 2°21'38.05"W
Date 0085-01-01 - 0370-12-31
Rules At least 5x5 board.
Content Ludus Latrunculorum game board from the Fortress of Vindolanda at Hadrian's Wall. Broken Ludus latrunculorum game board, with at least a grid of 5x5 squares. Penn and Courts n.d.
Confidence 100

Id DLP.Evidence.2133
Type Artifact
Location 41°49'31.40"N, 1°20'16.36"E
Date 0180-01-01BCE - 0120-12-31BCE
Rules 11x16 board.
Content 11x16 board, etched on a plastered stone, from building c7 at the Roman castellum at Puig Castellar de Biosca en Lleida, Catalonia. Requena and Sala 2021.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Household, Military
Source Requena, E. and Sala, N. 2021. "Una tabula lusoria en el castellum republicano de Puig Castellar de Biosca en Llaida, Catalunya (180-120 a.C.). Archivo Español de Arqueología 94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3989/aespa.094.021.04

Id DLP.Evidence.2136
Type Artistic depiction
Location 37°58'31.36"N, 23°44'10.49"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0099-12-31
Rules 6x7 board, twelve pieces.
Content Terracotta figuring group, found during the building of the square in front of the Old Royal Palace in Athens. Three people, two men and a woman, around a square board with 6x7 grid. twelve pieces are on the board, some in the squares some on the lines. Michaelis 1863; Schädler 1994: 53.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Genders Female, Male
Source Michaelis, A. 1863. "Terrakottagruppe aus Athen." Archäologischer Anzeiger 13: 37-43., Schädler, U. 1994. 'Latrunculi—ein verlorenes strategisches Brettspiel der Römer.' Homo Ludens 4: 47–67.

Id DLP.Evidence.2156
Type Artifact
Location 36°19'50.25"N, 29°17'20.08"E
Date 0100-01-01 - 0699-01-01
Rules 8x8 board.
Content 8x8 board found at the Letoon in Xanthus, Turkey. Bell 2007: 98.
Confidence 100
Spaces Ritual
Source Bell, R. 2007. 'Notes on Pavement Games of Greece and Rome.' In I. Finkel (ed), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: British Museum Press, 98-99.

Id DLP.Evidence.2157
Type Artifact
Location 38°25'7.92"N, 27° 8'18.71"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content 8x8 board found at the Agora of Smyrna. Ersoy and Erdin 2015: 151, 154.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public
Source Ersoy, A. and Ö. Erdin. 2015. "Antik Dönem Smyrna Agorasında Bulunan Roma Dönemi Ludus Latrunculorum ve Mankala Oyun Tablaları Üzerine İncelemne." In E. Okan and C. Atila (eds.), Prof. Dr. Ömer Özyiğit'e Armağan. Istanbul: Yayınlarış, 141-156.

Id DLP.Evidence.2158
Type Artifact
Location 38°25'7.92"N, 27° 8'18.71"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content 8x8 board; 5x5 area is damaged but original pattern is clear. Found in the area of the Bouleuterion of the Agora at Smyrna. Ersoy and Erdin 2015: 151, 155.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public
Source Ersoy, A. and Ö. Erdin. 2015. "Antik Dönem Smyrna Agorasında Bulunan Roma Dönemi Ludus Latrunculorum ve Mankala Oyun Tablaları Üzerine İncelemne." In E. Okan and C. Atila (eds.), Prof. Dr. Ömer Özyiğit'e Armağan. Istanbul: Yayınlarış, 141-156.

Id DLP.Evidence.2160
Type Artifact
Location 37°31'46.55"N, 27°16'37.87"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content 8x8 graffiti board found at Miletus. Bell 2007: 98.
Confidence 100
Source Bell, R. 2007. 'Notes on Pavement Games of Greece and Rome.' In I. Finkel (ed), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. London: British Museum Press, 98-99.

