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Evidence for Chaturanga (al-Adli)

1 pieces of evidence found.

Id DLP.Evidence.1983
Type Contemporary rule description
Location Ancient India
Date 0840-01-01 - 1140-12-31
Rules 8x8 board. Played on an 8x8 board. 8 Bhata (or Padati; move like Chess pawns but without being able to move two on the first turn); 2 Ashva (horses; move like Chess knights); 2 Gaja (elephants; two spaces in any orthogonal direction, jumping over the first square); 2 Ratha (chariots; moves like a rook in chess); 1 Mantri (counselor; moves one square diagonally in any direction); 1 Raja (king; moves one square in any direction). These are set up along one edge of the board: Gaja-Ratha-Ashva-Mantri-Raja-Ashva-Ratha-Gaja, with the eight Bhata lined up in the row in front of these. Players take turns moving. When one piece lands on the space occupied by another piece, it is captured. When a Raja can be captured by an opponent's piece on the next turn, it is in check. The Raja must not be in check at the end of the player's turn. When this is unavoidable, it is checkmate and the opponent wins. A Raja that is stalemated wins. A player who reduces their opponent to only the Raja wins.
Content Manuscript 560 'Abd al-Hamid I library, Istanbul. Written by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin al-Mubarak bin 'Ali al-Mudhahhab al Baghdadi in 1140. Contains portions of al-'Adli's Kitab ash-shatranj: "Of the Indian rules of chess...If there be with the King two pieces, and the King can take a piece, then which ever first takes, so that the other is left with nothing, wins...Another indian rules is that when the King cannot find a square into which to move, and the other King has nothing therewith to checkmate him, the first has won...Another Indian rule is that the Elephant is placed in the corner, and omits one square in a straight line to jump into the second in a straight line. And this is does on all squares of the board." Murray 1915: 57.
Confidence 100
Ages Adult
Social status Elite
Genders Male
Source Murray, H. J. R. 1913. A History of Chess. London: Oxford University Press.

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