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Evidence for Chupu

3 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.2099
Type Contemporary text
Location Three Kingdoms
Date 0223-01-01 - 0297-12-31
Rules Name of game.
Content Passage from the Sanguo Zhi of Chen Shou (d. 297 CE), which mentiones Chupu as a game. Schmidt-Madsen 2021: 14.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Schmidt-Madsen, J. 2021. "The Crux of the Cruciform: Retracing the Early History of Chaupar and Pachisi." Board Game Studies Journal 15(1): 29-77.

Id DLP.Evidence.2100
Type Contemporary rule description
Location Six Dynasties
Date 0500-01-01 - 0587-12-31
Rules Five dice. Black and white pieces. Pieces move along a track, can be blocked.
Content Passage from the Chupu fu, by Ma Rong, probably of late Six Dynasties date. Summary given by Schmidt-Madsen, citing an unpublished translation "Ma- Rong's (79-166) Rhapsody on the Chupu Game": "A more detailed description is found in the Chupu fu, or ode to chupu, attributed to Ma Rong (79-166) by the compilers of the Yiwen leiju in 624, but now thought to date from the late Six Dynasties (220-587).53 The Chupu fu describes the game as being played on an embroidered cloth board from the "Western neighbors" (xi lin 西鄰), which may or may not refer to India. Other game equipment includes a dice cup (bei 杯, lit. "cup"), five dice (mu 木, lit. "wood"),54 and an unspecified number of black and white pawns (ma 馬, lit. "horse"). The dice appear to have been binary throwing sticks, some of which were marked with special symbols, as detailed in later descriptions of the game (see below). Little can be said about the rules, but the overall idea is clearly that of a race game with an element of conflict between the players. This can be seen from expressions such as "advancing on the road," "facing the enemy," and "breaking through a siege." Schmidt-Madsen 2021: 14.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Schmidt-Madsen, J. 2021. "The Crux of the Cruciform: Retracing the Early History of Chaupar and Pachisi." Board Game Studies Journal 15(1): 29-77.

Id DLP.Evidence.2101
Type Contemporary rule description
Location Late Tang China
Date 0772-01-01 - 0841-12-31
Rules Five two-sided dice, one side black, one side white. Two dice have a pheasant on the white side and a cow on the black side. "Royal" throws are as follows: five black = 16; five white = 8; three black and two pheasant = 14; three white and two cows = 10; "Mixed" throws are: one pheasant, one cow, three white = 12; one pheasant, one cow, three black = 11; two pheasants, two white, one black = 5; two cows, two black, one white =4; three white, two black = 3; three black and two white =2. Royal throws grant the player an extra throw. Twenty pieces in five colors. 120 spaces, separated by two barriers into three zones. One space is a pit. A royal throw is required to pass a barrier or to escape the pit.Pieces may only land on the same spot as another of the player's pieces after the first barrier. If a player's piece lands on a space occupied by an opponent's piece, the opponent's piece is a hit. Hitting a piece gives the player an extra throw.
Content Summary of the description of Chupu in the Wumu jing (Book of Five Woods) by Li Ao in Yang: "According to the Wu-mu ching 2T7t, attributed to Li Ao the game shu-p'u uses five pieces of wood as dice. Each piece is black on one side and white on the other. Two of the pieces bear a carved pattern of a pheasant on the white side and that of a cow on the black side. There are six " royal throws" (wang-ts'ai ), and six " mixed throws " (yurn-ts'ai . The royal throws are: 1. lu black -five black, which counts 16 points (i. e., it enables the player to move his draughtsmen for 16 spaces), 92. pai white-five white, which counts 8 points, 3. chih pheasant "-two pheasant and three black, 14 points, and 4. niu cow or tu calf -two cows and three white, 10 points. The mixed throws are: 1. k'ai opening -one pheasant, one cow, and three white, 12 points, 2. sai blocking -one pheasant, one cow, and three black, 11 points, 3. t'a pagoda? -two pheasants, two white, and one black, 5 points, 4. t'u bald-headed? -two cows, two black, and one white, 4 points, 5. chiteh "holding? -three white and two black, 3 points, and 6. hsiao owl -three black and two white, 2 points. According to the Wu-mu ching, in shu-p'u there are 120 spaces separated by two barriers or passes (kuan ) into three zones, presumably on a board. One of the spaces represents a pit (k'eng). Twenty horses (ma ) or men are in five colors, presumably for as many as five players. Horses are moved according to the throw. They may be doubled up only after crossing the first barrier. A player's horses may be hit by his opponent's men if the latter arrive at the space occupied by the former. A royal throw is needed to cross a barrier or to save a horse in the pit. Making a royal throw or hitting a horse of the opponent entitles the player to another throw." Yang 1952: 132-133.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Female
Source Yang, L.-S. 1952. "An Additional Note on the Ancient Game Liu-po." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15(1-2): 124-139.

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