Id DLP.Evidence.2161
Type Artifact
Location 37°40'18.87"N, 26°53'8.20"E
Date 0033-01-01BCE - 0499-12-31
Rules 11x12 board.
Content 11x12 board found on a reused marble slab at the Roman Era Heraion, Samos. Körfer 2017: 208.
Confidence 100
Spaces Public, Ritual
Source Körfer, A.-L. 2017. "Lector Ludens. Spiel und Rätsel in Optatians Panegyrik." In M. Squire and J. Wienand (eds.), Morphogrammata/The Lettered Art of Optatian: Figuring Cultural Transformations in the Age of Constatine. Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.

Id DLP.Evidence.2162
Type Artifact
Location 24°38'39.69"N, 32°55'43.42"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 7x8 board.
Content 7x8 graffiti board found in the remains of a village at Gebel el-Silsila, Egypt. de Voogt et al. 2020: 127.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source de Voogt, A, M. Nilsson and J. Ward. 2020. "The Role of Graffiti GAme Boards in the Understanding of an Archaeological Site: The Gebel el-Silsila Quarries." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 106(1-2): 123-132.

Id DLP.Evidence.2163
Type Artifact
Location 24°38'39.69"N, 32°55'43.42"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules 8x9 board.
Content 8x9 graffiti board found in the remains of a village at Gebel el-Silsila, Egypt. de Voogt et al. 2020: 127.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source de Voogt, A, M. Nilsson and J. Ward. 2020. "The Role of Graffiti GAme Boards in the Understanding of an Archaeological Site: The Gebel el-Silsila Quarries." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 106(1-2): 123-132.

Id DLP.Evidence.2164
Type Artifact
Location 55°55'28.32"N, 4°21'47.59"W
Date 0142-01-01 - 0155-01-01
Rules At least 6x4 board.
Content Fragment of a board from Beardsley Fort on the Antonine Wall, Scotland. at least 6x4 preserved, could be 7x5 preserved. Breeze 2016: 93-94.
Confidence 100
Spaces Inside, Administrative
Source Breeze, D. 2016. Bearsden: A Roman Fort on the Antonine Wall. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

Id DLP.Evidence.2165
Type Artifact
Location 55°59'49.30"N, 3°40'59.88"W
Date 0155-01-01 - 0165-12-31
Rules At least 13x16 board.
Content Fragments of a sandstone board, with at least 13x16 squares remaining. On the opposite side, 3 rows of circles may also be a game. Dunwell and Ralston 1995: 562, 564.
Confidence 100
Source Dunwell, A. and I. Ralston. 1995. "Excavations at Inverarvon on the Antonine Wall." Proeedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125: 521-576.

Id DLP.Evidence.2166
Type Artifact
Location 43°11'54.30"N, 6°55'32.85"W
Date 0001-01-01 - 0100-12-31
Rules At least 12x17 board.
Content Stone slab with at least 12x17 grid. Lines are not well drawn. Villa Valdés 2000: Fig. 8.1.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Villa Valdés, A. 2000. "Descripción de las estructuras defensivas e trazado urbano no castro do Chao de San Martín (Grandas de Salime, Asturias)." Boletin do Museo Provincial de Lugo 9: 267-419.

Id DLP.Evidence.2167
Type Artifact
Location 44°38'6.62", 21°54'29.86"E
Date 0001-01-01 - 0599-12-31
Rules At least 3x3 board.
Content Incribed ceramic slab, broken, with at least 3x3 grid. Jeremic 2009: 50-51.
Confidence 100
Source Jeremic, G. 2009. Saldum: Roman and Early Byzantine Fortification. Belgrade: Institute of Archaeology.

Id DLP.Evidence.2168
Type Artifact
Location 44°49'24.26"N, 20°26'58.38"E
Date 0300-01-01 - 0699-12-31
Rules At least 4x3 board.
Content Ceramic fragment with remains of 4x3 grid. Found at the archaeological site at Rajiceva Street, Belgrade (ancient Singiudunum). Jankovic 2009: 56, fig. 12.
Confidence 100
Source Jankovic, A. 2009. Rimske igre na table u Singidunumu i okolini. Godišnjak grada Beograda 50-51: 55-68.

Id DLP.Evidence.2169
Type Artifact
Location 44°49'24.26"N, 20°26'58.38"E
Date 0300-01-01 - 0699-12-31
Rules At least 2x2 board.
Content Ceramic fragment with at least a 2x2 grid. Found at the archaeological site on Cincar Janka Street, Belgrade (ancient Singidunum). Jankovic 2009: 56, fig. 11.
Confidence 100
Source Jankovic, A. 2009. Rimske igre na table u Singidunumu i okolini. Godišnjak grada Beograda 50-51: 55-68.

Id DLP.Evidence.2170
Type Artifact
Location 44° 4'1.12"N, 16°46'44.51"E
Date 0030-01-01BCE - 0640-01-01
Rules At least 4x4 board.
Content fragment of a brick with the remnants of at least a 4x4 grid. From Halapići, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Busuladžić 2017: 194, 196, pl. 3.
Confidence 100
Source Busuladžić, A. 2017. "Roman Gaming Boards and Pieces: Unpublished Astragals, Talus and Calculi from the Antiquities Collection of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Glasnik Zemaljskog Muzeja Bosne i Hercegovine u Sarajevu: Arheologija 54: 185-208.

Id DLP.Evidence.2171
Type Artifact
Location 45°32'23.21"N, 10°13'33.36"E
Date 0072-01-01 - 699-12-31
Rules 8x8 board.
Content 8x8 grid from the Forum at Brescia. Mosca and Puppo 2012: 274-275, 278.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Mosca, F. and P. Puppo. 2012. "Riflessioni su dadi e giochi da tavolo nel mondo Romano." Histria Antique 21: 271-280.

Id DLP.Evidence.2172
Type Artifact
Location 43°43'8.07"N, 7°16'34.56"E
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least 5x2 board.
Content Stone slab with remnants of a grid, 5x2 remain. From Roman Cemenelum, France. Mosca and Puppo 2012: 274-275.
Confidence 100
Source Mosca, F. and P. Puppo. 2012. "Riflessioni su dadi e giochi da tavolo nel mondo Romano." Histria Antique 21: 271-280.

Id DLP.Evidence.2173
Type Artifact
Location 41°58'26.41"N, 7°58'51.08"W
Date 0075-01-01 - 0129-12-31
Rules At least 6x7 board.
Content Terracotta fragment of a grid, with at least 6x7 preserved. From the Roman military site of Aquis Querquennis. Avelaira 2015: 66.
Confidence 100
Source Avelaira, T. 2015. "Aquae Querquennae (Porto Quintela, Ourense. España): Un campamento Romano en el NW de Hispania. Ephemeris Napocensis 25: 43-80.

Id DLP.Evidence.2174
Type Artifact
Location 43°13'55.91"N, 6°35'45.66"W
Date 0050-01-01 - 0299-12-31
Rules At least 8x5 board.
Content Board inscribed on a terra sigillata sherd with at least 8x5 remaining. Villa Valdés 2010-2012: 109-110.
Confidence 100
Source Villa Valdés, A. 2010-2012. "Grabados zoomorfos sobre pizarra y otros epíigrafes inéditos en castros asturianos." Sautuola 16-17: 97-112.

Id DLP.Evidence.2175
Type Artifact
Location 43° 9'39.09"N, 7°23'19.63"W
Date 180-01-01BCE - 699-12-31
Rules At least 11x12 board.
Content Slate board with a grid of 11x12 preserved from the Castro de Viladonga, Spain. Pintos 2017: 236-237.
Confidence 100
Source Pintos, J. 2017. Tableros de juego rupestres em el SO. de Galicia. REtrieved 11 August, 2021.

Id DLP.Evidence.2176
Type Artifact
Location 41°53'33.45"N, 8°52'10.54"W
Date 0050-01-01BCE - 0050-12-31
Rules 6x7 board.
Content 6x7 board found on the surface at Monte de Santa Tegra, Spain. Probably from the later occupation of the site. Pintos 2017: 235-236.
Confidence 100
Source Pintos, J. 2017. Tableros de juego rupestres em el SO. de Galicia. REtrieved 11 August, 2021.

Id DLP.Evidence.2177
Type Artifact
Location 52°57'38.20"N, 0°34'51.13"E
Date 0050-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules At least 3x5 board.
Content Two fragments of a chalk game board, one piece has 3x5 preserved, the other 4x3. From Thornham, fortified Roman-era site, thought to be built by indigenous peoples rather than Romans. Gregory and Gurney 1986: 13.
Confidence 100
Source Gregory, T. and D. Gurney. 1986. Excavations at Thornham, Warham, Wighton and Calstor, Norfolk. Norwich: Norfolk Museums Service.

Id DLP.Evidence.2178
Type Artifact
Location 53°48'2.87"N, 1°21'54.75"W
Date 0150-01-01 - 0199-12-31
Rules At least 2x5 board.
Content Fragment of a gritstone board at the Cedar Ridge site, Garforth, West Yorkshire, UK. 2x5 pattern preserved. From the mid to late second century phase. Owen 1998: 4, 28, 30-31, Fig. 18.2.
Confidence 100
Spaces Household
Source Owen, P. 1998. Excavations at Garforth, West Yorkshire. Gifford and Partners: Unpublished Report Series.

Id DLP.Evidence.2194
Type Artifact
Location 54°59'22.95"N, 2°36'6.54"W
Date 0142-12-31 - 0154-12-31
Rules At least 9x15 board.
Content Sandstone paving stone from the debris above the Antonine I floor of Birrens Fort, UK. Appears to be mostly intact, 9x15 grid preserved. Robertson 1975: 33, 58, 100.
Confidence 100
Spaces Military
Source Robertson, A. 1975. Birrens (Blatobulgium). Edinburgh: T. and A. Constable.

Id DLP.Evidence.2195
Type Artifact
Location 43°27'35.31"N, 8°14'48.98"W
Date 0325-01-01 - 0375-12-31
Rules At least 6x7 board.
Content Incised board from a rubbish fill at the Roman site at Noville, Spain. 6x7 board, may be intact but some lines overlaping the edges could indicate that it has more than seven in a row. Pérez Losada 1993: 1058, Fig. 3.
Confidence 100
Source Pérez Losada, F. 1993. "Une pieza epigráfica excepcional procedente de Noville (Mugardos, A Coruña, Galicia. II Congreso Peninsular de História Antiga: Coimbra 18 a 20 de outubro de 1990: Actas. Coimbra: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra.

Id DLP.Evidence.2196
Type Artifact
Location 53°13'18.08"N, 3°49'37.97"W
Date 0075-01-01 - 0399-12-31
Rules At least 3x4 board.
Content Fragment of slate, with a grid, 3x4 preserved. From the Roman Fort at Canovium. Reynolds 1938: 217-218.
Confidence 100
Source Reynolds, P. 1938. "Excavations on the Site of the Roman Fort at Caerhun. Seventh Interim Report. Small Finds." InKanovium Excavation Committee (ed), Excavations on the Site of the Roman Fort of Kanovium at Caerhun, Caernarvonshire." Cardiff: William Lewis Ltd.

Id DLP.Evidence.2230
Type Artifact
Location 43°19'45.96"N, 5°54'9.42"W
Date 0027-01-01 - 0068-12-31
Rules At least 9 x 5 board.
Content Fragment of a 9x5 board, reused as a building stone of Cabaña F36 at the Castiello de Llagú, Spain. Reused block from the Julio-Claudian pavement. Berrocal-Rangel et al. 2002: 128-129.
Confidence 100
Spaces Outside, Public
Source Berrocal-Rangel, L., P. Martínez Seco and C. Ruiz Triviño. 2002. El Castiello de Llagú (Latores, Oviedo): Un castro Astur en los orígenes de Oviedo. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia.

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lkjh Maastricht University Data Science and Knowledge Engineering (DKE), Paul-Henri Spaaklaan 1, 6229 EN Maastricht, Netherlands Funded by a €2m ERC Consolidator Grant (#771292) from the European Research Council